The geography of Herodotus is at odds with the Scaligerian version

Let us quote some examples from Herodotus, who plays a key role in the Scaligerian chronology. He claims the African river Nile to be parallel to Ister, that is nowadays identified as the Danube (and, oddly enough, not Dniester) ([ 163], page 492). This is where we find out that "the opinion that Danube and Nile were parallel reigned in the mediaeval Europe until as late as the end of the XIII century" ([163], page 493). Thus, the mistake of Herodotus proves to be mediaeval in its origins.

Herodotus proceeds to tell us that "the Persians in

Fig. 1.38. An old inverted map of the Black Sea. This is a so-called "portolano" by the Genoese Pietro Vesconte, allegedly dated 1318 ([1468], page 3). Several points on the coast of the Black Sea are marked. The centre of the map says Pontus Euxinus. The North is at the bottom, the East on the left. The East used to be referred to as Levant, see [ 1468], page 37, which means "situated on the left". There are traces of the name remaining in the German language, among others, where the Middle East is still called Levant. See [573], page 333. The Crimean peninsula, it will be observed, is "upside down" in comparison to its location on modern maps. Taken from [ 1468], map 3.

Fig. 1.38. An old inverted map of the Black Sea. This is a so-called "portolano" by the Genoese Pietro Vesconte, allegedly dated 1318 ([1468], page 3). Several points on the coast of the Black Sea are marked. The centre of the map says Pontus Euxinus. The North is at the bottom, the East on the left. The East used to be referred to as Levant, see [ 1468], page 37, which means "situated on the left". There are traces of the name remaining in the German language, among others, where the Middle East is still called Levant. See [573], page 333. The Crimean peninsula, it will be observed, is "upside down" in comparison to its location on modern maps. Taken from [ 1468], map 3.

habit all of Asia to the very Southern Sea that is also called the Red Sea" ([ 163], 4:37, page 196). According to consensual geography, the Southern Sea is the Persian Gulf. Giving a description of the peninsula that contemporary historians identify with the Arabian peninsula, Herodotus writes that "it begins near the Persian land and stretches to the Red Sea" ([ 163], 4:39, page 196). Everything appears to be correct here. However, this contradicts the opinion of those historians who identify the Red Sea mentioned by Herodotus with the Persian Gulf ([163]). This is why modern commentators hasten to "correct" Herodotus:

Fig. 1.39. An old inverted map of a part of the Mediterranean. A portolano by the Genoese Pietro Vesconte, allegedly dating from the XIV century [ 1418]. The North is at the bottom, the East on the left. This is probably the reason why the East used to be referred to as Levant, or "located on the left." Taken from [1468], map 4.

Fig. 1.39. An old inverted map of a part of the Mediterranean. A portolano by the Genoese Pietro Vesconte, allegedly dating from the XIV century [ 1418]. The North is at the bottom, the East on the left. This is probably the reason why the East used to be referred to as Levant, or "located on the left." Taken from [1468], map 4.

"Red Sea stands for Persian Gulf here" ([ 163], Appendices, Part 4, comment 34).

Let us continue. The Red Sea in its modern interpretation may indeed "reach further up than the Persians" according to Herodotus ([163], Volume 4:40), but only meeting one condition, namely, that the map used by Herodotus was inverted in relation to the ones used nowadays. Many mediaeval maps are like that, with North and South swapped (q.v.

below). This makes the modern historians identify the Red Sea with the Persian Gulf ([163], Appendix, Part 4, comment 36), although the Persian gulf is "below" the Persians in this case, or to the East of them, but doesn't reach "further up" at any rate.

Historians identify the same sea as mentioned by Herodotus in 2:102 with the Indian Ocean ([163], Appendix, Part 2, comment 110). What we observe here is the inversion of the East and the West. Could

Fig. 1.40. An old inverted map of Spain and a part of Africa. Africa is on top, and Spain at the bottom. Thus, the North is at the bottom, and the East is on the left. Another portolano by Pietro Vesconte, allegedly dating from the XIV century ([1468]). These maps most probably date from the XV-XV1 century. Taken from [1468], map 8.

Fig. 1.40. An old inverted map of Spain and a part of Africa. Africa is on top, and Spain at the bottom. Thus, the North is at the bottom, and the East is on the left. Another portolano by Pietro Vesconte, allegedly dating from the XIV century ([1468]). These maps most probably date from the XV-XV1 century. Taken from [1468], map 8.

the map that Herodotus had used have been an inverted one, then?

In book 4:37 Herodotus identifies the Red Sea with the South Sea, q.v. above. This proves to be the final straw of confusion for the modern commentators who try to fit Herodotus into the Procrustean geography of the Scaligerian school, and the maps used nowadays. They are forced to identify the Red (Southern) Sea with the Black Sea! See book 4:13, [163], Appendix,

Part 4, comment 12. We see yet another inversion of the East and the West in relation to the Persians.

Thus, identifying the geographic data as offered by Herodotus with the Scaligerian map runs us into many difficulties. The numerous corrections that the modern historians are forced to make show us that the map that Herodotus had used may have been inverted in relation to the modern ones, which is a typical trait of mediaeval maps ([1468]).

Fig. 1.41. An old inverted map of England and France. France is on top, and England at the bottom. The East is on the left. A portolano of the Genoese Pietro Vesconte, allegedly dating from the XIV century. Taken from 11468], map 10.

Fig. 1.41. An old inverted map of England and France. France is on top, and England at the bottom. The East is on the left. A portolano of the Genoese Pietro Vesconte, allegedly dating from the XIV century. Taken from 11468], map 10.

As we can see, the commentators have to make a conclusion that Herodotus uses different names to refer to the same seas in his History. If we're to believe the modern historians, we have to think that Herodotus makes the following identifications: Red Sea = South Sea = Black Sea = North Sea = the Mediterranean = the Persian Gulf = Our Sea = Indian Ocean ([163], Appendix, comments 34,36,110, etc. ).

The mentions of the Crestonians, the town of Creston, and the region of Crossaea sound most pe culiar coming from an allegedly ancient author ([163], 1:57, page 27; 5:3, page 239; 5:5, page 240; 7:123, page 344; 7:124, pages 344-345; 7:127, page 345; 8:116, page 408; page 571 ). One constantly gets the feeling that he is referring to the mediaeval crusaders. "Cross" and "Crest" are the roots one most often associates with the Middle Ages. Just how veracious are the datings of the events related by Herodotus?

The unbiased analysis of Biblical geography yields many oddities as well ([544]).

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The Art Of Astrology

The Art Of Astrology

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success With Astrology. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To A Look at Principles and Practices.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment