Sweden had been a forerunner in the inventory and protection of antiquities in the seventeenth century, but this had remained mainly an academic issue. After an attempt to revive protection in 1814, a new National Antiquary was appointed in 1828, J. G. Liljengren (1826-37), who brought the breath of German Romanticism, e.g., the description of Gothic structures by Friedrich von Schlegel and publications on Cologne Cathedral. The 1666 Ordinance was revised in 1828, followed by decrees in 1867, 1873 and 1886, leading to the establishment of the Central Office of National Antiquities. One of the first expressions of the emerging mediaeval revival was the rebuilding in Gothic form of the spire of Riddarholm church in Stockholm, after the 1835 fire. The architect was English, P. F. Robinson (17761858), who had worked at the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, and was a member of the Society of Antiquaries. The first Swedish representative of the Mediaeval Revival was Carl Georg Brunius (1793-1869), Professor at Lund University, a self-taught architect and archaeologist, who promoted protection of mediaeval structures, and was responsible for the restoration of the twelfth-century Romanesque cathedral of Lund from 1833 to 1859. The interior was opened up for an uninterrupted perspective in order to harmonize the whole with the original Romanesque appearance. Brunius was widely consulted as an expert in the repair and enlargement of mediaeval architecture, such as the cathedrals of Vaxsjo and Linkoping.
After Brunius, the responsibility for Lund Cathedral was given to Helgo Nikolaus Zettervall (1831-1907), who had travelled in
Germany, France and northern Italy, and was well aware of Viollet-le-Duc's theories. He entered the office of the Superintendent of Antiquities in 1860, later becoming its director. The cathedral was practically rebuilt to obtain stylistic unity, in 1862-80, and the interior was painted according to the models of Worms and Speyer. There was strong opposition to this work, led by Brunius. Zettervall became one of the leading restoration architects of the northern countries, restoring a number of important buildings in Sweden, including the Town Hall of Malmo (1865-69), and the cathedrals of Kalmar (1879), Uppsala (188593) and Skara (1886-94). Towards the end of the century, voices were raised against drastic restorations such as those of the cathedrals of Lund and Uppsala. One of the early anti-restorationists in Sweden was Verner von Heidenstam, who published a small book on modern vandalism in 1894, and declared: 'Quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt- arkitek-ternd (what was not done by barbarians was done by architects), and soon had followers (Heidenstam, 1894). The principles of the treatment of historic buildings were re-established in new legislation; the administrative structure was renewed as the Central Office of National Antiquities, and the new generation of conservators was represented by Sigurd Curman, who was appointed National Antiquary in 1923, and held this office until 1945.
In Denmark, research into the mediaeval heritage was promoted especially by Niels Lauritz Hoyen (1798-1870), who translated Victor Hugo's Guerre aux demoliseurs, and became the leading art-historian in the country. Danish architects and artists were active also abroad, studying in Rome and contributing to the restoration of ancient monuments in Greece. From the early 1830s, Hoyen made plans for Viborg Cathedral aiming to remove additions made after the fire of 1726, and to restore it back to the mediaeval appearance - identified with German Romanesque tradition. In 1859, after a fire, the decision was made to rebuild Fredericksborg Castle in its original form as a national monument. In 1863-1876, a thorough restoration was carried out by Hoyen together with architects N. S. Nebelong and Denmark's 'Zettervall' H. B. Storck (1839-1922). Storck's restorations started with the Helligandskirken
in Copenhagen (1878-80), rebuilt on the basis of a seventeenth-century document, and followed by a long series of restorations of churches. In the little round church of Bjernede, he rebuilt an attractive saddle-back roof in conical form, thus drastically changing the appearance. To him, restoration meant 'keeping the style and character of the monument', including reconstruction of lost parts and little concern for additions after the first construction (Storck, 1903-04:454). Following Hoyen's proposal, the idea of 'original style' was even expressed in the Danish law for church protection (Lov om kirkesyn) of 19 February 1861. The order was finally removed in 1922, and the treatment of historic buildings was based on careful building-archaeological studies, represented by the work of Mogens Clemmensen. The 1861 law also included orders for annual inspections, as well as the establishment of a special board of experts, a historian with two architects, who could be called upon when church restoration required professional consultancy. At the beginning, ten of the most important churches were under their control, including the cathedrals of Viborg, Aarhus, Ribe and Roskilde.
