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Real Estate Development Made Easy

Real Estate Development Made Easy

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Bulletproof Home Defense Review

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Apartment blocks Martinsbergstrasse Baden

Double Facade Buffer Zone Vegetated

Architects Burkard, Meyer, Bader Construction period 1998-1999 Project managers Roger Casagrande Alois Diethelm Structural engineers Minikus Witta Voss, Zurich This development occupies the south-east corner of the Merker district, a former industrial site in the centre of Baden. The three separate blocks, two of which were built in the first phase of the project, reflect the style of the detached houses along the Martinsbergstrasse, which date from the early 20th century. The main entrance on...

Curved tubular members

Steel Roof Truss Element

Curved roofs may be formed using single-curved tubular members, double-layer members connected periodically, or tubular trusses, as illustrated in the following examples. Table 4.2 Minimum bending radii for common steel sections Joists and Universal Beams x-x axis Channels x-x axis 127 x 64 x 14 kg m 203 x 89 x 29 kg m 254 x 89 x 35 kg m 305 x 102 x 46 kg m All sections up to 432 x 102 x 65 kg m Joists, beams and columns y-y axis All sections up to 1016 x 455 x 488 kg m Castellated and cellular...

How To Read Electrical Plans

Standard Electrical Symbols

Fluorescent, 2'x4' parabolic troffer Reflected ceiling plans should be drawn at the same scale as the floor plans. Depending on the complexity of the project and ceiling treatment, the most common scale for residential and small commercial projects is i 1'-0 1 50 metric and V8 1'-0 1 100 metric for large commercial projects. The scale the ceiling plan is drawn at should be noted and placed directly below the drawing, either adjacent to or directly below the title. If an enlarged detail is...

Barcelona Botanical Institute

Orologi Solari Per Trasparenza

Higher Council for Scientific Research The Barcelona Botanical Institute is prominently situated on the highest point of the new Botanical Garden on Mt. Montjuic - 150 m above sea level and far above the city of Barcelona, right on the Olympic Ring. The long, linear volume cuts into the mountain and forms a conspicuous hinge between the horizontal contour line of the mountain and the sloping topography. It affords spectacular views of Barcelona and establishes a prominent landmark. Despite the...

Method of Tension Coefficients

The method of tension coefficients is a tabular technique of carrying out joint resolution in either two or three dimensions. It is ideally suited to the analysis of pin-jointed space-frames. Consider an individual member from a pin-jointed plane-frame, e.g. member AB shown in Figure 3.8 with reference to a particular X-Y co-ordinate system. If AB is a member of length LAB having a tensile force in it of TAB, then the components of this force in the X and Y directions are TAB Cos0 and TAB Sin0...

Drafting Standards for Interior Elevations

Door Swing Elevation

Interior elevations are drafted to clearly indicate surfaces, edges, and the intersections of materials and forms. The elevation is drawn to scale, with the limits of the ceiling, floor, and adjacent walls or other forms shown with a dark outline. There are two basic methods that professional firms use to draw interior elevations. These methods are illustrated in Figure 7-10. The first method is to outline all the elements such as cabinets, beams, soffits, etc. that project toward the viewer...

Dimensioning Floor Plans

Dimensioned Kitchen Floor Plans

A floor plan is carefully dimensioned to ensure that items such as walls, columns, doors, windows, openings, stairs, and other particulars are correctly located for construction. Sometimes after a plan is drawn accurately to a scale, its reproduction causes a slight enlargement or reduction of the drawing. In such cases, the floor plan is slightly out of true scale, but this is acceptable because the written dimensions are the controlling factors. In fact, most designers add a note on the...

Design Of Connection Of Diagrid Of Hollow Square Section

Rhs Shs Connection

6.2 Some examples of bolted connections to tubular members welded plate with a projecting fin, often in the form of a T-section, which permits a conventional spliced bolted connection to be made welded fin that is welded to, or cut into the section, permitting a conventional spliced connection to be made through bolts or pins with internal ferrules to avoid local crushing of the walls of the hollow section flattened ends (of a CHS), permitting a spliced connection to be welding to intermediary...

The Development of Rendering

Architecture Perspective With Trees

Art has been practiced in various forms since Paleolithic times. First efforts were confined to achieving beauty and symmetry in tools. Later, artists found enjoyment in the use of color on their bodies and in their clothing, as well as in ornament. Evidence of the first expressions in painting and sculpture have been found in caverns in Spain and France, where, with the help of artificial light, artists painted numerous pictures in color, chiefly of animals. Paints were made by mixing red and...

The Netherlands Dance Theatre

Netherlands Dance Theater

A major problem in Europe, over the last twenty years or so. has been how to cope with the chaotic, derelict areas of cities on their peripheries and in their centres that the wanton urban development schemes of the post-war era have turned into no-man's-land. At a time when many architects were preoccupied with 'memory' or the 'sense of place' in historic urban areas. Rem Koolhaas was among the first to address the degree zero' urbanity of the fractured city edges and disembowelled inner...

Parker Ferson Residence 1909

The Parker-Ferson residence is a large Neoclassical Revival house with the characteristic two-story portico supported by colossal columns. The main entry doors and flanking windows are slightly recessed. A balustraded porch beneath the main portico extends across the entire front of the house. (The ballustrades have been removed.) This residence, quite spacious with more than thirty rooms, has interior mahogany woodwork. The main foyer has a large cornice molding that replicates the exterior...

Technical Drawing And Drafting Techniques

Detail Drawing Mall

Pragmatically, architectural drawings are essentially one of two types. The first type is a technical format, e.g. working drawings (also called construction or production drawings). The second type of drawing is graphic and artistic in nature and tends to be more creative, such as design, presentations or concept drawings.Working drawings will typically contain much more data and information than graphic drawings (Figure 4.6). Such information would likely include dimensions, material and...

