The Mysterious Renaissance Epoch As A Product Of The Scaligerian Chronology

The Scaligerian chronology is very fond of the renaissance motif, appealing to the archetypal recurrence of the Classical Age.

The ancient Plato is supposed to have been the founding father of Platonism. His teaching allegedly falls into oblivion for centuries to come, and is revived by the famous Neoplatonist Plotin, allegedly in 205-270 a.d. The similarity of his name to that of his teacher is purely accidental, of course. Then Neoplatonism perishes as well, in order to be revived again in the XV century a.d. by another famous Platonist - Gemisto Pleton, whose name is also identical to that of his teacher as a result of sheer coincidence. The mediaeval Pleton is supposed to have revived the "ancient" Platonism, having been an avid advocate of "the ancient sage Plato." Furthermore, it is only in the XV century that Plato's manuscript was unearthed ([247], pages 143-147). This is precisely the epoch of Gemisto Pleton.

Pleton founds "Pleton's Academy" in Florence in the image of the "ancient" Plato's Academy ([247]). A. A. Vasiliev writes that "His [ Pleton's-A. F.] sojourn in Florence... had been one of the most important periods for Italy when it was importing the ancient Greek science, and Plato's philosophy in particular" ([675], Volume 3, Pt. 2; [120]).

Both Plato and Pleton write Utopian works. Gemisto Pleton is reported to have been the author of the famous Tractate on the Laws, which sadly failed to reach us in its entirety. However, the full text of Plato's tractate by the same title did. Pleton, who lived in the XV century, also suggests the construction of an ideal state, with his programme being extremely close to Plato's. Plotin, who had allegedly lived in 205-270 a.d., is yet another one to have hoped the Emperor would aid the foundation of the city of Platonopolis in Campagna (Italy again), where he had planned to introduce communal aristocratic institutions a la Plato ([122], Volume 4, pages 394-397).

Many prominent ecdesial leaders have historical doppelgangers in Scaliger's chronology. Eusebius in his Historia Ecclesiastica ([267]) makes many references to a certain Bishop Victor who played a key role in the so-called Easter Dispute, or the introduction of the Paschalian rules ([267], page 306). There is indeed an Easter dispute known to history and associated with the name of Victor, as reflected in the term "The Paschalian Cycle ofVictor" ([76], table 17). However, this dispute and Victor's lifetime are ascribed to 463 a.d., whereas Eusebius who reports this is supposed to have lived in the III-IV century a.d. The Scaligerian chronology would appear to be inverted.

Furthermore, in [267] Eusebius tells us of a famed Dionysius who formulated the rules for celebrating Easter, having linked it to the Spring Equinox and the "suffering of the Saviour." According to Eusebius, Dionysius is supposed to have died in the 12th year of Gallienus, which is 265 a.d. in the Scaligerian chronology. It is most remarkable that another well-known scientist by the name of Dionysius existed in the VI century a.d. - namely, Dionysius Exiguus (Dionysius the Little). He is supposed to have conducted an in-depth study of the Paschalian problem, and deduced the date of Christ's birth for the first time.

Fig. 1.44. Charlemagne's portrait (he allegedly reigned in 742-814). Albrecht Dürer, 1514. The portrait is kept in the German Museum, Nuremberg. Taken from [328], page 25, ill. 3.

Apart from this, he calculated the advent of Easter for many years ahead, affixing it to the Spring Equinox ([76], table 18). We have two eminent scientists by the name of Dionysius who studied the Paschalian problem and the relation of Easter to the vernal equinox, both following Victor who already possesses a duplicate of his own. However, they are separated by a period of three centuries according to the Scaligerian chronology. This is evidently a mistake; there was only one Dionysius whose double existed on paper exclusively. Actually, we are to acquaint ourselves with yet another Dionysius the Little, who must have been the prototype of both. We are referring to Dionysius Petavius who had lived in the XVII century.

