Investing in Apartment Buildings

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The 10Minute Offer for Apartment Buildings Overview


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Image style and meaning

Not all homes are, however, neotraditional, and within certain market sectors more contemporary forms of housing are popular, particularly in metropolitan areas. Within the UK the city centres and new or regenerating waterfront locations often contain the most contemporary apartment buildings (Figure 2.41).

City Planning Public Realm Policies and Urban Design

A recent review of the impact of land-use regulations in Houston, Texas shows their unintended impact on the quality of urban places (Lewyn, 2003). Decrees about lot size for single-family homes, parking requirements (1.33 cars per bedroom in apartment buildings) street widths and block sizes (600 feet 185 metres between intersections) makes life hard for pedestrians and encourages driving for even the most local of necessities. The density of development that results from such codes makes all kinds of housing developments and public transit financially unfeasible. At the same time the codes have not alleviated the problems of traffic congestion that they were legislated to address. What is needed in developing item-by-item planning and building regulations is to fully understand their three-dimensional implications and how they work as a system of controls.

Influence on transmission losses

Calculation results of the effect of thermal bridges on heat transmission losses in housing with different envelope insulation standards are illustrated in Tables 9.2.3 to 9.2.5 (single family detached house, row house and apartment building). The contribution of thermal bridges to the transmission heat losses are up to 25 per cent. The target for the heat transmission through thermal bridges in Passivhaus constructions is below 4 per cent. Table 9.2.5 Transmission losses in housing with different envelope insulation standards Apartment building Table 9.2.5 Transmission losses in housing with different envelope insulation standards Apartment building

Vienna Austria Photographs Margherita Spiluttini

When one approaches the Mischek Tower from the south, one is welcomed by an extensive canopy of glass and metal that dynamically defines the front square, leading the visitor into the lobby of the tower where this canopy is continued as a metal ceiling. The walls and ceilings of the lobby consist of white, meandering sculptural slabs in front of a background covered with high-sheen black paint. Black granite has been used as a floor covenng. The space thus has a fascinating atmosphere that is very unusual for apartment buildings. The phenomenal view makes it imperative to furnish each apartment with high-standard leisure space to be able to make optimal use of this central asset Both sides of the fa ade are continuously equipped with two layers to accommodate loggias. The inner windows have been designed to run from the ceiling to the floor and the outer layer of the fa ade, the parapets of the loggias are constructed half of glass and half of aluminum elements. The outside glass has...

Biomass combustion systems

3 Wood chip furnaces have been popular for larger projects (i.e. apartment buildings or central systems for whole neighbourhoods with district heating). The disadvantage is obviously the volume, which must be transported and stored compared to pellets of compressed waste wood or firewood.

Key Decorative Elements Such As Windows Or Doors

In the Merchant City, doors and windows come in many forms. In the warehouse areas many are plain and with repetitive forms, yet they establish interesting rhythms or patterns in the street scene. The subdivision of larger windows into smaller openings and the grouping together of these into tall bands give such areas their distinctive character. In some of the new apartment buildings circular windows have been used to express major street corners or to give verve to the design of rooftops.

Race Poverty and the Humane Metropolis

Although Holly White did not focus on race, his major works were written against the backdrop of an expanding consciousness about the importance of race in U.S. cities. I was seventeen years old in 1956 at the time that Whyte published The Organization Man. I lived in Philadelphia not far from Chester County, where Holly Whyte had grown up. The old road that connected Philadelphia to Chester, completely built up with residences, stores, and apartment buildings, was a block from our house. A trolley ran along Chester Avenue, and the street itself served as a sort of dividing line between our neighborhood, which was changing, and the all-white neighborhood on the other side. As the blacks from the South were moving into our neighborhood, the whites were moving out to the cookie-cutter suburbs that Holly White described in his case study of Park Forest, Illinois, in The Organization Man.

Mechanical ventilation

Mechanical ventilation by electricity-powered fans can provide fresh air for a whole building or for special rooms only. In the latter case, such 'decentralized ventilation units' are not treated here. This section describes 'central ventilation systems' for a house, apartment or whole apartment building.

Territoriality and defensible space

A design of the built environment can create, in residents, a sense of responsibility and control for a defined area if particular qualities are achieved. Oscar Newman (1972) called this 'defensible space'. In his research, he explored the extent to which residents felt they had control over the spaces within and around 14-storey apartment buildings in deprived housing projects in New York. Using the categories of space that were defined in Chapter 3, he found that between the public streets and the private apartments were extensive areas of semi-public space that individual residents didn't feel that they had any control over (Figure 7.7). In practical terms, because of a lack of control this meant that anyone could wander off the street, into the buildings, into a lift and along a corridor without anyone knowing who they were or why they might be there. Such a situation can be compared to that of a traditional house on the street (Figure 7.8). Many houses typically have clear...