Valley field Epping Forest

Country Merino Shot

The sandstone homestead at Valleyfield was a bit of an accident. The elongated 1838 building was designed to be coach-house, granary and servants' quarters, but the Taylor family ended up moving in, and it has been the main residence at this famous Saxon Merino sheep stud ever since. Valleyfield is therefore quite distinct from other homes of its era. The low, two-storey structure more closely resembles a military barracks than your typical Georgian mansion, and the dimensions of the original...

Types of Section Drawings

Wood Construction Section Drawing

Sections can be drawn of a total building, interior space, or object. These are referred to as full sections. However, if only an isolated area needs to be illustrated, a partial section can also be drawn. Sections can be cut in a variety of ways to show more detailed information. A section might be cut all the way through a building called a building section , or only through a wall wall section . Both may be needed, because the small scale and complexity of a building section generally means...

Half Circle Helical Ramp Car Park

Maximum Car Parking Ramp Slope

Fig. 4 Ramp lopes. (Transitions ore required only if romp slope exceeds 10 percent.) occurred leading to a buyers revolt against stretched-out sheet metal, followed by an increase in imports and introduction of domestic compacts Immediately following introduction of United States compacts the car manufacturers began an inching up process until the 05 sq ft compact was 90 sq ft as evidenced in the 1963-1970 shortest car ' indication. During the same period the low-price three' began an active...

Example Floor Systems

The floor systems described here are only a few of the many tested between 1890 and 1910. They include the most common floors and a few oddities that often confuse modern engineers. The floors are grouped by type (arches, catenaries, and beams) and in the order that the types became popular. The earliest floor systems used with iron beams in the Untied States were arches. During the 1880s and 90s, various tile arch forms were the most popular floors in use, and were still used into the 1920s....

Designation of Materials

Dimension Lines Floor Plan

Floor plans are generally not used to designate specific materials, as finishes might be too small to show in plan and their selections might be changed later. The amount of material information provided on a floor plan depends on the size and complexity of the proposed construction. The plans for a small residential project may contain more detailed information, such as the finished floor materials, because the design may be simpler and very few materials used, as illustrated in Figure 6-38....

Building Materials and Construction Methods Wood and Related Materials

Vertical Chinking

After earth materials, vegetation is the main source of building resources, and wood in various forms and modes is the most important component. Indeed, wood is undoubtedly the most widely used construction material for dwellings around the world (Lazistan and Michalov 1971). Logs, which in simplest form are nothing more than tree trunks stripped of branches and cut into convenient lengths, are widely used in colder, humid climates throughout the world where appropriate forest resources occur....

Guest Building For The Youth Education Center3

Croqui Murs Dans Une Piece

The Premonstratensian monks of Windberg Monastery run a youth education center for which they commissioned a new dormitory block. The nature and duration of use of the various groups of rooms played an important role in determining the energy concept for the building. The rooms that are used for longer periods of the day are separated from those that are used briefly. The two sections of the building were also constructed with different materials figures 5.1 and 5.2 . Guest Building, Windberg...

Tuned Liquid Column Damper

Tuned Liquid Column Damper Tlcd

A tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) is in many ways similar to a TMD that uses a heavy concrete block or steel as the tuned mass. The difference is that the mass is now water or some other liquid. The damper is essentially a tank in the shape of a U. It has two vertical columns connected by a horizontal passage and filled up to a certain level with water or other liquid. Within the horizontal passage, screens or a partially closed sluice gate are installed to obstruct flow of water, thus...

Reflected Ceiling Plan

Gypsum Board Ceiling Plan Diagram

A reflected ceiling plan RCP is a drawing of a room or space looking down at the interior ceiling. The designer or architect produces this plan to graphically show the ceiling treatment, ceiling grid, and the placement of all light fixtures as well as light fixtures to be relocated or removed. The plan indicates the type of ceiling acoustical tile, gypsum board, etc and the ceiling heights. The location of all light fixtures, speakers, special lighting, ceiling outlets, and switch locations is...

Garrett Eckbo Design Techniques

Landscape Representation

138 Canneel but also in the garden seen from above. It is ironic perhaps that axonometry, with its anti-perspectival denaturalization and dissolving of context, would become a favored tool of representation for modernist landscape architects. In conclusion, one could advance that axonometry not only conferred a sense of modernity on landscape representation, but also shaped a certain type of space. Axonometry allowed Canneel, Eckbo, and Rose to assemble various functional and plastic elements...

Code Provisions For Wind Loads

Asce Basic Wind Speeds Maps

In recent years, wind loads specified in codes and standards have been refined significantly. This is because our knowledge of how wind affects buildings and structures has expanded due to new technology and advanced research that have ensued in greater accuracy in predicting wind loads. We now have an opportunity to design buildings that will satisfy anticipated loads without excessive conservatism. The resulting complexity in the determination of wind loads may be appreciated by comparing the...

Example 83 Propped Cantilever

Propped Cantilever Plastic Analysis

A propped cantilever is L m long and supports a collapse load of w kN m as shown in Figure 8.7. Determine the position of the plastic hinges and the required plastic moment The number of hinges required to induce collapse (ID+1) 2 (see Figure 8.1) The possible hinge positions are at the support A and within the region of a distributed load since these are the positions where the maximum bending moments occur. In this case the maximum moment under the distributed load does not occur at mid-span...

Add and Deduct Alternates

Add and deduct alternates are a very useful tool which allow the architect and owner to use the marketplace of bidders to help them assess how much scope they can add to or subtract from the project to best utilize their budget. Although both are similar in nature, add and deduct alternates have some fundamental differences beyond the obvious. One warning Contractors will often ask during the bid period for a prioritized list of which alternates the owner will accept first. Such a list is often...