We see strange duplicates in the Scaligerian history of the famous Res Romana as well ([5]). F. Schupfert writes that:

"The series of prominent Roman lawyers ends with Erennius Modestine who had died in 244 a.d. After that, the entire discipline of law enters a lethargic phase to be revived in nine hundred years by Erennius [who was the double of Erennius in activity as well as the name - A. F.]... It suddenly resurrected in the entirety of its primordial grace... in Bologna." ([879], page 187)

The mediaeval Irnerius ("ancient" Erennius?), the founder of the school, started lecturing in Roman Law around 1088 a.d., "reviving" it after an alleged nine-century period of oblivion. He is also supposed to have "collected" the ancient codices of Justinian.

There are two famous Homers in the Scaligerian history: the ancient poet and the mediaeval Angilbert Homer who is supposed to have belonged to Charlemagne's court in the IX century a.d. "He must have received his academic name Homer for his poetical works," suggests G. Weber. "Very few poetic works of Angilbert have reached us" ([ 122], Volume 5, page 391). This mediaeval Homer had been "an important member of the circle of scientists that existed in the Aachen court of Charlemagne" ([122], Volume 5, page 391).

It has to be noted that Charlemagne is in no way a personal name as we tend to think today; most probably, it used to mean "The Great King." The question of who exactly was referred to in that manner deserves a special study, and we shall return to it below. In fig. 1.44 we can see a portrait of Charlemagne painted by Albrecht Diirer in the XVJ century.

Nowadays the "ancient Roman" count of time by ides and calends is assumed to have gone out of use in the VJ-VII century a.d. Nevertheless, the mediaeval chronographers of XIV century a.d. appear to have been unaware of this fact, using the "long-forgotten" ides and calends wherever they saw fit ([229], p. 415).

There's a large number of such odd doubles in the Scaligerian history. We are not claiming they prove our statements; one may indeed find a large number of

Fig. 1.45. An old miniature from the book titled Les Grandes Chroniques de France, Paris, allegedly dating from the early XV century. The siege of Troy is on top, and the foundation of Paris at the bottom. The miniature illustrates the Trojan origins of the French, with the "ancient" Greeks and Trojans portrayed as mediaeval knights wearing heavy plate armour identical to that of the knights founding Paris at the bottom of the miniature, also mediaeval. Taken from [1485], ill. 115.

Fig. 1.45. An old miniature from the book titled Les Grandes Chroniques de France, Paris, allegedly dating from the early XV century. The siege of Troy is on top, and the foundation of Paris at the bottom. The miniature illustrates the Trojan origins of the French, with the "ancient" Greeks and Trojans portrayed as mediaeval knights wearing heavy plate armour identical to that of the knights founding Paris at the bottom of the miniature, also mediaeval. Taken from [1485], ill. 115.

isolated coincidences. What we emphasize is the global nature of these duplicates and parallels, fitting the general scheme of chronological shifts which cover sequences of hundreds of years "side by side" and "following each other" for hundreds of years to come.

One of the principal indications of the mediaeval origins of many ancient documents is the very existence of a Renaissance Epoch when all of the ancient scientific disciplines, philosophy, arts, and culture in general are assumed to have been revived. The "re splendent Classical Latin" has degraded into a rough and clumsy lingo that only manages to regain its former splendour in the Renaissance epoch. This "revival" of Latin and Classical Greek begins in the VIII-IX century a.d. the latest ([335], page 23).

The famed mediaeval troubadours begin to use the plots that the historians call "a masquerade of classical recollections" in the alleged X-XI century. The "history of Ulysses" (Odyssey) appears in the XI century as a "mediaeval remake" of the "well-known

Classical story" complete with knights, belles dames, jousting tournaments, etc.; in fact, all the elements that shall later be considered integral to a "Classical" plot, ([335], pages 83-84).

"The troubadours have been proudly claiming the story [of the Trojan War - A. F.] to have been an original one, it had neither been told nor written by anyone before... The troubadours' primary concern had been the Trojan War, it had almost been a native story for them" ([335], pages 85-86). The Francs considered themselves descendants of the Trojans, while the alleged VII century author Fredegarius Scholasticus refers to King Priam as a representative of the previous generation ([335], pages 85-86).