Grouped Horizontal Distribution

Sometimes the major runs of ductwork, piping, and wiring can be grouped in the ceiling area above the central corridor of each floor of a building, leaving the ceilings of the surrounding rooms essentially clean.' This works especially well in hotels, dormitories, and apartment buildings that rely on above-ceiling all-water or electric equipment in the area adjacent to the corridor for heating, cooling, and ventilating. A low corridor ceiling is readily accepted in exchange for high, unobstructed space in the occupied rooms, where the structure may be left exposed as the finish ceiling, saving cost and floor-to-floor height. If the building has a two-way flat plate or hollow-core precast slab floor structure, the overall thickness of the ceiling-floor structure can be reduced to as little as 8 in. 186 (200 mm). Conduits containing wiring for the lighting fixtures may be cast into the floor slabs or exposed on the surface of the ceil-ings.Wiring to wall outlets is easily accommodated...

Designing Spaces For Mechanical And Electrical Services For Small Buildings

Small buildings are defined for purposes of this section as those that use residential-scale mechanical and electrical systems. This category includes small educational, commercial, retail, industrial, and institutional buildings as well as houses, rowhouses, and small apartment buildings.

The Colonial Economy and Agrarian Capitalism

Was therefore not yet considered a real estate to be bought and sold, or developed for money profit in the modern sense. This being said, signs of the road to a capitalist economy may have begun to manifest even a decade earlier in the financial sector, particularly in 1843, when the government approved the establishment of the Alexandria Bank. We know that as early as 1837, Ali recognized the importance of banks and modern financial institutions as the steadiest sources of capital to develop the country. It is worthwhile noting that before the advent of institutional banking, usurious moneylenders, though prohibited by Islamic religion, were traditionally supplying peasants and city dwellers with cash, while royalty and nobles borrowed from wealthy merchants (OBG, 2001, p. 65). The impact of the Alexandria Bank was not so significant, because it was solely involved in discounting treasury bonds issued by the govern In sharp contrast to the native, pre-indus-trial city, from which...

Maria Wall 71 Introduction

The four-storey apartment building has a total of 1600 m2 floor area. Each apartment is assumed to be 100 m2. This housing type is very compact and can therefore most easily achieve a very low space heating demand, even without using thick insulation. Very efficient ventilation heat recovery is still important.

Reference buildings based on national building codes 2001

To start, common building geometries for a single family house, row house and apartment building were defined (see Appendix 1). For each country in the three climate regions, the allowable space heating demand and ventilation requirements set in the national building codes of the year 2001 were taken as the targets for the reference buildings. Working backward in an iterative process, the average envelope standards in each climate region were calculated to exactly meet the standards. In this way the regional reference buildings were defined. Table 7.2.1 compares the average U-values for the different housing types in the three climate regions. The U-values for the cold region are relatively low due to a compensation for not using 50 per cent ventilation heat recovery, which otherwise should have been used for a Swedish reference building. As expected, the insulation standard is much higher in the north than in the south. However, in Figure 7.2.1 it can be seen that this is partially...

Targets for space heating demand

The space heating target for the energy conservation strategy is 15 kWh m2a for the apartment building and the row house. For the single family detached house, the target is 20 kWh m2a. These levels are equivalent to a factor 4 compared with the space heating demand for the reference houses year 2001 (see Figure 7.3.1). Note Each bar shows the specific reference level (building code 2001 according to Figure 7.2.1) divided by 4. The lines show the chosen targets 15 kWh m2a for the apartment building and the row house and 20 kWh m2a for the single family detached house. Source Maria Wall The space heating target for the renewable energy strategy is 20 kWh m2a for the apartment building and the row house. For the single family detached house, the target is 25 kWh m2a. These levels are equivalent to a factor 3 compared with the space heating demand for the reference houses year 2001 (see Figure 7.3.2). Note Each bar shows the specific reference level (building code 2001 according to...

Hanson Scores On Celsius Housing Project

Products from Hanson's extensive bricks and blocks range have been used on the Celsius development, a multi-million pound landmark project on the edge of the town of Bracknell in Berkshire. As this development is targeted primarily at the lower end of the housing market, with the living space offering a choice of starter homes. To achieve this, the designers, architects and specifiers chose a combination of Hanson's Gima modular clay blocks and Gobelin buff stock bricks. Because strength was a factor for these multi-storey apartment buildings, a heavier construction material was required. Also, a heavier building material would help to prevent overheating during warmer seasons with long periods of sunshine. Gima modular clay blocks are strong and offer 100 protection against damp and moss build-up to reduce future maintenance work and expense. Hanson Gobelin buff stock bricks, were chosen because they combine the solid appearance of brick with a light colour to create a feeling of...