Selecting The Location Of The City Hall

Civic Centers In selecting the location for a city hall, the first consideration is whether it should be placed on a site by itself or whether it should be combined with a group of related buildings in a civic center. The oivio center has had great appeal to the city planner because It offers oertaln advantages and at the same time provides for latitude in design, The buildings that are included In civic oenters range from a grouping of strictly administrative offices and service buildings to a...

Kitchen Personnel And Their Functions

Chef de cuisine (kitchen chef) is responsible for purchase of goods, cost control, setting up the menu, and supervision of personnel and hygiene in the kitchen area. Sous-chef (kitchen chef's assistant) represents the kitchen chef In his absence in a targe organization, he takes over some of the chef's duties, Saucier (sauce cook) prepares all sauces and the meals that go with them, as well as all fish dishes (although in large organizations there is a poissonier) he is responsible for the...

Arrangement Of Escalators

Parallel Arrangement Escalators

The most common arrangement for escalators places the entrances and exits to their upper and lower ends at opposite ends of the escalator. This is known as a crisscross arrangement. Escalators arranged in this fashion can be built for less money, take up the minimum amount of floor space, and have the lowest structural requirements. A spiral crisscross arrangement Fig. 48-2 , where the stairs nest into each other, offers a rapid and pleasant trip, and is very economical of space. Spiral...

Seismic soil pressures

Coulomb Active Earth Pressure

In the present state of knowledge, the recommended method of obtaining seismic soil forces is that using equivalent-static analysis. Only for exceptional structures would dynamic analyses using finite elements seem warranted. In the equivalent-static method, a horizontal earthquake force equal to the weight of the soil wedge multiplied by a seismic coefficient is assumed to act at the centre of gravity of the soil mass. This earthquake force is additional to the static forces on the wall. In...

Fellowship Hall Units Of Various Sizes

A Fellowship Hall and Lounge Seating Approximately 100 (70 + 28) The floor plan below (Ftg. 5) illustrates how a small fellowship hall may be used as a first unit for a congregation expected to eventually number 300-350 persons. Space for dining in this building.-70 at tables in the fellowship hall 28 at tables in the lounge 98 total seating capacity Assembly seating for worship 81 in the temporary sanctuary 10 in the choir 32 overflow seating in the lounge 123 total seating capacity Church...

Lujiazui Pudong Shanghai Peoples Republic of China a global business precinct 1990

Lujiazui 1990s

The Lujiazui also sometimes spelt Lu Jia Zui Finance and Trade Zone in Pudong, Shanghai is not only a good example of an all-of-a-piece urban design with highly laissez-faire overtones, but also a good example of the urban design and architectural values being displayed in China and many other Asian countries today. In China similar efforts can be seen the Fu-tian new district in Shenzhen and the River North area of Chongqing. Lujiazui is the largest single-construction site in the world....

Colonial Modern 1920s1940s

Fascist Architecture Libya

The non-West, as its name implies, represents the non-place, terra incognita, the wasteland But it also stands for the place of timelessness, a space without duration, in relation to which the temporal break of modernity can be marked out T he colonial-modern involves creating an effect we recognize as reality, by organizing the world endlessly to represent it.' Must buildings be dressed up, in a word, as Romans or as Moors 2 How did Italian architects' colonial-modern differ from their other...

What An Underground House Is

Perhaps we should start with what an underground house is not. An underground house is not dark, damp and dirty. It is not airless and gloomy. It is absolutely not a basement. An underground house has no more in common with a basement, Than a penthouse apartment has in common with a hot, dark, dusty attic. A basement is not designed for human habitat. It is a place to put the furnace and store junk. It is constructed to reach below the frost line so that the frost heaves don't crumple the...

Some common residential block structures

Common Residental Structures

Although a range of residential block structures have been adopted, some specific forms tend to be more common than others. The periphery block was probably the most common form of block structure until the 1930s when other block structures were experimented with. More recently, however, periphery blocks are suggested for a wide range of contexts as a result of the influence of the publication Responsive Environments (Bentley et al. 1985). The basic principle reflects the advice given...

Stress And Anxiety In Relation To Daylight

Cortisol, known also as the 'stress hormone,' is a cortico-steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. It follows a diurnal pattern with high values during the day and low values at night (Hollwich, 1979 Scheer and Buijs, 1999). It also exhibits a seasonal variation, with more stress hormones produced in summer than in winter (Erikson and Kuller, 1983 Kuller and Lindsten, 1992). Abnormally high levels of cortisol increase blood pressure and blood sugar levels, may cause infertility in...

Insulated Light Wood Frame

How Frame Building With Flush Eaves

People living in high rainfall areas, heavy snow country, or areas with abundant access to wood products, can secure light, wood frame rafters to built-in extended eaves. We recommend light wood frame as an alternative to larger dimensional lumber. Not because the dome cant take the weight, but to reduce timber consumption (Fig. 13.9). Exterior wood-frame roof systems can be insulated, sheathed with wood, and covered with any kind of roofing material, like metal, wood, asphalt shingles, or...

The climate in the Nuremberg Prisma

Queens Botanical Garden Dreiseitl

The whole roof area of the complex feeds directly into a water cistern. The glass building creates a pleasant atmosphere within the city centre. Waterwalls and luxuriant vegetation create a healthy atmosphere full of natural light. The whole roof area of the complex feeds directly into a water cistern. The glass building creates a pleasant atmosphere within the city centre. Waterwalls and luxuriant vegetation create a healthy atmosphere full of natural light. When architect Frank Lloyd Wright...

Equivalent Uniformly Distributed Load Method for the Deflection of Beams

In a simply supported beam, the maximum deflection induced by the applied loading always approximates the mid-span value if it is not equal to it. A number of standard frequently used load cases for which the elastic deformation is required are given in In many cases beams support complex load arrangements which do not lend themselves either to an individual load case or to a combination of the load cases given in Appendix 2. Provided that deflection is not the governing design criterion, a...

