The error rate keeps

on growing with

a negative value.

This American data can be interpreted in the following manner. The radiocarbon content in American bristlecone pine has been varying over the years in the following manner (in comparison to its current radiocarbon content):

Years Radiocarbon content

1965 1

1700 1.035

1500 1.031

1200 0.988

100 0.975

Furthermore, on page 7 the authors of [414] write that "it is estimated, that the C-14 variations are of a global character - that is, they happen simultaneously all across the planet". No argumentation is given. It would thus be appropriate to inquire about the possible grounds for making hypotheses that arose from the analysis of nothing but American materials, and ones belonging to a rather small and very specific geographical location at that, valid for the entire planet.

The authors of [414] also make the conclusion that the difference between the dendrochronological and radiocarbon datings is a result of a temporal variation of radiocarbon content in the exchange reservoir. However, this very difference might lead one to an alternative hypothesis that a growing tree continues to take part in carbon exchange after the formation of the rings, which isn't even mentioned in [414]!

On page 4 of [414] we see the schematic drawing also included in [1025] that displays the correlation between the historical dates of the "ancient" Egypt and the hypothetical radiocarbon datings, and comparisons of the same dates to European monuments and artefacts. The commentary is that "this drawing shows us that the datings of the Roman period are virtually identical, whereas the datings of the early dynastic period differ by 500-700 years" ([414], page 7). Apart from this, we have already seen the data showing that the radiocarbon datings of at least some of the "ancient" Egyptian specimens really gives late mediaeval datings.

In 1964 Kigoshi had conducted precise measurements of C14 concentration in the tree rings of an old Japanese cryptomeria whose age reached 1890 years ([567], page 172). This data is also of little utility for the European dendrochronology and radiocarbon scale. The results of this research proved somewhat different from the ones related to a small area in America as cited above, but show the radiocarbon concentration for 1000 a.d. to have been 2% lower than it is currently ([567]). The conclusion is apparently valid for some small area in Japan.

The variations in the exchange reservoir (see point 2 above) are primarily determined by the alterations of the ocean level. Libby claims that a change of 100 metres in the sea level curbs the volume of the reservoir by 5% ([986], page 157). If this had been accompanied by a temperature drop, during the Ice Age, for instance, the concentration of carbonates in the water would diminish, and the entire carbon exchange reservoir would shrink by 10%. We are to be aware that we are considering hypotheses that are extremely hard to prove nowadays, and all such proof is, it turn, based on other hypotheses that are as hard to prove.

The data that concern the mixing speed as mentioned in point 3 are somewhat contradictory. Ferguson, for instance, having studied the radioactivity of tree rings (also in a small geographical area) reckons that this speed is rather high, and that the average time that it takes the carbon molecule to reach a different part of the reservoir equals seven years maximum ([986], page 158). On the other hand, thermonuclear test explosions have produced about half a tonne of radiocarbon, which shouldn't affect the general radiocarbon mass of 60 tonnes that greatly in theory -however, the activity of the specimens grew by 25% as measured in 1959, and this growth had reached 30% by 1963. This speaks in favour of the low mixing level hypothesis.

According to Süss, it takes about 1500 years for all of the water to mix in the Pacific, and 750 is the figure given for the Atlantic ocean by E. A. Olson and W. S. Brecker ([480], page 198). But the mixing of ocean waters is greatly affected by the temperature.

Per minute decay frequency Specimens Geomagnetic latitude for one gramme

White fir (Yukon)

55 degrees in lat. North

14.84 ±0.30

Norwegian fir (Sweden)

55 degrees in lat. North

15.37 ±0.54

Fir (Chicago)

53 degrees in lat. North

14.72 ±0.54

Ash (Switzerland)

49 degrees in lat. North

15.16 ±0.30

Honeysuckle leaves (USA)

47 degrees in lat. North

14.60 ±0.30

Pine branches (USA, 3.6 km above sea level)

44 degrees in lat. North

15.82 ±0.47

Heather (North Africa)

40 degrees in lat. North

14.47 ±0.44

Oak (Palestine)

34 degrees in lat. North

15.19 ±0.40

Unidentified timber (Iran)

28 degrees in lat. North

15.57 ±0.31

Manchurian ash (Japan)

26 degrees in lat. North

14.84 ±0.30

Unidentified timber (Panama)

20 degrees in lat. North

15.94 ±0.51

Chlorophora excelsa timber (Liberia)

11 degrees in lat. North

15.08 ±0.34

Sterculia (Bolivia, 2.7 km above sea level)

1 degree in lat. North

15.47 ±0.50

Ebony tree (The Marshall Isles)

0 degree

14.53 ±0.60

Unidentified timber (Ceylon)

2 degrees in lat. South

15.37 ±0.49

Eucalyptus (Australia)

45 degrees in lat. South

16.31 ±0.43

Seal-oil (The Antarctic)

65 degrees in lat. South

15.69 ±0.30

A 50% increase in the mixing of both shallow and deep waters shall increase to a 2% shrinkage of the atmospheric radiocarbon concentration.

16.6. Variations in radiocarbon content of living bodies

The third hypothesis of Libby's is that the radiocarbon body content is equal for all of the organisms on the entire Earth, and thus independent from the latitude and the species. In order to verify this hypothesis, Anderson (Chicago University) had conducted an in-depth research and discovered that the radiocarbon content does indeed fluctuate, as one should have expected ([480], page 191). See the table above.

Thus, modern radiocarbon activity varies from 14.03 (North African heather) to 16.7 (Australian eucalyptus) decays per minute depending on the geographical location and the species of the tree. This gives a deviation rate of 8.5% as compared to the average radiocarbon content value. Libby tell us the following:

"Over the ten years that have passed since that time, this information has not been refuted; the only exceptions concern the carbonate rock formations, where ground waters dissolve and wash away a significant part of ancient carbon, thus making carbon-14 content lower in comparison with the average planetary rate of the atmosphere-biosphere-ocean system. Such cases are extremely rare (? - A. F.), and can easily be accounted for" ([480]).

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