Residential Buildings

The acoustic design of apartment buildings and other buildings with multiple residents strives to protect privacy and reduce annoyance. Plan the locations of convenience outlets, medicine cabinets, mechanical services, and direct-exhaust duct connections between apartments carefully.

San Rocco Monza Aldo Rossi

The Architecture City Aldo Rossi

Giuseppe Terragni, Novocomum Apartment Building, Como, 1927 Terragni's idiosyncratic Novocomum assimilated the influence of the Modern Movement while retaining its own unique character. Giuseppe Terragni, Novocomum Apartment Building, Como, 1927 Terragni's idiosyncratic Novocomum assimilated the influence of the Modern Movement while retaining its own unique character. 13. Moretti, surprisingly given his collective Milanese apartment buildings of the late 1940s, was later to pursue an unrepentant commercial formalism, and Ridolfi's Neorealist urban vernacular immediately subsumed the framed aesthetic of his Rationalist apartment buildings. Pollini and Figini remained more obdurate (as in their Via Harrar housing, Milan, 1952-53).

Advantages of Earthbag Over Other Earth Building Methods

Cob Earth Building Method

Rammed earth is another form of earth building that has been around for centuries and is used worldwide. Many kilometers of the Great Wall of China were made using rammed earth. Multi-storied office and apartment buildings in several European countries have been built using rammed earth, many of them in existence since the early 1900s. Rammed earth is currently enjoying a comeback in some of the industrialized nations such as Australia.

Tuned Liquid Column Damper

Highcliff Apartment Building, Hong Kong Another example of a tall building that uses TLMD to control accelerations and provide enhanced structural performance during typhoon conditions, is the 73-story Highcliff apartment building in Hong Kong, one of the windiest places on earth. The building soars to a height of 705 ft (215 m) with an astonishing slenderness ratio of 20 1. A unique Figure 8.30g. Highcliff apartment building, Hong Kong. Figure 8.30g. Highcliff apartment building, Hong Kong.

Ghirardelli Square San Francisco USA recycling a building complex 19627 19824

Paternoster Square Analys

Demolish the factory and build apartment buildings on the site. The constraint was that the zoning code limited the height of buildings along the city's waterfront in order (1) to prevent any obstruction of the view of the San Francisco Bay from Russian Hill and (2) to maintain the character of the city derived from its rolling topographical contours. Concerned that no public benefit would result from building an apartment complex, William Matson Roth, a public-spirited San Franciscan, and his mother purchased the block with the eye to renovating it. He hired the architectural firm of Wurster, Bernardi and Emmons to carry out a study of possible uses for the complex. In conjunction with landscape architects Lawrence Halprin and John Matthias they developed a program for the block and carried it out. It was a total renovation project.

Zoning A Building For Heating And Cooling

The zoning of a building is significant in the early stages of design because it may suggest a choice of heating and cooling system Room-by-room zoning suggests an all-water fan coil system or packaged terminal units for an apartment building, for example, meaning that the building does not have to be designed to accommodate major ductwork. Zoning may also have an impact on where the major equipment spaces are placed. It often makes sense to put major equipment on the seam between two zones. An example of this might be placing the major heating and cooling equipment on the second or third floor of a multi-use downtown building, above retail and lobby spaces and below multiple floors of office space.

Planning The Internal Arrangement Of The Cores

Mechanical and electrical services they can be higher in a hospital or laboratory and are much lower in a hotel or apartment building. Core area is directly related to the type of heating and cooling system used The percentages quoted in the preceding paragraph apply to buildings with all-air systems. Buildings with air-and-water and all-water systems require somewhat less shaft space.

D2 Gas Plumbing Systems

In multiple occupancies, required flow capacities are often reduced by diversity factors that allow smaller pipe diameters, which is economical and minimizes the possibility that oversized systems will experience moisture problems. But diversity factors should always be investigated, because some appliances, e.g. gas stoves in apartment buildings, may occasionally all be used at the same time. Also beware of diversity factors listed in step form, such as 100 percent for 1-7 units, 75 percent for 8-20 units, etc. According to these numbers (which recently appeared in an engineering magazine), the required gasflow for 8 units is actually 14 percent less than for 7 units. Better is a bar graph as appears in Fig. 4-29.