Antiques Find a New Home in an Old Minka

60th Funny Birthday Party Ideas

The unassuming beauty of Japan's minka farmhouses comes from the use of natural building materials and traditional techniques perfected over hundreds of years. The word minka originally meant a home of a common person who was not an aristocrat or a samurai. However, it is now primarily used to describe farmhouses with heavy wooden structures and thatched roofs. These buildings also illustrate a deep understanding and appreciation of wood in Japan. The love of nature instilled by Japan's ancient...

Steel Beam And Steel Column Without Concrete Encasement

Composite Construction Column Junction

Steel zipper column resists unbalanced post-buckling forces in the braces. Figure 5.33. Composite concentrically braced frames (a) V-bracing (b) inverted V-bracing (c) X-bracing (d) diagonal bracing (e) two-story X-bracing (f) zipper column with inverted V-bracing. Composite braces of either concrete-filled steel tubes or concrete-encased steel braces may be combined with steel frame elements. Composite columns may also be used in conjunction with composite floors and steel bracing members, as...

Six Direction Body Architecture

Coloriage Ado Fille Imprimer

In this drawing the goal (the entrance) is clear, but the approach is diverted from the line of sight. Approaching the entrances to the Carpenter Center, lines of Approaching the entrances to the Carpenter Center, lines of entrances are curved. At the start of either ramp the line of passage to the entrance does not follow the line of sight. entrances are curved. At the start of either ramp the line of passage to the entrance does not follow the line of sight. Sometimes a line of passage does...

Achieving Excellence Design Evaluation Toolkit AEDET

In the United Kingdom, the NHS Estates Centre of Healthcare Architecture and Design developed a toolkit for evaluating the design of healthcare buildings from initial proposals through to post-project evaluation. The toolkit aims to help make better decisions. It provides support for developing design specifications and evaluating and assessing the design of healthcare building proposals. It may help to develop a national benchmarking system of design quality for healthcare buildings. The set...

Piled foundations Introduction

Vibration Wave Magnitude Diagram

The reliable design of piles for earthquake loads is difficult because of the uncertainties involved in determining the design deformation state of the piles. This is partly due to the uncertainties involved in assessing lateral soil-pile interaction, and partly to the complexity of behaviour of pile groups. As indicated in Figures 9.1, 9.4 and 9.5, high bending moments may occur at various locations up the pile. In addition to the locations of high bending moments indicated by these idealized...

Scott Wilson Wesleydale

Dunorlan Harrogate Henry Reed

Chudleigh is a tiny 'village of roses' in a picturesque valley in Tasmania's Central North. It is possibly the last place you'd go looking for an old stone fortress but, in the early 1830s, this area was the very frontier of the known world. And a former Irish army officer who, at the age of sixty-three, decided to go farming on the edge would have needed some protection from the powerful Aboriginal tribe that called this area home and controlled access to nearby ochre mines. The stone compound...

Rectified photographs

Building Seaside Drawing Dwg

In the absence of line drawings, rectified photographs of the elevations of a ruin can be used to identify the location and scope of defects (Figure 3.19). In general, they are more useful to superimpose survey grids onto than for annotation of defects, since the level of detail in a photograph can prevent clear identification of individual repairs they can, however, be used to indicate the general scope of recommendations, for example locations where repair to wall heads is required or where...

Planning The Small Museum

Museum Requirements Space

The objective of Ihe proposed museum should be clearly defined, os well as the geographic region, the subject (history, natural history, or art) and extent of display and other services. The following is an example of a suitable basic statement for a small rnu & um The bo tic objective of the Museum it to collect, pre serve, study ond exhibit significant objects of the com m unity, and provide related educational fervices in order To increase public knowledge and stimulate creative activity....

First Interstate World Building Los Angeles Floor Plan

Johnson Fain Church Floorplans Images

Nations Bank Plaza, Atlanta, GA (a) building elevation (b) typical framing plan (c) section. The core columns are braced on all four sides with diagonal bracing as shown schematically in Fig. 8.15c. Since the braces are arranged to clear door openings in the core, their configuration is different on all four sides. Steel girders 36 in. (0.91 m) deep are moment-connected between the composite columns to transfer part of the overturning moment to the exterior columns. Because the...

Powered by Wind the Ground is a Turntable

Courtyard The Wind Munich Alemania

Acconci Studio Wolfgang Hermann Niemeyer Wind energy is translated into the unlikely rotation of a mechanical platform embedded in the courtyard of Munich's building department administrative building. A turbine placed atop the building tower captures wind energy that is used to power a turntable of landscape, lying within the protected confines of the building's walls. A connection, however abstract and perhaps invisible, is made between the force of wind and the slow rotation of the platform....

Tiergarten Robert Krier Plan 1987

Rauchstrasse Block Krier And Others

Stadtvillen an der Rauchstrasse, Berlin, Germany a demonstration project 1980-6 The Stadtvillen an der Rauchstrasse, Mietwohnungsbau financing the project. located in the southern Tiergarten neigh- The overall urban design plan was developed bourhood of Berlin, was carried out as part by Rob Krier who also wrote the design of the Internationale Bauausstellung. The guidelines for each of the buildings located developer was Land Berlin with Sozialer on the site. In many ways the project is a...

Chapter Six Toilet facilities

Toilet Facilities For Outdoor Recreation

Once the visitors have parked their car, it is frequently a call to the toilets that is next on the list of priorities. If it has been a long journey to the site the urge to respond to the call will probably be acute for any children present. The presence of a clean and well-ventilated toilet block in such circumstances is very welcome. Whether to provide toilet facilities, the capacity and the type of sewage disposal required as well as the design of the building are all important decisions to...

