San Rocco Monza Aldo Rossi

The Dichotomies of Rationalism in 20th-Century Italian Architecture

The two key moments of Rationalism in Italy - the Gruppo 7 of the 1930s and the Tendenza of the 1960s - stand in counterpoint. The Tendenza espoused a very different ideology to its predecessor and thus remained ambivalent to the earlier legacy. Andrew Peckham reveals how this led to a history of discontinuity and, ultimately, recognition of Rationalism's limitations despite the involvement of influential figures such as Giuseppe Terragni, Aldo Rossi and Giorgio Grassi.

Terragni Italian Architecture

The fortunes of Rationalism in modern Italian architecture have been well charted, in studies of the interwar period and the 1960s and 1970s.1 What was taken to represent a Rationalist architecture was quite different in each case. However, a retrospective interest in the 1930s, and the more immediate influence of ideas prevalent in the 1970s, overlapped to create a contingent relationship between the two periods. The question arises as to what degree our perception of each has been distorted by the presence of the other.

Distinct Forms of Rationality

During the 1920s, the concept of Italian Rationalism identified the assimilation of the Modern Movement (primarily from northern Europe) by different groups of Rationalist architects, and in particular the central figure of Giuseppe Terragni. Working variously with his partner Pietro Lingeri, Gruppo 72 colleagues Luigi Figini and Gino Pollini and, later, the younger Cesare Cattaneo, Terragni's work has retained a significance beyond the reputation of his immediate contemporaries. The idiosyncratic Novocomum apartments (1927) are typically viewed as the 'first' building of Italian Rationalism, and the Casa del Fascio in Como (1936) remains iconic of the movement, though its particular modulation of wall and frame was less than entirely representative.

Render Novocomum
Giuseppe Terragni, Novocomum Apartment Building, Como, 1927 Terragni's idiosyncratic Novocomum assimilated the influence of the Modern Movement while retaining its own unique character.

Rationalist groups responded to external influences in their own distinct manner, as they did to the inherited legacies of classicism (even Figini's Villa of 1935 and Cattaneo's House at Cernobbio retained distinct identities). Nonetheless a shared dialogue between abstraction, figuration and monumentality, exemplified in the portico to Terragni's St Elia Kindergarten (1936), typically informed their work. Terragni attracted notoriety at the time (as a mannerist) and in retrospect (as a fascist). Italian Rationalism itself has consequently (and misleadingly) become associated with the enigma of his persona and the metaphysical attribution of his architecture. The political context and fluctuating identity of his work fitted uneasily into early histories of Modern architecture, and subsequent interpretations have focused on precisely the formal qualities and relationship to the aesthetisised politics of Mussolini's regime that earlier historians found problematic.

Elia Kindergarten 1936

Giuseppe Terragni, St Elia Kindergarten, Como, 1936

The cantilevered, lightweight and laterally framed portico typifies the tension between abstraction and figuration latent in Italian Rationalism.

Giuseppe Terragni, St Elia Kindergarten, Como, 1936

The cantilevered, lightweight and laterally framed portico typifies the tension between abstraction and figuration latent in Italian Rationalism.

The Italian Tendenza (Tendency),3 in contrast, emerged from the theoretical discourse of the early 1960s and was later to underpin an international Neorationalism marked by an ambivalent relationship with the Rationalist legacy of the 1920s. While critical of postwar urban planning, the Tendenza architects identified with a variety of sources, from the German/Swiss Rationalism of Ludwig Hilberseimer and Hans Schmidt, to the legacy of Enlightenment Rationalism and the collective urbanism of the Soviet bloc. Aldo Rossi stood out as a key protagonist given the central influence and international reputation of his book The Architecture of the City (1966).4 His own well-publicised architecture, however, later became distanced from the initial tenets of a reinvented and objective Rational Architecture (most consistently practised by his one-time colleague Giorgio Grassi). In proposing a 'rigorous argument' for architectural design 'based on a logical foundation',

Giuseppe Terragni, Casa del Fascio, Como, 1936

A contemporary view, from the adjacent Duomo, of the icon of Italian Rationalism, which reciprocates the urban implications of Terragni's building.