The Romerstadt Siedlung

The spine road, the Hadrianstrasse, formed two successive bends, whose internal portions were occupied by continuous buildings, and, opposite them, the perpendicular of streets were laid out to a staggered plan. These dispositions of opposing bends and abrupt corners, which interrupted the perspective, accentuated the private character of these secondary streets. On both sides of Hadrianstrasse, these streets belonged to two different types of geometry a continuous and curving street to the northwest (im Heifeld, an der Ringmauer) with a fragmented and rectilinear geometry to the southeast (Mithrastrasse, im Burgfeld). These are two different ways to indicate that they were local service streets. In the interior of these two districts there are a number of defined units. These are a series of row houses or apartment buildings linked to gardens, separated by paths leading to the belvederes. These are variations on the theme of the block.

Solar thermal system designs

The shorter heating season of a highperformance house results in a more pronounced seasonal mismatch between solar gains and space heating demand than is the case for conventional houses. This is illustrated in Figure 2.5.2, with the case of a reference apartment building in the cold (Stockholm) climate. The DHW demand is here assumed constant over the year, although it is often slightly lower in summer - for example, due to vacations. A larger collector area is possible without risking overheating if the collector tilt angle is increased in relation to the optimal tilt angle, which approximately lies between 35 in southern latitudes (latitudes around 45 ) and 50 in northern latitudes (latitudes around 60 ). The suitable collector area to cover 95 per cent of the summer hot water heating demand with minimal system overheating is illustrated in Figure 2.5.5. The results are from Polysun simulations of a flat-plate combi-system coupled to an apartment building in the cold climate.

Deventer Netherlands Photographs Robert Hart Jan Bitter

A mixed-use apartment building was created in the new suburb on the outskirts of Deventer. In keeping with the program requirements, there is a ground floor shopping center encompassing 500 m and a seven story residential complex, which includes 22 apartments and a daycare center.

Mineral and Glass Fibers

Encapsulation may cost more than removal. Re- iQ-moval is the only permanent solution, but since it may release fibers if not done correctly, removal can be more dangerous than leaving the asbestos in place. If removal is required, get an expert to identify and remove the asbestos. Be sure that the expert you select to remove asbestos is properly certified and licensed. Investigators found five instances in Massachusetts where contractors falsely claimed in telephone listings that they were licensed. Four people were arrested in Massachusetts in 2000 for violating the state's Clean Air Act and hazardous material handling law when they removed asbestos from a school, a home, an apartment building, and two demolition sites. In one case, the homeowner used a hidden camera to discover workers ripping off pipe insulation by hand, releasing asbestos fibers into the air. The same company was working at a private elementary school nearby, where violations were also found. Another contractor...

Photographs Margherita Spiluttini

Our two apartment building on Rue des Suisses and the Rue Jonquoy are incorporated in the frontage, typical of housing blocks in many Parisian arrondissements. Verticality characterizes the overall design of the relatively homogeneous facades of the adjacent buildings. As in most Parisian quarters of the 191' century, the street thus conveys a certain elegance despite the fact that the individual buildings are not particularly attractive. These two apartment buildings, with their folded frontage and folding shutters, can be adjusted individually by tenants so that, in spite of the desired homogeneity of the facades, the overall impression of their appearance varies.

Segregation And Contact In The New Addis Ababa Intentions And Facts

The Italian occupation of Addis Ababa lasted a short time, and although many of the major projects were not even begun, a great deal was built in just a few years. The market, a key site as it governed daily contacts between whites and natives, was a sizable construction. Along with it, the roads built by Italians have endured. Hotels were enlarged six apartment buildings were completed by the popular housing association, INCIS 38 the Casa del Fascio was established in a pre-existing building at the top of the hill, in what otherwise had remained an area of native constructions and Plinio Marconi designed an imposing City Hall (Figures 9.4 and 9.5). Upon occupation, Addis Ababa had sixteen Coptic churches and two Catholic ones, but it had only a very small (and un-prestigious) mosque. In keeping with Italian policy in Libya, the government in Addis Ababa

Rationalist Practicalities 1936

Design for a colonial apartment building, Luigi Piccinato 1936. Design for a colonial apartment building, Luigi Piccinato 1936. architectural training in Milan and committed his career to the colony.72 As a result, he was responsible for many residential structures in 1930s Libya, ranging from workers' housing to villas (including Rodolfo Graziani's), apartment buildings, and agricultural villages for Italian settlers (Figures 5.9, 5.10, and 5.11).73 But while he built a great deal, he published very little. The articles he published drew attention to local vernacular structures and spaces, with the help of many illustrations - and none of these were of the work of Europeans. Nonetheless, because one of his articles was titled Manifesto of colonial architecture (Manifesto dell'architettura coloniale), scholars have often treated his article as typical of Italian colonial architects' views, or a summation of their debates. While his appreciation for local buildings was shared by other...