Seismic Strengthening Details

Eccentric Bracing And Lateral Bracing

A thorough understanding of existing construction and seismic retrofit objectives acceptable to owners and to the building official is an important consideration before a seismic retrofit is undertaken. The importance of considering global and elemental deformations at expected levels of seismic forces, not at code or design levels, cannot be overstressed. This is because even with the use of amplification factors, the deformations are at best an approximation, particularly when applied to...

Free and Fixed Bending Moments

Plate Analysis With Fixed Ends Moments

When a beam is free to rotate at both ends as shown in Figures 4.70 a and b such that no bending moment can develop at the supports, then the bending moment diagram resulting from the applied loads on the beam is known as the Free Bending Moment Figure 4.70 Free Bending Moment Diagrams Figure 4.70 Free Bending Moment Diagrams When a beam is fixed at the ends encastre such that it cannot rotate, i.e. zero slope at the supports, as shown in Figure 4.71, then bending moments are induced at the...

Electrical System Design Process

Engineers start the process of designing electrical systems by estimating the total building electrical power load. They then plan the spaces required for electrical equipment such as transformer rooms, conduit chases, and electrical closets. The amount of energy a building is permitted to consume is governed by building codes. A building energy consumption analysis determines whether the building design will meet the target electrical energy budget. If not, the engineer must modify the...

Building Research Establishment Publications

BRE Digest 309 1986 Estimating daylight in buildings Part 1. BRE Digest 310 1986 Estimating daylight in buildings Part 2. BRE Digest 338 1988 Insulation against external noise. BRE Digest 346 The assessment of wind loads. Part 1 1992 Background and method. Part 2 1989 Classification of structures. Part 3 1992 Wind climate in the United Kingdom. Part 4 1992 Terrain and building factors and gust peak factors. Part 5 1989 Assessment of wind speed over topography. Part 6 1989 Loading coefficients...

Drawings for the Honey House

Table With Chairs Diagram

Refer to Chapter 11 for detailed explanations on making architectural drawings for domes. The first drawing we made was an elevation sketch. This is essentially a cross-sectional drawing of the height and width and shape of the dome with foundation details and floor level indicated Fig. 12.2 . This shape closely resembles a catenary-shaped arch see Chapter 10 for more about arch shapes . The second drawing is called the floor plan. This is a horizontal cross-section showing the thickness of...

Seismic Importance Factor IE

In seismic design, the importance factor I is used to increase the margin of safety against collapse. For example, I 1.50 for essential facilities, I 1.25 for hazardous facilities, and I 1.15 for special occupancy structures. Essential structures are those that must remain operative immediately following an earthquake such as emergency treatment areas and fire stations. Hazardous facilities include those housing toxic or explosive substances. Examples of special occupancy structures are those...

Seismic Design Example Static Procedure IBC 2003 ASCE 702 NFPA 5000

Static Seismic Force

A 12-story building located in downtown, Los Angeles, California. The building properties summarized in Fig. 2.46 are the same as those used in the 1997 UBC example, Section 2.13.19.1. Occupancy group II (Table 2.13 ASCE Table 1.1) SUG 1 (Tble 2.12 ASCE Table9.1.3) SDC D (Tables 2.17 and 2.18 ASCE Tables 9.4.2.1a and b) Site class as determined by project geotechnical engineer D Figure 2.46. Design example ASCE 7-02 (IBC-03), static force procedure. Figure 2.46. Design example ASCE 7-02...

Scale of Interior Elevations

Construction Elevation Drawings

The scale at which an interior elevation should be drawn will depend upon the complexity and detail of items, information, and finishes to be shown. Generally, interior elevations are drawn to the same scale as the floor plan s . If the wall plane and other items are fairly simple, then a scale of 1 4 1'-0 1 50 metric is acceptable. This is especially applicable in large public spaces. However, in very large commercial interior spaces a smaller scale of V8 1'-0 1 100 metric might be required....

Tucson Mountain House Arizona

Tucson Mountain House

Architectural firm designer year Rick Joy Architects Rick Joy 2001 The Tucson Mountain House sits in a secluded valley marked by unusually harsh meteorological extremes. Searing heat alternates with nighttime chills. Monsoon rains crawl up from the south.Thunderstorms appear out of nowhere, electrifying the scrub with lightning bolts. Traditionally, residents in the area have adjusted to the climate by building low-slung adobe dwellings with small windows and thick walls, and much of the area's...

Spiral Staircase Bs 5395

Travel Distance Fire Exit Offices

Spiral stairs to BS 5395 P42 'are a possibility for means of escape 3.25d and e fire resistance and guarding is needed for flat roof escape routes Escape over flat roofs - second escape only and then not for institutional buildings or for the public (and must be over a roof of the same building) 3.25 If stair goes on down it should be clear that the final exit is at this level 5.31 Basements in a single stair building this basement should have a separate stair. In a two-stair building one...

Terminal For Stansted Airport

Small Airport Terminals

Stansted air terminal is unique in having a single internal space 15 metres high and 198 x 162 square metres in surface, with totally transparent walls of glazing. The structure is made of white steel shells floating on top of 36 steel pylons whose spokes open to support the delicate grilles of the curved roof. Jacques Ferrier, an employee of Foster Associates, has described the construction process in some detail. Various aspects were resolved by several weeks of simulation with a full-sized...

Wood Joints In Classical Japanese Architecture

Begins carpentry apprenticeship in 1924 Starts own enterprise in 1930 Serves in navy 1944-1946 Member of Tcnri Kyokai, involved in design and construction of temples Prepares wood shop drawings for Eishin Gakuen Higashino High School (1983-1985) Graduates in Architecture from Wascda University 1943 - Receives Doctor of Engineering I960 - Professor of Wascda University 1961 Director of the Japanese Photoelastic Association 1979 WOOD JOINTS IN CLASSICAL JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE Torashichi Sumiyoshi...