Rossi's early writing is unambiguous about 'the rationalist position towards architecture and its building'.5

Both the earlier and later conceptions of a Rationalist architecture were a reaction to prevailing social, cultural and political conditions. The consolidation of Italian fascism, and the attempt to legitimise a Rationalist architecture acceptable to the state, were unavoidable aspects of the 1930s. In contrast, the Tendenza was formed on the cusp of transformations in Italy's postwar economy, where architects and planners had sought in la nuova dimensione (the new dimension) of the early 1960s to confront contemporary economic realities from within. A contrary left-wing critique of consumerism and uncontrolled urban development led Neorationalist architects to identify with a 'zero-point' objectivity.6

Diversity and Its Limits

The interwar period and the later 1960s and 1970s were characterised by a diverse interpretation and practice of Rationalist architecture. While Gruppo 7 formulated the definitive manifesto of Italian Rationalism in 1926, this only generally correlated with 'Rationalist' inclinations developed later elsewhere. Distinct formal interests were developed in Rome (Libera's and Ridolfi's post offices of 1933, and Moretti's Fencing Academy, 1936), Florence (Michelucci and Gruppo Tuscano's Santa Maria Novella Station, 1935) and Turin (Pagano's Gualino Offices, 1930). Nevertheless, the different groups collaborated in forming the Movimento Italiano per l'Architettura Razionale (MIAR) in order to present the case for Rationalist architecture nationally, and their thinking often coincided (whether locating Rationalism in a tradition of high culture or conversely alluding to a vernacular correlative for Modernism).7 Pagano's acrimonious attack on Terragni's 'aristocratic' mannerism, arguing for a Modernist objectivity as its antithesis, typified the instability of Italian Rationalism - a conflict internalised in the formal resolution of the (Como) Casa del Fascio itself.8

The thinking of the later Tendenza developed out of research into the urbanism of Ernesto Rogers in Milan, Giuseppe Samona in Venice, and Ludovico Quaroni in Rome. 'Tendency' accurately conveyed a shared logic rather than a unified perspective, developed individually in the work of architects like Carlo Aymonino and Vittorio Gregotti, or Franco Purini and Laura Thermes. The split between leading protagonists Rossi and Grassi - identified with an autobiographical subjectivity on the one hand, and an objective anonymity on the other - was seemingly evident in the geometric fracture of their San Rocco Housing competition entry (Mantua 1966).9 This, however, obscures the recurrent discursiveness and rationality evident in both their work. More explicit in Rossi's, and latent in Grassi's, architecture, this was variously and often contradictorily expressed in their writing, drawing and building. In retrospect it is apparent how an inclusive Neorationalist agenda projected in publications like the Venice Triennale catalogue Architettura Razionale of 197310 (introduced by Rossi) was increasingly displaced by the generic

San Rocco Monza Aldo Rossi

Aldo Rossi and Giorgio Grassi, San Rocco Housing Competition, Monza, 1966 'The design was already finished when I realised that there was a disturbing element to the order, involving a sense of something that had been lost, which made a truly rational design impossible. I looked then at the central axis: I broke it ...' - Aldo Rossi5

Aldo Rossi and Giorgio Grassi, San Rocco Housing Competition, Monza, 1966 'The design was already finished when I realised that there was a disturbing element to the order, involving a sense of something that had been lost, which made a truly rational design impossible. I looked then at the central axis: I broke it ...' - Aldo Rossi5

architecture preferred in Leon Krier's later 'Rational Architecture' of 1978.11 This was at one remove, given its fictive autonomy and consolatory urban identity, from Rossi's digressions or Grassi's abstract formalism.

The question of continuity between the two Rationalist movements focuses on the career of Ernesto Rogers. As editor of the architectural journal Casabella Continuita between 1953 and 1964, his social conception of 'environment' is seen to have blurred the boundaries between the historic city and contemporary urban form (exemplified in Milan by BPR's Torre Velasca of 1954-58).12 The ambiguous relationship between Rationalism and fascism in the 1930s only partly explains the shifts in the work of Rationalist architects immediately postwar, like Franco Albini (INA Office Building, Pavia, 1953) or Giovanni Michelucci (Commodities Exchange, Pistoia, 1950), where a Rationalist structural order was overlaid with a figuratively abstracted classicism.13 Manfredo Tafuri has thoroughly documented the vicissitudes of postwar Italian architecture that dissipated the Rationalist momentum of the 1930s.14