Furthermore, "The voyage of the Argonauts became confused with the Trojan War... when the crusader conquerors [apparently, the mediaeval prototypes of the "ancient" Argonauts - A. F.] had set forth in the direction of faraway Asian lands" ([335], pages 85-86). In mediaeval texts the ancient Alexander the Great "compliments the French" ([335], pages 85-86).

Certain Slavonic texts of the middle ages use the name Parizh (the Russian name for the city of Paris) in order to refer to Paris, the abductor of Helen when they speak of the "ancient" Trojan War. Could it have referred to somebody from Paris? The following is said, for instance: "Parizh called himself Alexander and deceived Helen" ([10], page 234, comment 76). The same mediaeval texts often demonstrate the flexion of P and F spelling Parizh as Farizh.

On fig. 1.45 we see an ancient miniature from the Great French Chronicle dated as the alleged XV century that depicts the Trojan origins of the Francs. Modern commentary is as follows:

"The miniature illustrates the idea that the French can trace their ancestry back to Francion, the son of Hector and grandson of the Trojan king Priam. This is why we see the foundation of Paris directly under the picture of the fall of Troy." ([1485], page 104)

So, Troy barely has the time to fall when Paris is founded! The "ancient" Troy is also represented as a mediaeval city here.

The Scaligerian chronology reckons that the so-called apocalyptic nations of Gog and Magog mentioned in the Bible had disappeared from the historical arena in the early Middle Ages. However, reading modern commentary to the mediaeval Alexandria

( [ 10] ) we find out that "The names Gotti and Magotti must be a repercussion of the apocalyptic nations of Gog and Magog identified with the memories of the Goths and the Mongols (the Book of Revelation, XX, 7), who were well-known in the Middle Ages" ([10], page 248, comment 165).

The pressure of the Scaligerian chronology and all of these oddities brings historians to the conclusion that:

"The Middle Ages were the time when all idea of chronological consequentiality had been lost: monks with crosses and thuribles at the funeral of Alexander the Great, Catilina attending mass... Orpheus becomes a contemporary of Aeneas, Sardanapal a Greek king, and Julian the Apostate - a Papal chaplain. Everything acquires a hue of fantasy in this world [this perplexes the modern historian greatly - A. F.]. The most blatant anachronisms and the strangest fancies coexist peacefully." ([879], pages 237-238)

All these facts, and thousands of others, are rejected by the historians, since they contradict the consensual chronology of Scaliger and Petavius.

Christian saints and "ancient pagan characters" can be seen side by side on mediaeval Gothic cathedrals, q.v. in fig. 1.46 which shows the sculptures of Aristotle and Pythagoras together with the Christian saints from the western façade of the Chartres Cathedral. The historians try to explain this chronological heresy in a rather vague manner: "Aristotle and Pythagoras... the two pagan philosophers on a Christian cathedral symbolize the importance of scientific knowledge" ([930], page 169).

The oldest biography of "the ancient" Aristotle is dated to 1300 a.d. The manuscript's condition "rapidly deteriorates; certain places which could be read perfectly well in the XIX century are a great effort to make out nowadays" ([300], page 29). All of this despite the fact that, according to the Scaligerian chronology, certain manuscripts whose age exceeds a thousand years are still perfectly legible, and their parchment remains in a great condition, q.v. in Chron6, ch. 2. The historians are most probably right in their estimation of manuscript destruction rate - many old texts may be well-preserved precisely because they really are not quite as old as we think them to be.

Presumably, "the best Greek codices of Aristotle's works belong to the X-XII century" ([300], p. 206).

Fig. 1.46. The sculptures of the ancient Pagans Aristotle and Pythagoras from the Chartres Cathedral, near the Christian saints. The western façade, allegedly dating from 1145-1170. "Aristotle and Pythagoras actually represent music and dialectic" ([930], page 169). Similar proximity of "ancient" and mediaeval characters is common in the bas-reliefs and murals of Christian temples in Europe and Russia. Taken from [930], page 169.