Question how do you evaluate user satisfaction

Partner Health Care Arcadia Floor Plan

Building users are frequently categorised as clients (in the sense of being the building owner) and, this is often the case. But in the health sector building users consist of a more diverse group of people. It is immediately apparent that effective consultation with future patients will be more difficult to achieve during the design process than with a group of GPs even if they are the tenants of a building which is being procured by others. This poses considerable difficulties for the...

National Building Code of Canada NBCC 1995 Wind Load Provisions

Pressure Coefficient Wind Buildings

The reader may be wondering why, after an arguably extensive coverage of the ASCE 7-02 wind load provisions, the author would burden the text with yet another building code provision. The reason is simple Although extensive in its treatment of wind, the ASCE 7-02 does not provide an analytical procedure for estimating across-wind response of tall, flexible buildings. To the best of the author's knowledge, NBCC is the only code in North America that presents an analytical method for computing...

Computer Aided Cost Estimation Estimating Software Packages

The possibilities for automating and controlling your estimating spreadsheets are unlimited, and there are many tools that developers and contractors can use to estimate more effectively and efficiently. Moreover, there are currently many computer aided cost estimation software systems on the market. These range in sophistication from simple spreadsheet calculation software packages to integrated systems involving design and price negotiation over the Internet. While these proprietary packages...

X3x Cmu Masonry Veneer

Tri City Medical Center Floor Plans

Figure 6-27 A section is cut through a wall seen in plan view, keyed with an arrow indicating the direction of the view. The top letter refers to this section drawing, which can be found on the sheet identified in the lower half of the circle. Figure 6-28 The floor plan of this small house indicates where two building sections labeled A and B are cut. The arrow shows the direction of the view. Figure 6-28 The floor plan of this small house indicates where two building sections labeled A and B...

Core planning and standardized stairs

Northern Flight Dog Ladder

Lift and stair cores in commercial buildings can be grouped according to building use - hotels, offices, retail and special facilities (such as multi-purpose layouts that contain conference and exhibition space). Building Codes in Britain stipulate minimal tread-to-rise relationships that vary according to the 'use' category 1 these are dealt with in Chapter 10. A wise designer ought to take the most generous proportion in multi-use buildings so that a common denominator in stair risers is...

Designing Public Toilet Rooms

Can Hand Dryer Overlap Clear Floor Space

)- On many projects, the interior designer allocates the space for the public restrooms and places the fixtures. Toilet rooms in public facilities are often allotted minimal space and have to be designed with ingenuity to accommodate the required number of fixtures. The location of public restrooms should be central without being a focal point of your design. Usually a licensed engineer designs the building's plumbing system. On small projects like adding a break room or a small toilet...

Bunraku Puppet Theatre

Reciprocal Roof

The Burnaku Puppet Theatre designed by Kazuhiro Ishii is set in the town of Seiwa in Kumamoto Prefecture, southern Japan. It is set in the landscape surrounded by dramatic high hills which form a backdrop and a natural border to the site. It is a complex of four distinct buildings, each distinct but brought together through the use of a common architectural language. All the buildings use timber for their structure and all of them except the newly built restaurant use some form of RF structure....

Checklist for Floor Plans

Title the drawing, note its scale, and indicate north (or reference direction). Draw all doors and direction of operation (swings, folding, etc.). Draw all windows to scale and show mullions. Number and symbol-code all doors and windows. Check door swings and window operations for possible conflicts with other elements and views. Number or name all rooms spaces. Show stairways and include an arrow to indicate up or down from that floor level. Call out the number of risers and treads and...

Marcel Meili Markus Peter

Marcel Meili Markus Peter Helvetia

Architects Marcel Meili and Markus Peter, with Zeno Vogel, Zurich Construction period 1997-1999 Project manager Zeno Vogel Structural engineers Conzett Bronzini Gartmann, Chur Swiss School of Engineering for the Wood Industry, Biel, 1990-1999 This school, even before the new extension, already boasted a remarkable character. The site and the buildings form what is almost an island between residential districts and an industrial area, which stretches along the hard edge of the Jura Massif. The...

Chur Teacher Training College science wing

Chur Teacher Training College Basement

Valentin Bearth, Andrea Deplazes, Alois Diethelm Architects Bearth Deplazes, Chur Project manager Bettina Werner Structural engineer Fredy Unger, Chur The science wing is an extension to the Grisons Teacher Training College. Its architectural vocabulary - four concrete platforms stacked one upon the other - and its division into teaching and preparation rooms reflect the terse operational space and economic criteria. The total transparency of the interior and facades is presumably meant to make...

Gifu Prefecture Japan

Kisho Kurokawa architect & associates Richard Rogers Partnership Japan Ltd. The basic idea for this multifunctional building was to develop a laboratory building that would encourage internal communication and discussion between the co-workers. An open building with merging functional zones was conceived that stimulates intellectual achievements by means of a light-flooded and highly transparent environment. The building takes advantage of its location at the foot of a hill. An S-shaped...

Malmo city of the future

Malmo Bo01

The development on the waterfront of this southern city in Sweden was given its initial impetus by exhibition Bo01, masterminded by Professor Klas Tham and aimed at promoting sustainable urban development. The significance of this project is that it seeks to reconcile the goals of sustainable design with the demands of the market. Malmo is set to experience a renaissance in its fortunes with the completion of the Oresund Bridge linking it to Denmark. This project represents an emphatic...

Existing Wall To Be Removed

Architectural Drawing Abbreviations

In conjunction with an electrical plan to denote specific equipment. Figure 5-24 illustrates an electrical legend in conjunction with additional electrical notes. Although there are many commonly recognized legends and graphic symbols, the drafter should always include the specifics of what is being shown. Legends should be concise and graphically presented as small as possible on the sheet, yet easily readable in the field by the builder. Dimensioning involves incorporating numerical values in...