Conceiving Rationalism

Only a tenuous relationship exists between the two Rationalist periods, although Kenneth Frampton has linked Lingeri and Cattaneo's stolid Trades Union Offices in Como to Neorationalist architecture. Anecdotes suggest that Rossi admired Terragni's unbuilt Danteum project, and the catalogue for the 1973 Milan Triennale included Terragni's work. But the publication attracted scathing criticism from Tafuri for implying tendentious associations between divergent sources. Aspects of Neorationalist thinking did, nonetheless, influence critical accounts of Terragni's work during the 1980s.15 Critics have exploited the lacunae of his identity and ambivalent relationship to mainstream Modernism, whether in Peter Eisenman's formal analysis or Daniel Libeskind's hagiography.16 Both encourage a reading of the (Como) Casa del Fascio as an autonomous architecture, but one also the product of a highly subjective mentality - a duality also present in Rossi's work.

The Gruppo 7 Manifesto of 1926 represented a first attempt to define Italian Rationalism. Reiterated in subsequent Rationalist polemic, the text has been selectively quoted for its identification with a 'new spirit' (redolent of Le Corbusier) - with order, clarity and logic (that 'so much depreciated definition of rational' Terragni noted later in 1942), and a contemporary 'transformation' of tradition. Careful to distance themselves from the Futurists, Gruppo 7's perspective was tempered by their own expectations of an 'Italian' Modernism. The assertion of an 'international patrimony' (following a survey of Modern architecture in Europe) envisaged 'the creation of new fundamental forms'. These were conceived as if 'an alphabet of architecture', seemingly imbued with the 'proof of the perfection achieved by ancient architecture', displacing a classical foundation onto the International Style (against the grain of their own definition of characteristically distinct national styles of Modernity). Identifying with Le Corbusier as a traditionalist, they eulogised the clear logic and abstract perfection of his houses, yet criticised an inopportune machine aesthetic and the clinical 'over rigorous application of pure rationality'.17 Characteristically arguing that 'our past and present are not incompatible', Gruppo 7 contended that 'it is tradition that transforms itself and assumes new aspects recognisable only to a few', presuming a formal inevitability about their later (contradictory) concept of a 'New Archaic Era'. Aspiring to create 'a few fundamental types' perfected from those of the past, where Renaissance architects were seen to have established 'the precise characteristics of the Florentine palazzo' for 'the convenience of their contemporaries', Le Corbusier's Domino Frame (although primarily a structural concept) served as a contemporary model. Formal types were to be 'selected' in design; initially viewed as a 'temporary standardisation' (in the 'spirit of construction in series') necessary to establish a cultural consensus. Noting that ancient Rome was built in series, the 'mechanical value' of the Parthenon asserted the role of typology in Gruppo 7's conception of a contemporary archaism.18

Returning to Rossi's view of a Rational architecture, summarised in his 'Architecture for Museums' (1966),19 a limited parallel may be made with the earlier preoccupation with type. Rossi proposed 'an education' where a logically clear 'world of form' in architecture was viewed as the equivalent of meaning 'in any other form of thought'. If this suggests a philosophical conundrum, his paradigm was explained as a conception of autonomous20 'museum places' deployed by technicians, and 'adapted' to requisite 'functions and needs'. Stressing the 'typological question' as 'the practice of design' (a central assumption of Neorationalism), his later introduction to Architettura Razionale prompted the suggestion of 'a sort of heraldry' acting as an inverted form of Functionalism.21 This antecedent for the surreal logic of Rossi's architecture was remote from Terragni's metaphysical idealism; the emblematic icon of the four-square window occupying a different realm from Terragni's framed modulation of space.

Trajectories of Neorationalism

The first two sentences of the introduction to Rossi's The Architecture of the City not only summarise the content of the book, but also the essence of the Neorationalist project:

The city, which is the subject of this book, is to be understood as architecture. By architecture I mean not only the visible image of the city and the sum of its different architectures, but architecture as construction, the construction of the city over time.22

The city is conceived as a mythical condition, a 'state of mind' as much as a concrete reality (outlining its classification, structure and elements, 'locus' as historical context, and unfolding social and political dynamic). Rational urbanism is seen as a necessary tautology, a limitation that ultimately flawed Neorationalism.

