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Fig 5.49 A close-in of a fragment of the map by Apianus showing [1459], sheet XXIII, map 61.

ludaea that is located to the East from India. Taken from

Fig 5.49 A close-in of a fragment of the map by Apianus showing [1459], sheet XXIII, map 61.

Some more remarkable mediaeval maps: fig. 5.48 shows the map of the world by Petrus Apianus, made allegedly in 1520 ([1459], sheet XXIII, map 61). Let us point out that America is already painted. Enormous regions of China and Burma located to the East of India are named Judah. See names ludia and ludíame on the map, fig. 5.49. The Far East is named India Superior. It is interesting that Siberia is named Scythia: Scitia Extra. The European part of Russia is named Tartaria, fig. 5.50.

Fig. 5.51 shows a map of allegedly 1538, Solinus, Basel ([1459], map 71). One should notice that the entire Europe to the North of Greece is named Moskovia, fig. 5.52. This map has many other interesting names, which do not fit the Scaligerian version of history and geography.

Fig. 5.53 presents a rare map of Jerusalem of the alleged XIV century ([ 1177], page 475). We see Chris ludaea that is located to the East from India. Taken from tian crosses on the buildings of Jerusalem. It is very interesting that at the same time, to the left below, an Ottoman mosque with two high minarets is shown, fig. 5.54. Apparently, this medieval map depicts Czar-Grad (King-City) = Jerusalem of the Gospels, with Ottoman mosques and Christian temples. Such maps, poorly fitting the Scaligerian version of history, must invoke irritation in contemporary historians. In this case, commentators named this image "a stylized map of Jerusalem", as if calling to distrust the information presented on the map ([1177], page 475).

Fig. 5.55 shows the map of the World compiled by Isidore, in the alleged VII century a.d., but published in the book of the alleged XV century ([1177], page 302). We see an extremely primitive map, most likely drawn in the XV century for the first time the earliest, and reflecting the ideas of the XV century cartographers about the structure of the world.

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Fig. 5.50. A close-in of a fragment of the map by Apianus showing Russia, or Tartaria. Taken from [ 1459], sheet XXIII, map 61

In fig. 5.56 we see a fragment of the map of the world by Gregor Reisch, allegedly dating to 1515 ([1009], page 65). According to its level, it was most likely created later than the beginning of the XVI century. America is present. Russia is called Tartaria. White Russia (Belaya Rus') is shown in the north of Russia. Moreover, there are several Tartarias on the map, q.v. in fig. 5.57.

Fig. 5.58 represents the map of the world by Mac-robius, an "ancient" late Roman philosopher. The map, however, has only appeared in the book allegedly dating from 1483 ([1009], page 16). It is clearly evident that the level of geographical ideas is still very primitive. Most likely, this map reflects the concepts of cartographers of the XV-XVI century.

Fig. 5.59 shows a fragment of the map of "the Holy Land", allegedly dating from 1556 ([ 1189 ], page 94).

We see the city of Saint George next to Asur! To the left, a city named Indi - probably the "city of India" - is marked. Of interest are the city names of Skan-dalium and Skandaria, containing the root Skanda or Scandia.

Fig. 5.60 shows a fragment of an ancient map of 1649, on which the German river Moselle is named River Mosa, i.e., probably the river of Moses ([ 1189 ], page 171). Why and when such Biblical geographical names appeared, and how they became blurred subsequently in the territory of the Western Europe, is discussed in Chron6.

Fig. 5.61 shows a fragment of a well-known map of the world by Schedel, allegedly dating from 1493 ([1459], map 44). A still extremely low level of geographical ideas towards the end of the XV century is clearly visible, see fig. 5.62.

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