Quatremre de Quincy

Although Lenoir had worked hard to organize his museum, he seems to have had little appreciation of the artistic qualities of mediaeval art to him, the organization of the collection was mainly a didactic exercise. The final critical blow came from Antoine-Chryso-stome Quatrem re de Quincy (1755-1849), a classical archaeologist and art critic, who himself had little appreciation of the Middle Ages and hated museums, but he was particularly convinced that works of art should be kept in their...

Notes

1 One can even see the concept of style as a practical application of the Cartesian theory of 'innate ideas'. 2 Clark, 1974 Germann, 1972 Honour, 1981 Pevsner, 1972 Watkin, 1980. 3 Walpole had a 'Committee of Taste' to superintend the construction of his villa. The members included William Robinson (1720-75) who did the first repairs, John Chute (1701-76) who played a prominent part in the design and was much admired by Walpole, as well as Richard Bentley (1708-82). 4 'Durham Dean and Chapter...

India

The Indian subcontinent is the home of some of the world's oldest and most influential civilizations with a rich cultural heritage distinguished by its antiquity and its great variety.17 The establishment of the Mughal Empire in the north of India, 1526-1761, had great national and international importance. The third emperor, Akbar the Great (ruled 1556-1605), placed all religions at an equal level, and generated a social and political revolution that enabled the country to achieve...

Beauty and picturesque

'Beauty' was the essence of Ruskin's life, and it resulted from an intrinsic harmony and repose. Perfect beauty was in God, and as a reflection of God it was found in nature and in art. He divided beauty into 'typical' and 'vital', the former consisting of forms and qualities of forms, such as curved lines, the latter concerned with expression, happiness and energy of life. In architecture, he conceived forms to be beautiful so far as they derived from nature, because man was not able to...

Antiquarian debate about restoration principles

The repairs and beautifications aimed at uniformity, order and symmetry, but ignored the age value of the historic cathedrals. The changes that Wyatt made to Salisbury Cathedral were the first to prompt a debate about conservation principles. There were those who defended his plans and were pleased that the buildings were finally repaired and put in order after decades of neglect and misuse. The chapels were thought to have lost their pristine elegance long ago, and the painted decorations were...

Restorations in Rome

In the late nineteenth century, the impact of Haussmann's Paris was felt in large Italian cities, Milan, Florence, Naples, Bologna, which underwent similar treatment. Rome remained, however, relatively intact although there were gradual changes in the appearance of historic houses and palaces to the degree that there were complaints by culturally conscious observers (Letarouilly, 1849 Brown, 1905). From 1864 the municipality started exercising some control in 1866, a code prohibited additions...

John Ruskins conservation principles

The anti-restoration movement criticized restoration architects for the destruction of the historical authenticity of the buildings, and fought for their protection, conservation and maintenance. The principal protagonist in this movement was John Ruskin (1819-1900), whose piercing eye and biting pen detected and denounced any sort of restoration. As a result, in the English language, the word 'restoration' came to indicate something negative, and, in due time, was replaced by the word...

Augustus Pugin Structures

For the completion of interiors and the design of furniture at Windsor, the task was entrusted to Messrs Morel and Seddon. Morel, a French upholsterer, was aware of 'the superior knowledge of Gothic architecture' of another French migr , Augustus Charles Pugin (17621832), who had worked for Nash and had measured and drawn historic buildings for the publications of R. Ackermann, J. Britton and E. W. Brayley (Ferrey, 1861 50). Pugin, however, passed this 'great responsibility' to his son Augustus...

Early concepts on history and heritage

As has been noted above, the modern sense of historicity is one of the basic factors leading to the development of the modern conservation movement. R. G. Collingwood notes that the concept 'philosophy of history' was invented by Voltaire in the eighteenth century, and it was then taken to mean critical or scientific history, in which the historian made up his mind for himself instead of repeating old stories. Collingwood understands the idea of history as a scientific research or inquiry into...

The Second World

The Second World War (1939-45) was more destructive than the first in France alone, about 460 000 buildings were destroyed, and about 15 per cent of the listed buildings were damaged - half of them seriously. Many important historic cities suffered major damage, including London, Berlin, Dresden, Hildesheim, Warsaw, Saint-Malo, Florence. In December 1944, the decision was taken to rebuild the historic centre of Warsaw, and in February 1945 the town was again declared the capital of Poland. The...