Rafael Moneo characterises Rossi's thinking as developing from being a 'slave to knowledge' to later a 'victim to feeling', in a move from the metaphor of 'construction' to one of 'image'.23 Nonetheless, a consistent rational trajectory extended from Rossi's early work, linking the linear Gallaterese housing (1970 icon of Neorationalism) and Modena Cemetery (1971-84) to the Casa Aurora Offices in Turin (the last building, in 1984, to retain this formal conviction). Equally, the series of monuments, from the project for a Monument to the Resistance in Cuneo (1962 ) to the Via Croce Rossa Monument in Milan, or the series of unassuming housing projects in the Italian countryside, present different faces of Neorationalism.

But this rational consistency was illusory given the increasing discursiveness of Rossi's analogical architecture. The development of Grassi's work, in contrast, offers only a distinction between the laconic proto-Rationalism of the early 1960s (applied to freestanding buildings), and the careful juxtaposition of old and new in restoration projects (exemplified by the early, and reworked, project for the Castello di Abbiategrasso in 1970). A consistent thread is carried through from the reconstruction of the Roman theatre at Sangunto (1985, 1990-93) to the more recent University Library in Valencia (1998). Marshalling his sources from Hilberseimer to Viollet-le-Duc, via Tessenow and Oud, Grassi remains resolute. Ordinariness, and later even mediocrity, are theorised with conviction and identified with an unconditional acceptance of rules and a total submission to a particular body of work. Reproducing the condition of a still life, or dead language, a will to order in architecture sets aside the eloquent questioning and uncertainties expressed in his later writing.

If the work and thinking of Rossi and Grassi are habitually seen as the two polarities of the Tendenza, Vittorio Gregotti occupied a third space.24 His more orthodox practice was

Castello Abbiategrasso Gregotti

Giorgio Grassi, Restoration of the Castello di Abbiategrasso, Lombardy, 1970

Grassi's early paradigmatic restoration project.

Giorgio Grassi, Restoration of the Castello di Abbiategrasso, Lombardy, 1970

Grassi's early paradigmatic restoration project.

initially identified with a normative Neorationalism (exemplified early on in a series of residential projects: from the ZEN Quarter in Palermo of 1969-73 to the Venice Cannaregio of 1981). As editor of Casabella from 1955 to 1963 (working with Ernesto Rogers), he wrote intelligently about the earlier Rationalist period, identifying a Postmodern interest in the instability of Terragni's work and emphasising its 'creative reasoning' on form and space (paralleling that of contemporary abstract painters).

Rossi's discursive and opportunistic romanticism in his later projects nonetheless retained the aspect of a differentiated Rationalism.25 His studies for San Carlo alla Barona (1990) visualised a poignant epiphany on the Milanese periphery, presenting a closure as convincing in its own way as Grassi's disavowal of the fashionable and fragmentary. In their initial formulation of Neorationalism, both architects took a critical and didactic view of the role of the architect and their stance was that of the cultured intellectual. Architecture was conceived as a system of thought as logical (or illogical) as any other, material construction being deferred in favour of the construction of ideas. It was Viollet-le-Duc's thinking on the problem of restoration that interested Grassi, not simply the tectonics of structural Rationalism.

Still Life

Neorationalist architecture is exemplified by the concept of the 'still life'. A collection of forms that frame the everyday -ordinary, timeless, effective as useful objects, but also (for Rossi) the subject of affection. Rossi's drawings literally sketch out this connection, whereas for Grassi it appears a literary idea. Terragni's Rationalism, in contrast, is preoccupied with space - a representative space, but not one distanced from occupation and use. The computer visualisations published in Galli and Mühlhoffs Virtual Terragni reproduce his architecture as a series of inchoate elements (and volumes), applying a stolidity reminiscent of the Neorationalist 'project' (its antithesis).26

Rationalism appears to have been relegated to the margins of contemporary Italian practice. A critical architecture in Neorationalist guise belongs to an earlier ideological moment. It has been suggested, nonetheless, that this promulgated a basic code and culture of design ingrained in two generations of institutional practice (and teaching), now out of key with contemporary urban realities. Yet not dissimilar conditions were addressed by Neorationalism in the 1960s.

Italian critics have pointed to a continual dialectic between tradition and modernity - originating in the 1930s, maturing in the 1950s and revisited by Neorationalism - and oscillating between problems of form and ideology. The legacy of this inherited history, addressed originally by Gruppo 7, informed the collective perspective (if not always the practice) of Neorationalism. The subsequent failure of their urban project is habitually associated with problematic social housing and the inflated rhetoric and expectations of urban reconstruction. Inevitably this critique identifies the pragmatic and material failings of a Rationalist construction of ideas as

The Architecture City Aldo Rossi

Aldo Rossi, San Carlo Alla Barona Church project, Milan, 1990

Rossi's rhetorical facade contrasts with the austerity of the church behind, reminiscent of his early work.