Fig. 1.46. The sculptures of the ancient Pagans Aristotle and Pythagoras from the Chartres Cathedral, near the Christian saints. The western façade, allegedly dating from 1145-1170. "Aristotle and Pythagoras actually represent music and dialectic" ([930], page 169). Similar proximity of "ancient" and mediaeval characters is common in the bas-reliefs and murals of Christian temples in Europe and Russia. Taken from [930], page 169.

The "ancient" argument between the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle is revived in the XV century when Pleton and Scholarius, a devotee of Aristotle, engage in a similar dispute. This is yet another odd mediaeval duplicate of ancient events.

The history of Europe's first acquaintance with the works of Aristotle wasn't studied until the XIX century ([300]). It is written that "Aristotle's philosophy had remained in a state of stagnation and taciturnity. .. only... 1230 years since the birth of Christ...

the Latin population learnt of the philosophy of Aristotle" (quoted in [330], page 230). We would also like to quote the opinion of contemporary historians on this issue, namely, that "the mediaeval authors had a penchant of referring to texts that they often were altogether unacquainted with" ([333], page 117).

In the Middle Ages "the somewhat barbaric shape... of the dispute between the realists and the nominalists... really represents the renaissance of the two immortal schools of idealism and empiricism...

Nominalism and realism... signified a rebirth of the teachings of Plato and Aristotle in the XII century" ([335], pages 167-168). It is also assumed that the originals of Plato's and Aristotle's works were unknown in Europe in that epoch ([335]). Weren't yet written, perhaps?

Yet another chronological duplicate: "antiquity" = Middle Ages. "Three of the four principal philosophical systems of the Classical age were represented in the mediaeval science" in XII-XIII century Paris ([335], page 175). "The collision of realism... and nominalism. .. had given birth to scepticism at last... Another system that had been the latest to have appeared in Greece had also seemed imminent... namely, that of mysticism" ([335], page 175). Indeed, mysticism soon becomes "revived" by Bonaventura ([335]).

Thus, the evolution of mediaeval philosophy faithfully mirrors even the minute details of the development of its predecessor. Let us present this information as a table:

The Middle Ages

1. Realism

2. Nominalism

3. Pleton - the initiator of the revival of Platonism

4. Scholarius - the initiator of the revival of Aristotelism

5. Confrontation between the two schools

6. Confrontation between Pleton and Scholarius

7. The naissance of scepticism

8. Mysticism evolves after the three schools

9. A total of four principal mediaeval schools of thought

The Classical Age

1. Idealism

2. Empiricism

3. Plato - the founder of Platonism

4. Aristotle - the founder of Aristotelism

5. Confrontation between the two schools

6. Confrontation between the Platonists and the Aristotelists

7. The naissance of scepticism

8. Mysticism evolves after the three schools

9. A total of four principal Classical schools of thought.

A long time before the "discovery" of the "ancient" manuscript of The Golden Ass, the entire "ass topic"

had been well-developed by the mediaeval troubadours ([335]). The "Classical ass story" that surfaced as late as the Renaissance is a logical conclusion of the entire mediaeval cycle. One has to note that long before the discoveries of the "Classical" originals all of the main plots they contain had been developed by the troubadours, with the "ancient" originals really being subsequent chronologically as well as structurally ([335], pages 142-143).

Long before the discovery of the "ancient" fables of Aesop, similar tales had been told in the Middle Ages, in the alleged XI-XIII century ([335]).

An important fact to note is that ancient people didn't have fixed names in the modern sense; what they used instead were aliases which had explicit meanings in the original language. The aliases characterized a person in some manner; the more remarkable qualities a person had, the more aliases he or she would be likely to possess. B. L. Smirnov says that "one seldom finds a name that would mean nothing" ([519], Volume 6, page 526, comments 126, 31. Also see J. Frazer's works [917], [918], [919], [920]). For instance, the chroniclers could refer to an emperor by the alias that used in their own region, and so different chronicles referred to the same rulers by different names.