The First World

Unfortunately, this document was not sufficient to prevent cultural disasters during the First World War (1914-18), such as burning the important University Library of Louvain in Belgium in August 1914, the bombardment of Rheims Cathedral in France, or the many historic buildings and towns in Central Europe. Due to a general outcry, these disasters were recognized at an official level and, in 1914, the German army attached special 'art officers' to military units to identify and protect...

Cavaceppi

In his History, Winckelmann gave examples of well-known restorations with new features that never could have existed in the antique world. He referred to a writer who wanted to demonstrate how horses were shod in the past, but based his argument on a 'laudable' statue in the palace of Mattei, without noticing that the legs had been restored by a mediocre sculptor. In some cases, the fragments from one original had been used to produce two statues. In order to avoid confusion, Winckelmann...

Treatment of monuments after the Sack of Rome

The Sack of Rome by the troops of the Emperor Charles V in 1527 brought the Renaissance papacy to an end. This battle caused the destruction of many ancient monuments and, even more, of archives, libraries, and patrician wealth. When the Emperor visited Rome in April 1536, a triumphal entrance was prepared for him from the Via Appia through the ancient triumphal arches of the Forum to the Capitol and to the Vatican. In order to prepare for this symbolic procession, 200 more houses and a few...

Early practice and protection in Rome

Like Petrarch before them, the humanists of the fifteenth century criticized those who destroyed monuments and ancient works of art they complained about the demolition of ancient statues under the pretext of claiming them to be images of false gods, and accused the popes for doing nothing to protect this patrimony (Gordan and Goodhart, 1974). A number of orders were issued, however, for the safeguard of ancient monuments and churches, even though it took a long time until any effective...

Italian postwar developments

The development of modern Italian restoration approach owes much to the contribution of Benedetto Croce (1866-1952), an eminent philosopher, writer, teacher and historian as well as politician. Together with Henri Bergson, he has been identified as part of the 'contextualist' line in the modern philosophy of aesthetics. His scholarship, humour and common sense inspired the rebuilding of modern Italy, and he became the symbolic figure in the fight against Fascism. His thinking was based on the...

Raphael and the protection of monuments

In the sixteenth century, with new wealth arriving from America, Rome was able to spend more on building activities. The most important project was to make a new start for the basilica of St Peter's this employed several generations of the foremost artists and architects in Rome, from Bramante and Raphael to Michelangelo and Bernini. The building activities also caused an acceleration in the destruction of ancient monuments which were quarried and used as building material for palaces. This in...

George Gilbert Scott

Old Architectural Designs

One of the principal protagonists in the following debate was Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811-78), the most successful Victorian architect with a massive practice of church restorations. Scott dedicated himself entirely to his work, and had an 'indomitable energy and unflagging zeal, as well as the enlightened spirit in which he pursued his lofty calling', as recalled by his son later. His practice extended to more than 800 buildings, including the Foreign Office, St Pancras Hotel and the Albert...

The preservation movement in the USA

In the United States, the romanticized history of early settlers was reflected by Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper, and some voices to save historic places were raised in the early nineteenth century, although most attempts failed to reach their objective. A turning point in the preservation movement was the campaign to save the residence of President George Washington, Mount Vernon. In the late 1840s there were various plans concerning this site, including the proposal to turn it...

Eastern Europe

As a result of the division of Europe after the Second World War, the eastern part formed the so-called socialist block. Although the historic bases in relation to safeguarding cultural heritage were the same as in the rest of the continent, the new political situation imposed particular conditions on the countries of this region, giving an impact on their policies. Nevertheless, there remained differences amongst them, and the people's cultures continued to be felt even through the new system....

Durham Cathedral

The case of Durham can be taken as an example of what happened with large religious buildings in England. Durham Cathedral was built in 1093-1133 by the Normans who wanted to establish and reinforce their position in the country. The building was placed on the edge of a high plateau overlooking the River Wear which curved around it on three sides, forming a sort of peninsula. On the south side were the monastic buildings, and to the north the castle, forming an impressive ensemble for the...

Anti Restoration

The thoughts of Ruskin were gradually diffused and taken over by many others, and, in 1877, the main points were summarized by Sidney Colvin (1845-1927), Slade Professor of Fine Arts at Cambridge, in his Restoration and Anti-Restoration. He conceived a building as a work of art, but different from a statue completed at one time buildings, instead, may exhibit the action of many modifying forces, and the more they bear the marks of such forces, the greater is their historic value and interest....