The separation of Norway from Denmark, and its union with Sweden in 1814, brought out strong patriotic feelings, reflected in the approach towards the country's past, and its historic buildings. In the same year, the unfinished cathedral of Trondheim, which was of mediaeval origin, was named Norway's coronation church. Following the example of Cologne Cathedral, plans were made for its completion by Heinrich Ernst Schirmer (1814-87), a German-born architect, who had worked in England and Normandy. Restoration of the Chapter House was completed by Captain Otto Krefting in 1872. The work on the cathedral was then taken over by Eilert Christian Brodtkorb Christie (1832-1906), and continued by other architects, resulting in a construction that reflects the contributions of several centuries. At the same time, due to a
need to provide more space for congregations, many mediaeval stave churches were changed drastically or replaced with new constructions. There was, however, an early attempt to protect historic buildings by Johan Christian Dahl (1788-1857), a Norwegian-born artist and close friend of Caspar Friedrich David, who studied in Italy and became professor at the University of Dresden. He made several tours to Norway to paint mountain landscapes, and edited the first Norwegian publication on stave churches (Malmanger, 1989). In 1841, he founded the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in Norway. As a result of these developments, an open-air museum was established in Oslo in the 1870s. Similar undertakings existed in Sweden where the open-air museum of Skansen was initiated by Dr Artur Hazelius in 1891, becoming a model for other countries.
Finland, since the twelfth century part of Sweden and thus affected by the law of 1666, had also its own identity. Under the influence of German intellectuals and philosophers, including J. G. Herder, attention was given to traditional folk poetry, resulting in the publication of the Kalevala by Elias Lonnrot in the early nineteenth century (1815 and 1835). In 1809, Finland was assigned to Russia as a Grand Duchy, and Helsinki was chosen as the capital of the country. This caused important building activity in the new neo-classical capital, where the principal architect was Carl Ludwig Engel (1778-1840), who had studied with Schinkel in the Berlin Academy. In 1824, Engel succeeded to Charles Bassi as the Chief of the Intendent Office responsible for public buildings, and supervised the renovation of mediaeval churches in a classical taste to adapt them to use requirements.
In the middle of the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a powerful movement inspired by Germans, especially Hegel, and also marked the identification and protection of national heritage.3 The Society of Antiquities was founded in 1870 with the aim of promoting the study of churches, mediaeval paintings and other works of art and history. In 1872 a bill was presented to the Parliament for the protection of ancient monuments; the establishment of the Board of Antiquities (Muinaistieellinen toimikunta) was approved in 1883, and appointed in 1884. The law concerned the protection of the remains of ancient forts, churches or other public buildings, as well as inscriptions, wall paintings or decorations, which were part of buildings in use; it was required that the original technology and material of documentary value should be preserved. No 'Zettervalls' were born in Finland although churches and castles were restored; the mediaeval cathedral of Turku was
an important project for which models were looked for from other Nordic restorations, such as Lund, Uppsala, Roskilde and Trond-heim, as well as from Germany and France (Knapas, 1983). The conservation movement was brought in by modern architects, Lars Sonck who emphasized the importance of historic stratification, Bertel Jung who referred to the conservation policy of Heiden-stam and Ruskin, and Armas Lindgren who referred to the international meeting of architects in Brussels in 1897, where the problem of 'errors' in historic buildings had been discussed but without a definite answer (Knapas, 1983). The protection of historic buildings received influence especially from German and Austrian conservation theories.
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