Composite Building Systems

Shear Wall Steel Frame Construction

Composite building systems may be classified into the following categories 1. Composite shear wall system. 2. Composite shear wall-frame interacting system. 4. Composite vertically mixed system. 5. Composite mega frames with super columns. Figure 5.7. Moment transfer between steel beam and concrete wall. Figure 5.7. Moment transfer between steel beam and concrete wall. Figure 5.8. Composite shear walls with steel plates (a) plan (b) section. Figure 5.8. Composite shear walls with steel plates...

Line Weights And Types

Line Weights Architecture

Line weights are generally subject to the following conventions 1. For manual pencil drafting using drawing boards, finished work includes bold object lines (2H to B pencils), light dimension lines, center lines, section lines, and so on (3H to 5H pencils). Temporary construction lines, guidelines for lettering, and other types should be kept very light (7H or 8H). Border lines for the drawing sheet and title block should be made bold (3B to 6B). 2. For inked or computer-plotted drawings...

Tension structures using tubular members

Structure Tubulaires

Tubular members are well adapted for use as the supporting or supported members in tension structures because they possess good compressive resistance as masts, etc. they are more slender than other sections for the same load resistance the end details can be designed for cable attachments or saddles pinned or articulated end-details can be made, e.g. attachments to the foundations in some cases, the tubular members may also act as the tensile elements (particularly where load reversal may...

Actors involved in the process

In general, railway companies come first to mind when thinking of possible actors involved in the redevelopment of railway station areas. Research (e.g. Bertolini and Spit, 1996) shows that railway companies do indeed have an important role. However, the interest of railway companies is not one-dimensional. It consists of different kinds of interest. There can be a real estate interest, a general transport interest, or an exploitation interest (regarding transport and the station itself), for...

Ceramic Tile Floor Pattern

Tile Pattern Sketches

Generally, there is not a lot of dimensioning on the finish plan. As long as the plan is drawn to scale and the dimensions of the spaces and structure are indicated on the floor plan s , the finishes can be estimated from these or other drawings. However, in some cases, dimensions are needed to describe limits of finishes or start and stop points occuring in areas that are not easily referenced in the plan view. Alignment and direction of patterns might need to be dimensioned directly on the...

Making an Airbrush Rendering

Preparation for an airbrush rendering is similar to that for brush tempera. The perspective line drawing is applied to the sheet or illustration board with a clean Fig. 14.10 Interior Lobby. Architect Igle-hort amp Struhs, Architects. Renderer Lewis Iglehort, Architect. Fig. 14.11 Entrance to Continental Center. Architect Swanke Hayden Con-nell, Ltd. Renderer Lewis Iglehart. Architect. Fig. 14.11 Entrance to Continental Center. Architect Swanke Hayden Con-nell, Ltd. Renderer Lewis Iglehart....

Example Pencil Rendering of an Office Building

Earthbags Building Drawing

Preparation for Figure 9.19 was similar to that for Figure 9.1but a black carbon paper was used to transfer the perspective drawing. Fig. 9.19 An Office Building. New York City Renderer Edward Devine White. Jr Student project. materials Sheet of black carbon paper American-made charcoal paper, 19X25 inches B, BB, and BBB pencils kneaded eraser chamois Fig. 9.19 An Office Building. New York City Renderer Edward Devine White. Jr Student project. materials Sheet of black carbon paper American-made...

Repairs to reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete RAAC was a popular choice as structural material in educational, commercial and industrial buildings between 1950 and 1980. It was primarily used for pre-cast wall panels and flat roof planks in factory and warehouse blocks. 'Siporex', for example, was a common proprietary brand of RAAC wall panel. However, the term autoclaved aerated concrete AAC is a slight misnomer in that it is not a true form of concrete. AAC is not concrete in its constituent...

Occupancy Hazard Classifications

Sprinkler Hazard Classification

Building codes classify various occupancies according to fire hazard. These classifications are used to determine the design of sprinkler systems. The light hazard classification is used for buildings where it is relatively easy to provide effective fire protection. The quantity and combustibility of the building's contents is considered to be low, and a low rate of heat release is expected from possible fires. Light hazard occupancies include apartments, auditoriums, churches, hospitals,...

USA an illfated public housing 1956 demolished 1972

Louis Public Housing Projects Images

These galleries were designed to be playgrounds for children and gathering places for adults. In 1951, the scheme received high praise in an Architectural Forum editorial for saving 'not only people but also money'. The editors of the journal saw the complex as being a worthwhile design paradigm for the future. The reality proved to be different. The household mix was not what was expected. Single-mother, welfare-dependent households overwhelmingly inhabited the...

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Bell Northern Research Buildings

Faced with building restrictions on the former central Seattle location and the undesirable option of moving to the suburbs, scientists of the Cancer Research Center voted for the long-term development of a gradually extendable research campus on a site of more than 4.5 ha at the edge of Seattle's port. At the time of its acquisition, the site at the foot of Capitol Hill - flanked by water to the northwest and the southbound highway, located between the University of Washington campus and...

Case 3 Mystic Seaport Museum

River Thames

View of some of Mystic Seaport Museum's buildings and one of the ships in its collection, showing the museum's location on the waterfront in Mystic, Connecticut, which makes it susceptible to seaborne hazards. Courtesy of the Mystic Seaport Museum. Photo Judy Beisler. View of some of Mystic Seaport Museum's buildings and one of the ships in its collection, showing the museum's location on the waterfront in Mystic, Connecticut, which makes it susceptible to seaborne hazards. Courtesy of the...

Karesansui the dry landscape garden

Kare Sansui

Celebrated Japanese garden scholar Mirei Shigemor identifies a total of 323 kare-sansui gardens and some 700 pond gardens as particularly significant amongst Japanese gardens He divides the development of the kare-sansui garden into four stages the first, prehistoric stage is equated wiih the huge boulders and rocky outcrops - iwakura and iwasaka venerated as the abodes of gods by early Shinto devotees An example here is Achi Shrine in Kurashiki The second stage corresponds to the Nara and...