Are There Any Monuments In Northern Iran That Speak Of Saka

The Achaemenid dynasty of Cyrus, Darius and Xerxes (6th to 4th bc) brought the 'Land of the Aryans' to a leading position in the region, and Persepolis became the symbol of the greatness of Persia. Its palaces were burnt in 330 BC by the order of Alexander the Great to destroy the Persian identity, although, at the same time, he showed respect in front of the tomb of Cyrus, taking action for its repair. The arrival of Islam in AD 640 brought major changes, but there remained an interest in the...

Collections and restoration of antiquities

During the early Renaissance, antique fragments of works of art began to be collected for purposes of study. Petrarch had a collection of medals and was considered a connoisseur. Mantegna displayed his statues in his garden. Important Florentine families, mostly bankers such as the Medici, became interested in patronizing the arts and architecture. Following the example of humanists and artists, they established collections of antique works of art, displaying them in their palaces and villas...

Modern historical consciousness

The period from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century marked a series of fundamental changes that founded the modern world, and together with it the modern concepts of history and cultural heritage. Many of these changes coincided in the second half of the eighteenth century, and had their roots in European cultural, scientific, political, and economic developments. Politically, the period was marked by absolutist rule, only superseded through drastic social and political changes, starting...

Renaissance architectural treatises

Apart from the buildings themselves, the most important source for the study of classical architecture was the treatise De Architectura by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, an architect and engineer who had held a position in the rebuilding of Rome during the reign of Augustus. The treatise was probably written before 27 B.C., and during the first century a.d. it seems already to have been a standard work. The text survived in various manuscripts during the Middle Ages, the oldest of which dates from...

Rediscovery of antiquity

The disintegration of the Roman Empire, and the gradual dissolution of the ancient world gave birth to Europe during the Middle Ages. This development was accompanied by the movement of tribes and populations around the continent. The Huns arrived from Asia, extending their dominion over a large part of eastern and central Europe in the fifth century. Successively, these areas were taken over by various other tribes. Beginning in the fourth century, and over a period of several centuries,...

Notes On Ancient Monument

Ruskin, in his Lamp of Memory, goes far beyond me in his conservatism so far, indeed, as to condemn, without exception, every attempt at restoration, as inevitably destructive to the life and truthfulness of an ancient monument . . . But, alas the damage is already effected the neglect of centuries and the spoiler's hand has already done its work and the building being something more than a monument of memory, being a temple dedicated, so long as the world...

Nordic countries

Sweden had been a forerunner in the inventory and protection of antiquities in the seventeenth century, but this had remained mainly an academic issue. After an attempt to revive protection in 1814, a new National Antiquary was appointed in 1828, J. G. Liljengren (1826-37), who brought the breath of German Romanticism, e.g., the description of Gothic structures by Friedrich von Schlegel and publications on Cologne Cathedral. The 1666 Ordinance was revised in 1828, followed by decrees in 1867,...

The Athens meetings

At the end of the First World War, the 1919 Paris Peace Conference gave birth to the League of Nations, an organization for international cooperation with its offices in Geneva. Within the new organization was established the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, which met for the first time in Geneva in 1922 under the presidency of Henri Bergson (1859-1941). Considering the needs of cultural heritage, the Committee decided to create the International Museums Office, in 1926,...

Works of art

The History of Ancient Art, published in 1764, was an attempt to provide a textbook for the observation of classical works of art. Some of Winckelmann's earlier essays can be understood as a preparation for this, and include the description of the 'Vestals', who wore their clothes with 'noble freedom and soft harmony of the whole, without hiding the beautiful contour of their nakedness'.29 The Apollo of Belvedere represented to him the highest ideal Figure 3.4 The muscular body of the Torso of...

Trends in practice

Too often there is a gap between theoretical intent and practical execution, and the diverse influences mentioned above certainly add to the difficulty of interpreting conservation policies in practice. Authenticity is a basic concept in modern conservation, but its conventional reference has mainly been the genuine material documenting the different historical phases of a particular structure or place. Using the same word in another context can cause confusion. For example, the expression of...