Prologue Sustainable

Buildings represent a huge investment, not only of money and time, but also of the world's resources. In constructing and occupying buildings, we consume vast quantities of materials and generate a major portion of the world's environmental pollution. According to the Worldwatch Institute, buildings consume more than 40 percent of the energy utilized in the world each year and, in so doing, release into the atmosphere one-third of the carbon dioxide and two-fifths of the compounds that cause acid rain. In the United States, our buildings use about one-sixth of the fresh water consumed each year and a quarter of harvested wood. Our buildings release about half of the fluorocarbons that escape into the upper atmosphere and destroy the ozone layer that shelters us from the sun's ultraviolet rays. About 40 percent of our landfill material comes from construction projects. We see in these statistics that buildings are responsible for many forms of environmental degradation. They place a...

Service Cores

Multiple cores are sometimes found in broad, low-rise buildings. Long horizontal runs are thus avoided, and mechanical equipment can serve zones with different requirements for heating and cooling. Multiple cores are used in apartment buildings and structures made of repetitive units, with the cores located between units along interior corridors.

I34 Heat production

For apartment buildings or as a central plant for a row of houses, a condensing gas boiler may be a solution. Nominal efficiencies exceeding 100 per cent are possible. A drawback is that, given the relatively small absolute amount of heat needed, the fixed costs, maintenance and investment costs are high. These can be tolerated better if shared among multiple housing units.

Scope of this book

Three housing types are addressed apartment buildings, row houses and single family detached houses. Solutions for the housing types were optimized for three climates cold (Stockholm), temperate (Zurich) and mild (Milan). Two different approaches to achieving very low auxiliary non-renewable energy demand were examined minimizing losses (conservation) and maximizing renewable energy use.


The process of designing an apartmenl building may be graphically depicled in a general way as in Table t, This article will be developed in the earne sequence as Table 1. It must be borne in mind that, as with any design develop* mant, the evolution of an apartment building design is not a sequential process but a process of continuing interaction, feedback, and reevaluation, and that the number and complexity of events will vary according to the program, scope, and funding sources involved. The sequences shown ore Iebaled as program develop ma nt. site analysis, building planning, and building design.


The most obvious mechanism available for increasing the value of a scheme is to build more homes on a given site. Average densities in the UK are about 25 units per hectare, although more recently, as a result of national planning policy, higher density schemes have emerged in high demand locations. Not uncommon now are schemes with a mix of houses and apartments at over 30 units per hectare, and even apartment buildings that achieve over 100 dwellings per hectare. It has been noted that this emphasis of promoting higher densities in certain locations has resulted in developers using more architects and building more bespoke schemes.

Simulation results

Dynamic simulations of an apartment building in a temperate climate show that increasing window area need not increase heating energy demand. It may even slightly reduce demand. This can be seen in Figure 2.3.6 for the case of a top-middle apartment. This is most pronounced with the highly insulating glass in the lower curve. The extreme case is a middle mid-floor apartment. Even with the greatly reduced heating season (as a result of losses occurring from only two exterior surfaces), a break-even can be observed. With increasing window areas, increased heat losses are just offset by increased useable solar gains. Similar simulations in the cold climate indicate that window areas must be kept to the minimum needed for good daylighting. Solar gains during the dark winter months cannot offset the higher heat losses from colder ambient temperatures.

Monitoring results

Monitored data from an apartment building in Freiburg, Germany, confirm the extent to which direct solar gains reduce heating peak load (Voss et al, 2004). In Figure 2.3.7, the upper straight line represents the theoretic heating peak load as a function of ambient temperature with no solar radiation, no internal gains and a constant 20 C indoor temperature. The dashed line assumes a demand reduction resulting from 2.1 W m2 of internal heat gains (100 per cent usability). The points represent measured heating peak load, keyed by the intensity of solar radiation at the time. The diamonds indicate heating

Energy concept

Sunny Woods won both the Swiss and European solar prizes. It is the first apartment building in Switzerland designed to achieve a net annual zero-energy balance. The project is based on passive-solar design principles. The exactly south-oriented windows open almost the entire south fa ade. In order to make use of the solar gains in this timber construction building, a levelling cement grout of 7 cm and black slate paving tiles of 1.5 cm were added to the floor.