The Egyptian Pharaohs used to have different names before and after their coronation. As multiple coronations would take place in different regions, the list of names kept growing. These aliases are usually translated as "The Mighty," "The Fair," etc.

The father of a Roman consul who lived in the alleged year 169 b.c. had 13 names; his son had 38 ([872], page 101). The Torah scholars quote 94 names for the Biblical god ([544], Volume 6, page 978).

The same phenomenon was typical in Russian history. "Czar Ivan III was also known as Timothy; Czar Basil III was known as Gabriel... Prince Dmitri (who had been killed in Uglich) was called Uar; one name had been secular, and the other ecclesial" ([586], page 22). The name Uar most probably simply meant "Czar."

Nowadays we tend to assume that the mediaeval names differed significandy from the "ancient" ones. However, the analysis of a number of texts shows us that the ancient names were in use throughout the Middle Ages. Nilus of Sinai, who is supposed to have died in 450 a.d., writes to his contemporaries possessing typically "ancient" names - Apollodorus,

Amphiction, Atticus, Anaxagoras, Demosthenes, Asklepiodes, Aristocles, Aristarchus, Alciviades, Apollos, etc. ([836]). Many names that are considered to be "exclusively ancient" nowadays, were still in use in Byzantium in the XII-XIV century. Georgius Phrantz uses the following names in his History (1258-1476): Antioch, Argo, Amorius, Hermetian, Demetrios, Dionysius, Dioscorus, Epidaurus, Calliope, Cleope, Kritopulos, Laconicus, Macrobius, Minos, etc. - typical ancient names belonging to people of the XIII-XV century.

Handwritten books remained in existence for a long time after the invention of the printing press. They had been made in large quantities in the XV-XVIII century all across Europe ([740], pages 13,25). In the Balkans, "handwritten books managed to compete with the printed ones" as recently as the XIX century ([740], page 26). Apart from a few exceptions, the entire Irish literature of the VII-XVII century "only exists in the handwritten form" (quoted by [740], page 28). Up until 1500 a.d., 77 percent of all printed books are supposed to have been in Latin, possibly due to the fact that the Latin fonts were easy to make. Other fonts made their way into the printing practice extremely slowly. The diacritic signs were difficult to make, as well as the ones used for stresses, vocalizations, etc. This is why "the scribes had remained without competition in what concerned copying the Greek, Arabic and Hebraic manuscripts" for centuries after the invention of the printing press ([740], page 57).

This may be the reason why many Greek, Arabic and Hebraic manuscripts considered "very ancient" belong to the epoch of printing. Among them are many classical texts, Tischendorf's Biblical codices, etc.; see Chron6, Chapter 2.

It appears that the region richest in handwritten books during the printing epoch was Greece - the country that is considered to have a very long ancient history, one that gave the world a large number of "ancient manuscripts." Historians tell us that "due to the lack of publishing houses in Greece, books were copied manually" ([740], page 106). One wonders how many handwritten books of the XV-XIX century were to be declared ancient later on.

The following information clearly demonstrates the lack of a solid scientific foundation under the very concept of palaeographical dating - that is, dating by the "handwriting style." It turns out that "the creation of the deluxe Greek codices with the texts of ancient authors had been ordered by humanists and philanthropist collectors" ([740], page 109). Let us repeat the question: how many of these mediaeval codices were later declared extremely ancient?

One might suggest a method that allows the differentiation between real manuscripts and handwritten copies of printed books, namely, comparing the misprints in the printed versions with the handwritten errors, since during the manual copying of printed literature most misprints would get copied as well.

The foundations of the Scaligerian chronology had been laid by the analysis of written sources. A secondary analysis of these datings free from a priori hypotheses about the antiquity of the documents, may lead to the discovery of serious contradictions, as we have demonstrated.

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