The Arch of Titus

Architecte Valadier Titus

The Arch of Titus was erected after AD 81 by Emperor Domitian in memory of his deified elder brother, Titus, whose capture of Jerusalem was commemorated in the bas-reliefs of the Arch. The monument was originally built of white marble and had probably had a travertine core. During the Middle Ages, it had lost much of its material the bronze cramps holding the marbles had been removed and a brick structure had been added. Even if the Arch had only partially survived, the artistic Figure 4.6...

Cesare Brandis theory of restoration

Born in Siena, Cesare Brandi 1906-1988 studied law and humanities, beginning his career in 1930 with the Soprintendenza of Monuments and Galleries, passing later to the Administration of Antiquities and Fine Arts, and being the first director of the new Instituto Centrale del Restauro in Rome, from 1939 to 1959. An active writer and art-critic, Brandi lectured on the history, theory and practice of restoration, as well as being professor of art history at the universities of Palermo and Rome....

James Wyatt

James Wyatt Walpole

James Wyatt 1746-1813 , the most fashionable country-house architect in England after the Adam brothers, had succeeded Henry Keene 1726-76 at Oxford and at Westminster Abbey. He worked on the survey and improvements on the cathedrals of Salisbury in 1787-92, Lichfield in 1787-95 and, in 1788, Hereford where the west tower had collapsed two years earlier. Apart from structural and functional improvements, Wyatt and the Dean and Chapter generally aimed at the unification of the whole internal...

Restoration

Once the creative process has been concluded, the resulting work of art exists in the world as a presence in human consciousness. Restoration can then be contemplated, but every time it is undertaken, it must be based on a singular recognition of the work as a work of art, as a special product of humanity. Restoration will depend on this recognition. From his first definition of restoration, in 1948, Brandi identified two lines of thought one aimed at bringing common products of human activity...

John Carter

John Carter Cathedral

The news of the proposed alterations to Durham Cathedral spread soon after Wyatt had presented his plans in September 1795. Already in October, 'Viator' wrote in the Gentleman's Magazine wondering that after all that had been said about Salisbury, Durham should also now be a target for destruction. On 26 November 1795, John Carter 1748-1817 presented at the Society of Antiquaries a set of still unfinished measured drawings of Durham Cathedral, commissioned by the Society the previous summer. He...

Magdeburg

Magdeburg, an early mediaeval settlement on the river Elbe in the heart of the Germanic countries, became important through the decision of King Otto I the Great, crowned Emperor in Rome in 962, who chose it as his favoured residence, and built the first cathedral started in 955 . Ancient marble columns were brought from Ravenna, and relics were placed in the capitals. In 1207 the building burnt down, and a new cathedral was built on the site, consecrated in 1363 but completed only in 1520. It...

Stylistic restoration in Italy

Ancient Monuments Restoration

Legislation in Italy had mainly concerned classical monuments, but some orders had been established for the protection of mediaeval buildings since the fifteenth century.56 General practice had, however, followed the principle of completing buildings in the current style, as is shown by the many proposals for the west fronts of some major churches, Milan Cathedral, San Petronio of Bologna, Santa Croce and Florence Cathedral Wittkower, 1974 . The tradition of transforming historic buildings in...

Development of Austrian policies

In the few years that Riegl could work for the conservation of historic buildings in Austria-Hungary, his main attention was given to the promotion of due respect to the historic monuments in all their phases of transformation. The influence of French restoration, and of the construction of Cologne Cathedral, were felt also in Austria. Riegl was sufficiently pragmatic to accept compromises, and he considered pure conservation impossible. Even cleaning a painting was a modern intervention, and,...

The impact of Brandis thinking

The theory of Brandi has not lacked critics its focus on aesthetic values has created difficulties in applications on products with little or no aesthetic significance, or, similarly, comparing the requirements of the Italian artistic heritage with what is required in other parts of the world Iamandi, 1993 Scarrocchia, 1995 91 . The theory has been accused of placing major attention on the conservation of the 'image' rather than taking into account the whole structure, in particular concerning...

Past approaches to historic structures

What is today considered the physical cultural heritage of humanity results from long developments and traditional transfer of know-how in particular societies, as well as of influences and 'cross fertilization' between different cultures and civilizations. The oldest urban settlements were founded in Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China, forming the world's culturally richest region that extended over to the Mediterranean. In this context of early kingdoms and empires there was a...