Beautiful Appearance

Enthusiasm for the telescope.4 While Descartes sought to generalize the technologically mediated sight of the telescope as the theoretical model for all vision, Baudelaire had to contend with the technological organization of appearances in urban modernity. And when generalized as the condition of vision in the modern metropolis, technology proved much harder to restrain within fixed and prescribed limits than Descartes had supposed. Baudelaire's Paris was perhaps the greatest urban centre of Europe, a city of intense industrial and commercial activity, which by the mid-nineteenth century had outgrown its medieval centre and was sprawling westwards. Like other urban centres, the city streets of Paris offered a visual scene which constantly reinvented itself, with new shop fronts, apartment buildings, dioramas, arcades, and streets signs appearing and disappearing according to the quickening rhythms of urban life. But the appearance of Paris was also being reinvented in a unique and...


Garden apartment An apartment building located on a lot, either singly or together with other similar apartment buildings, generally having a lower density of population than other apartment complexes and having substantial landscaped or natural open space adjacent to the dwelling units.


Visually, the Wechsel Passivhaus apartment building hardly differs from the other apartments of the housing estate, which are built to a conventional standard. Energy measures had a significant influence on the entire planning of the building but optimized living comfort, as well as considera-

Project description

Figure 6.1.1 The Vienna Utendorfgasse Passivhaus Apartment Building During the planning and construction of the Utendorfgasse Passivhaus apartment building in Vienna, many fundamental questions regarding the planning of social housing according to the Passivhaus standard were addressed. The challenge was to meet this standard while keeping costs within the limited budget allowed for social housing. Sch berl und P ll OEG succeeded in completing the first such project to this very high standard.


Two of the apartment buildings have similar orientations and the same number of apartments. It is proposed that one of these will incorporate experimental technology, such as rainwater recycling and a conservatory thermal buffer device with solar mass storage. The other building will act as a control block incorporating best-practice elements as for the rest of the scheme. The Department of the Built Environment at Ulster University, Belfast will undertake the monitoring of the buildings.


Squares, or plazas, take on an extraordinary range of configurations with a variety of enclosing elements (Krier, 1990 Cerver, 1997). The character of a square depends on the enclosing buildings, their heights and what happens on their ground floors as much as the design of the square itself. The urbane character of Rittenhouse Square in Philadelphia today (see Figure 5.9) is largely as Jane Jacobs described it years ago (Jacobs, 1961). Its liveliness depends on the variety of the building uses around it clubs (largely incognito), hotels, a church, a music institute and apartment buildings all of at least three stories in height. People are

The Terraces

The remaining part of the Siedlung is composed of terraces of north south-facing houses, serviced by lanes perpendicular to the street. Each house accommodates two families. On the side opposite to the service lanes there are two adjacent gardens. One is a direct extension of the ground-floor dwelling, and the other is assigned to the upper floor. The sequence of service lane house ground-floor garden garden of the upper-floor dwelling, which is repeated in each unit, reproduces the arrangement we have observed in the apartment buildings. Between two streets and perpendicular to the rows there are some wide gaps, planted with trees, which cross the Siedlung. These provide a network of pedestrian paths and children's play areas separated from vehicular traffic.

Justice Social

Certified as a LEED Gold project, Colorado Court, a 30,000-square-foot, 44-unit single-resident occupancy (SRO) apartment building in Santa Monica, California, was designed to be 100 energy independent, using passive solar design strategies, an onsite gas-fired cogeneration system and solar electric power. The project will save each unit 150 per year on utility bills and is strikingly beautiful as well, showcasing the aesthetic potential of polycrystalline silicon PV panels.


Noise and pollution and yet will be close enough to eliminate the long daily journeys to-and-fro it will once again become a normal family organism. Thus recovered, the conditions of nature will help put a stop to the nomadism of the working population. The inhabitants will be able to choose from three available types of habitation the individual house of the garden city the individual house coupled with a small farm and lastly, the collective apartment building furnished with all the service necessary to the well-being of its occupants.

Television Systems

Closed circuit television is used for security in banks, retail stores, high-rise apartment buildings, and industrial complexes. Access to parking lots and garages and to elevators is often monitored with closed circuit TV. Closed circuit TV needs adequate uniform lighting without dark spots to operate properly. Systems are available with cameras that pan, tilt, or zoom these may be directed automatically or from a central monitoring console. However, it is more common to simply add additional cameras to cover all contingencies.

System Configuration

Regarding the density of development, individual on-site disposal (with systems large enough to be relied on for trouble-free long-term service) limits the development density to about 2 dwelling units (du) per hectare (5 du per acre) for single detached housing, and to about 5 du per hectare (12 du per acre) for three-story apartment buildings (Figures 720-7 and 720-8).


