Notes

1 The collection contained antique busts of the most precious materials, onyx, amethyst, jasper, rock crystal, and ivory. The inventory of 1457 lists 227 cameos and over a thousand medals in gold and silver.

2 Vasari, 1973:87: 'Bramante likewise erected the cupola which covers the Hall of Antiquities, and constructed the range of niches for the statues. Of these, the Laocoon, an ancient statue of the most exquisite perfection, the Apollo, and the Venus, were placed there during his own life, the remainder of the statues were afterwards brought thither by Leo X, as for example, the Tiber and the Nile, with the Cleopatra; others were added by Clement VII; while in the time of Paul III and that of Julius III, many important improvements were made there at great cost.'

3 Vasari, 1973,II:406f: 'In casa Medici, nel primo cortile, sono otto tondi di marmo, dove sono ritratti cammei antichi e rovesci di medaglie, ed alcune storie fatte da lui molto belle; i quali sono murati nel fregio fra le finestre e l'architrave sopra gli archi delle loggie: similmente la restaurazione d'un Marsia, in marmo bianco antico, posto sopra le porte, restaurate e da lui acconce con ornamenti d'ali e di diamanti (impresa di Cosimo), a stucchi benissimo lavorati.'

4 Vasari, 1973,IV:579: 'E nel vero, hanno molto piu grazia queste anticaglie in questa maniera restaurate, che non hanno que' tronchi imperfetti, e le membra senza capo, o in altro modo difettose e manche.'

5 Vasari, 1973,VII:279: 'Chi va dietro a altri, mai non li passa innanzi; e chi non sa far bene da se, non pud servirsi bene delle cose d'altri.'

6 In 1904, L. Pollak found a fragment, identified as Laocoon's right arm, but from another copy in smaller scale, showing that the arm had bent towards the head; Winckelmann had seen traces where the snake had touched it. More clues may have been visible before successive restorations destroyed them (Pollak, 1905; Magi, F., 1960, 'Il ripristino del Laocoonte', Atti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeo-logia, 'Memorie', IX, Vaticano).

7 Leonardo da Vinci, MSS, Institut de France, Paris, 50r, 'Frammenti sull'architettura' (1490), Scritti Rinascimentali, 1978:292: 'Arco non e altro che una fortezza causata da due debolezze, imperd che l'arco negli edifizi e composto di 2 parti di circulo, i quali quarti circuli, ciascuno debolissimo per se, desidera cadere, e opponendosi alla ruina l'uno dell'altro, le due debolezze si convertano in unica fortezza.'

8 Many recent destructions in Rome are recalled in this letter, such as the meta near Castel Sant'Angelo, a triumphal arch at the entrance of the Thermae of Diocletian, a temple in Via Sacra, a part of the Forum Transitorium, a basilica in the Forum -probably Basilica Aemilia - and in addition columns, architraves, friezes, etc.

9 'Lettera a Leone X', Bonelli, 1978:469ff: 'Quanti pontefici, padre santo, quali ave-vano il medesimo officio che ha Vostra Santita, ma non gia il medesimo sapere, ne 'l medesimo valore e grandezza d'animo, quanti - dico - pontefici hanno permesso le ruine e disfacimenti delli templi antichi, delle statue, delli archi e altri edifici, gloria delli lor fondatori? Quanti hanno compor-tato che, solamente per pigliare terra pozzolana, si siano scavti i fondamenti, onde in poco tempo poi li edifici sono venuti a terra? Quanta calcina si e fatta di statue e d'altri ornamenti antichi? Che ardirei vi sia, quanto bella, quanto ornata di palazzi, di chiese e di altri edifici, sia fabri-cata di calcina fatta di marmi antichi . . . Non debbe adunche, padre santo, esser tra gli ultimi pensieri di Vostra Santita lo aver cura che quello poco che resta di questa antica madre della gloria e nome italiano, per testimonio di quelli animi divini, che pur talor con la memoria loro excitano e destano alle virtu li spiriti che oggidi sono tra noi, non sia extirpato in tutto e guasto dalli maligni e ignoranti, che purtroppo si sono insino a qui facte ingiurie a quelli animi che col sangue loro parturino tanta gloria al mondo e a questa patria e a noi

10 Lanciani, 1971:217: 'Il Papa dichiard di essere deciso a far sparire le rovine brutte a vantaggio di quelle che meritavano di esser riparate.' In 1589 an authorization was given for the demolition of the Tomb of Cecilia Metella, but Cardinal Montalto insisted that this should only be carried out under the condition that the Romans agreed. Protests were so strong that the authorization was cancelled.

11 Alexander VII published an edict in July 1659 ordering the restoration of the Pyramid of Cestius; this was done in 1663. The marble surface of the Pyramid was reintegrated and two columns that had been standing at the corners of the Pyramid were repaired.

12 Both figures were cast from bronze coming from twelfth-century doors.

13 The same Bolognese engineer Aristotele was involved in various other technical undertakings related to historic structures, such as elevating two large monolithic columns in Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome, moving the bell tower of Santa Maria del Tempio in Bologna, and straightening the leaning bell tower of S. Angelo in Venice.

14 The Romans were said to have transported from Egypt six large and forty-two small obelisks, of which only one was still standing on its original site, the former Circus of Caligula, on the side of the Basilica of St Peter's. A small obelisk was standing on the Capitol Hill; the others had fallen and, being broken in pieces and even mutilated at the base, they were not easy to re-erect.

15 The historian Edward Gibbon visited it for the first time in 1764, and during the same period, the Scottish man of letters James Boswell wrote of this 'famous Colosseum, which certainly presents a vast and sublime idea of the grandeur of the ancient Romans . . . a hermit has a little apartment inside.

We passed through his hermitage to climb to where the seats and corridors once were ... It was shocking to discover several portions of this theatre full of dung' (Quennell, P., 1971, The Colosseum, The Reader's Digest, London, p.109).

16 Hawksmoor to Dr George Clarke (All Souls

College), 17 February 1715, known as the 'Explanation' (Downes, 1979:241).

17 In the early eighteenth century, Hawks-moor was also involved in proposals to transform the interior of York Minster, one of the best preserved mediaeval cathedrals in England (Friedman, 1995).

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