Diaphragm discontinuities

Discontinuity The Shear Wall

In the ideal world of the structural engineer, diaphragms in buildings are not penetrated by anything larger than say a 300 mm diameter pipe. Diaphragms are also planar and level over the whole floor plan. However, the real world of architecture is quite different, because in most buildings quite large penetrations are required for vertical circulation such as stairways and elevators. Building services, including air ducts and pipes also need to pass through floor slabs and in the process...

Variational types of the Momoyama karesansui dry landscape garden

Landscape Woodcut

Kare-sansui, the new garden prototype accompanying a new type of architecture, was first invented in the Muromachi era. The kare-sansui gardens of the Momoyama era reveal the same preference for more and larger rocks already seen in the pond gardens of the same period. One of the most important kare-sansui gardens of the Momoyama era is found within the precincts of Matsuo Shrine in Yokaichi in Shiga Prefecture. Mirei Shigemori rediscovered the garden in 1936 he dates it to between 1570 and...

The combination of karesansui with okarikomi

Karikomi Wave

Momoyama garden-makers found unexpectedly new and powerful means of expression through the combination of the kare-sansui with o-karikomi, shrubs and bushes clipped into specific shapes. Karikomi was not in itself a novelty it had formed a traditional aspect of Japanese gardens from their earliest beginnings. But it was only in the Momoyama era that it emerged as a primary feature of garden design. The trend towards abstraction in Japanese garden art can be traced back to the earliest gardens...

Center of Advanced European Studies and Research CAESAR

Bell Northern Research Buildings

The foundation of CAESAR in 1995 by initiative of the Federal Republic of Germany and the federal state of North-Rhine-Westphalia was a political signal to strengthen Bonn as a scientific region. This foundation under private law was to compensate the city for the move of the Federal Government to Berlin. CAESAR is not organised in the classical way with a pyramidal personnel structure, but is based on smaller, more flexible work teams of changing size that work on temporary, result-orientated...

An Interview with Giorgio Grassi

Hostel Building Plans Shaped

In January 2007, Lucia Tozzi visited Giorgio Grassi's office in Milan. Their conversation touched on Grassi's recent work on Leon Battista Alberti, which is examined here in the context of Grassi's obliquely expressed views on contemporary architecture and the cult of personality. As perhaps the most intellectually rigorous and formally consistent Rationalist architect of his generation, Grassi's work and thinking retain a hermetic aspect, but one notable for its philosophical self-questioning...

Reflected Ceiling And Electrical Plans

Electrical Drawings Commercial

Electrical systems in a building include lighting, electrical outlets, telephone lines, and other communication systems such as computer networks. A designer's objective is to communicate the nature and locations of these systems in a clear, uncluttered manner. Several approaches are commonly used to do this. The particular method and type of drawing selected will depend on the size and complexity of the project and the office drafting standards. This chapter will discuss electrical system...

The Pearl of Hangzhou water garden Hangzhou

The planned water garden has a romantic radiance paired with sustainable water technology. The planned water garden has a romantic radiance paired with sustainable water technology. Evocative and romantic, West Lake by evening light. The Pearl of Hangzhou is a precious water pearl on the shores of the famous West Lake. First impressions from the exit of the pedestrian tunnel a lively, sparkling water cascade. The fine-tuned water systems of the cascade and water plaza permanently circulate and...

Paternoster Square London England UK a second go at an important urban precinct 19562003

Paternoster Square Analys

Paternoster Square is the only case study in this book where one new urban design project was demolished and replaced by another. The precinct's history highlights (1) the necessity to take market conditions into consideration in designing complexes of buildings, (2) the danger of embracing a currently fashionable design paradigm that is inappropriate for dealing with the task at hand and (3) the impact of changing clients on the urban designing process. In addition, designing a complex...

Procedures for Handling Art in an Emergency

I.1 Protection of Art in Emergency Situations from the Seattle Art Museum's Emergency Planning Handbook, rev. ed. (Seattle Seattle Art Museum, 1994). Used by permission. 4. Do not carry a painting by the top of the frame. Carry it with one hand under the frame and one hand to the side, or with a hand on either side of the frame. 5. Hold the frame where it is strongest, never by the fragile gesso decoration. 6. If there appears to be loose paint present, carry the painting flat, painted surface...

Battery Park City New York Ny Usa a new town intown 1962 to 2002 but continuing

Conflict And Compromise New York City

Whether or not one cares for the design of Battery Park City, it is arguably the exemplar of an all-of-a-piece urban precinct design in the United States. Chronologically, it predates Canary Wharf, Euralille and Lujiazui but it is very different. It was not seen as a new business district but as an adjunct to an existing one. Now almost completed (and repaired after the events of11 September 2001 when it was much damaged see page 379 for a 2004 view) Battery Park City's development history is...

The importance of practice

Lighthouse Drawing From Norfolk

The co-ordination of hand and eye is a necessary starting point for freehand drawing. It is only through frequent practice and by following sound principles that the facility to draw without hesitation or uncertainty can be attained. The fluid, confident lines of an accomplished draughtsman are achieved as the result of much practice. This book does not pretend to teach drawing, only to encourage its use as part of the design process. Like the acquisition of all skills, training and...

Chemical attack and aggressive ground

The resistance of cured concrete to acid attack is largely dependent upon the quality of the concrete, although the addition of granulated blastfurnace slag GGBS or fly ash pulverised-fuel ash PFA increases the resistance to acids. Limestone-aggregate concrete is more vulnerable to acid attack than concretes with other aggregates. The resistance of cured concrete to chemical attack is defined by the design chemical class number, ranging from DC1 low resistance to DC 4 high resistance . The...