Figure 7.5 New apartment buildings in the Pearl District of downtown Portland reinforce the scale and massing of existing traditional buildings within the area Figure 7.5 New apartment buildings in the Pearl District of downtown Portland reinforce the scale and massing of existing traditional buildings within the area

Richard Meier

Located at 241 Churcf) Street in the Tribeca area of Manhattan, 66 is an open-space restaurant with large frosted glass panes subdividing the dining areas. meter-high curved glass wall marks the entrance and fish tanks separate the dining area for 150 guests from the kitchen. A frosted glass wall marks the bar area. Rt banners with Chinese ideograms hang above a 13.4-meter epoxy resin communal table. The dining tables also designed by the architect are made of ice blue poured resin with stainless steel bases. Other furniture is by Eames (Herman Miller). Bertoia (Knoll), and Eero Saarinen (Knoll). Housed in the Textile Building, designed in 19 Henry Hardenbergh. the architect of the Plaza Hotel and Dakota apartment building, this restaurant is the sixth opened in New York by the Strasbourg-born chef Georges Vongerichten. Vongerichten, who worked here as he has elsewhere with Phil Suarez, is also responsible for the Paris restaurant Market. The floor area ot the ity is about 808 square...

Limiting Fuels

The Life Safety Code has a table for finish materials. Some occupancies have additional finish restrictions or requirements, and you may need to do further research in the Life Safety Code or the model building codes under the occupancy in question. Typical occupancies with special requirements include health care, detention or correctional institutions, hotels or dormitories, and apartment buildings. Theaters, where combustible scenery and temporary electrical wiring fill the backstage area, require provision of a fire-rated curtain, which is held rolled-up above the proscenium under normal circumstances, but which drops in a fire and seals the stage from the audience. Buildings with unusual structures may also have special requirements.

Practice Profile

Unlike many well-known architects or large-scale offices in Australia, fjmt did not follow the usual practice pathway by designing backyard renovations before progressing to bespoke housing, apartment buildings and eventually securing large-scale commercial or civic commissions. Emerging from the office and seminal influence of mgt, the practice was restructured in 2003 as fjmt and quickly secured large-scale commissions with projects at each major university in Sydney, sophisticated commercial buildings and residential developments along with detailed urban masterplans. However, it is through an investment in public architecture that Francis-Jones feels the agenda of the practice is most engaged. 'It is not about scale,' he insists, 'we are interested in small and large projects. Our key interest is in public work and in projects where there is the opportunity to explore ways to expand the public realm - even if this is on a very modest scale.'

Smoldering Stage

In apartments, false alarms are common from kitchen smoke and excessive dust. Some apartment building alarm systems give only a local alarm for evacuation of the apartment. A separate central heat detector system sounds a remote alarm. This reduces the number of false alarms but increases the risk of a fire growing before activation of the fire-suppression system or before firefighting crews are dispatched.

G Flat Plate Slabs

A flat plate floor is essentially a flat slab floor with the drop panels and column capitals omitted, so that a floor of uniform thickness is carried directly by prismatic columns. Flat plate floors have been found to be economical and otherwise advantageous for such uses as apartment buildings, as shown in Fig. 18.9, where the spans are

Figure 1827

Prefabricated and stacked on top of each other. Abroad, such precast modules, with plumbing, wiring, and heating preinstalled. are widely used for multistory apartment buildings as an alternative to making similar apartment structures in precast wall, roof, and floor panels, which are more easily shipped but less easily erected than box-shaped modules.

Closed vistas

One of the most common townscape qualities is the idea of closing a vista (Figure 8.21). Long views through a scheme sometimes end in nothing for example, the side of a house or a group of garages. To make a view more memorable, and to add a sense of purpose, coherence, and quality to a residential area, it may be possible to deliberately locate special house types to close an important view. On certain higher order junctions, this might include the careful design and location of apartment buildings. Whilst in quieter parts of a scheme, this might include simply varying the form of an otherwise standard house type in some way. At the most simple level it could mean making sure that no important views simply end in blank elevations, walls, or garages.

Intercom Systems

Most urban multifamily dwellings are equipped with buzzer-reply systems to limit access to the building to tenants and to people who have been interviewed by tenants on an intercom system. Atypical buzzer-reply intercom system in an apartment building (unctions as follows A panel located outside the lobby entrance door lists the names and apartment numbers of all tenants in the building. Next to each tenant's name is a call button that when pressed rings a bell or buzzer within that tenant's apartment The tenant responds to the call by walking to a panel mounted on the wall of his apartment and speaking via an intercom system to the person outside the door When identification is satisfactorily established, the tenant pushes a button on the panel which momentarily allows the entrance door to be opened without a key. Because the costs involved in installing wiring for such a system in an existing building are very high, buzzer-reply systems should be installed in all new buildings...

Role Of The Designer

Houses and concert halls, as well as theaters and places of worship, have essential acoustic criteria. Educational classrooms, lecture halls, libraries, and music practice rooms benefit greatly from good acoustic design. All types of residential structures, including apartment buildings, hotels, and multifamily and single-family residences, are improved by sensitivity to acoustic problems. Airports and other transportation structures need to block noise from outside, and athletic buildings and sports stadiums should control the noise produced within. Other commercial and industrial buildings also benefit from the expertise of an acoustic designer.

Fan Coil Units

Fan Coil Unit

A fan-coil unit (FCU) (Fig. 26-5) is a factory-assembled unit with a heating and or cooling coil, fan, and filter. Wall, ceiling, and vertical stacking models are available. Some designs are concealed in custom enclosures, semi-recessed into the wall, or installed as floor consoles with various cabinets. Recessed units are often found along corridors. Ceiling models are available in cabinets for exposed locations, or without a cabinet for concealed mounting. They should not be mounted above solid ceilings, as the condensate drains are prone to clogging and the drain pans can overflow, requiring maintenance. One ceiling unit can be ducted to supply several adjacent small spaces. Vertical stacking units are used in multiple-floor apartment buildings, condominiums, office buildings, and hotels. They eliminate the need for separate piping risers and runouts.

Loloma 5 Lqfts

For a lot just four blocks away from the museum, on a street lined with palm trees and low-rise apartment buildings, Bruder and his colleagues at Will Bruder Architects produced a striking collection of five live-work lofts that combine attention to region and sustainability with stripped-down but forceful, even muscular, contemporary form. Each unit of the LoLoma 5 Lofts includes 1,550 square feet on three floors commercial space on the ground floor topped by two-bedroom, two-story apartments. The building is located in the new Scottsdale Arts District and is within walking distance at least on a relatively cool day, or in the morning or evening not just of the museum but of other cultural facilities, restaurants, and mass transit stops. The building qualified for distinction at the Advanced Level of the city's green program.

Waste Compactor

Of the compactor itself vary widely with the manufacturer and the capacity of the unit. A compactor room of 60 sq ft (5.6 m2) is sufficient for a small apartment building. A larger building will require 150 to 200 sq ft (14.0 to 18.6 m2) and industrial waste compacting facilities can be much larger.

Antithrust action

Apartment building see apartment block. 61 apartment formwork, room formwork, tunnel formwork proprietary formwork used for casting two concrete side walls and a horizontal slab spanning between them in one operation. apartment house, mansion block a residential building in a well-to-do urban area, containing a number of apartments on different levels, all accessed by the same entry and stair. apatite a calcium phosphate mineral used as gemstones and as a raw material in the production of fertilizer. application software in computing, software used for a specific useful function such as word processing or CAD. applied art any art which is both functional and satisfies an aesthetic need (industrial design, furniture, architecture, graphics etc.). applied column see engaged column. 13 applied sash glazing see secondary glazing. applique ornamentation for fabrics and leatherwork with surface-applied rather than embroidered or embossed motifs. apprentice a trainee who works under a...


In preparing this book, I aimed to gain as multi-dimensional a view of each planning approach as possible, and therefore used a great variety of materials. In addition to government documents held in Italian state archives, I studied architects' publications, agricultural journals, colonial legislation, colonial propaganda, photographic collections, colonists' newsletters, and personal memoirs. The scope of my research rarely included what was built by private citizens outside the purview of government and the architectural profession. Many houses and apartment buildings were privately built, especially before 1936. However, they are impossible to document properly, both because so many have been demolished and because the relevant municipal archives are not accessible at present, and whether these archives contain satisfactory documentation is still unknown. But because I am most concerned with the concerted effort to create a national self-image, such materials are not essential to...


And yet, the market outside the walls remains intact and in use. The wide streets converging on Green Square are still lined with arcades and Rationalist, Novecento, and more eclectic apartment buildings and commercial centers. Private Italian villas - once in the oasis, and now engulfed in Tripoli's post-independence sprawl - remain numerous to the east and south of Tripoli's center. Most of the imposing government buildings constructed throughout the extra muros city in the 1930s remain in use as police stations and foreign embassies. Inside and outside the walls, Italian-built churches still stand. The alterations made by Italians to the Castello, and the archaeological museum they built within it, have not been removed or changed. The Suq al-Mushir inside the walls, a native commercial and arts and crafts center built under Italian rule, stands as it was designed and continues to conduct the same daily business as before. Finally, the Arch of Marcus Aurelius - to Italians, the...

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