Aldo Rossi, San Carlo Alla Barona Church project, Milan, 1990

Rossi's rhetorical facade contrasts with the austerity of the church behind, reminiscent of his early work.

Werner Tscholl
Werner Tscholl, Selimex building, Laces, Val Venosta, 2006 Tscholl's latent Rationalism emerges in the Cartesian form of this representative building.

much as the limitations of a particular formal repertoire.

In the current context, Cino Zucchi still works within a Rationalist schema (of urban planning and typological configuration). In his housing projects, variation and differentiation are discursively mapped within circumscribed parameters. Beniamino Servino similarly retains a memory of Neorationalism in his attachment to Caserta, designing a series of paradoxical, muted but decoratively elaborate buildings. Given this distancing from overtly Rationalist form, it is axiomatic to discover Werner Tscholl's houses and Selimex Building (2005) in the peripheral context of the Alto Adige. Employing a latent Rationalism appropriate to the project in hand, his work is distinct from the self-conscious aestheticism typified by Mauro Galantino's elegant Neomodernism (Elementary School, Bernate, 2004). In contrast, both Eccheli and Campaguola or Pietro Pellegrini - though differing in emphasis - have presented a less elaborate but more consistent identity in their architecture. Less cogently perhaps, the occasional project surfaces where the logic of an


1. M Tafuri, History of Italian Architecture, MIT Press (Cambridge, MA and London), 1989; T Kirk, The Architecture of Modern Italy, Vol 2, Princeton Architectural Press (New York), 2005; R Etlin, Modernism in Italian Architecture 1890-1940, MIT Press (Cambridge, MA and London), 1991; and D Doordan, Building Modern Italy, Princeton Architectural Press (New York), 1988. The author's overview of Rationalism in 20th-century Italian architecture is an external one limited to translated sources (referred to in the first instance).

2. A group of young Milanese architects who argued the case for an Italian Rationalist architecture. Its other members were Ubaldo Castagnoli, Guido Frette, Sebastiano Larco and Carlo Enrico Rava.

3. Massimo Scolari is credited with instigating the term. As a general tendency it identified the direction of contemporary research on 'the city' pursued in Milan, Venice and Rome. It became a more specific label associated with the work of young architects like Aldo Rossi, Giorgio Grassi and Vittorio Gregotti, who emerged under its auspices. They later became assimilated under the wider umbrella of an international Neorationalism. Both terms have been questioned as to their applicability and usefulness.

4. A Rossi, The Architecture of the City, MIT Press (Cambridge, MA and London), 1982.

5. A Rossi, 'Architecture for Museums', in John O'Regan et al (eds), Aldo Rossi, Architectural Design (London), 1983, p 25.

6. At odds with unreflective practice, and informed by a critical view of the city, this emphasised the concrete historicity of urban form.

7. Pagano's study of vernacular architecture has been claimed to provide a precedent for Ernesto Rogers' methodologies postwar.

8. Terragni's own account of the building is explicit in this regard.

9. See 'Simply a Path', in D Libeskind, Chamberworks, Architectural Association (London), 1983. Their divergence is also well expressed in the contrast between Rossi's Villa and Pavilion at Borgo Ticino (1973) and Grassi's House for 4 Brothers (1978).

10. M Scolari et al (eds), Architettura Razionale, Franco Angeli (Milan), 1973.

11. Rational Architecture 1978, AAM (Brussels), 1978, in which Anthony Vidler's essay 'The Third Typology' was notably influential.

12. Rogers' partnership BPR designed significant Rationalist projects in the 1930s; their post office and prescient competition project for the Palace of Italian Civilisation at EUR deploy a Rationalist structural frame untainted by accusations of fascist monumentality levelled at Terragni. This was only to be expected retrospectively given their colleague Banfi's fate, memorialised in the poignant, tubular steel frame they designed for the Milanese Memorial to the Victims of Concentration Camps (1946). A symbol of Rationalist continuity, but also of its problematic status postwar.

13. Moretti, surprisingly given his collective Milanese apartment buildings of individual programme prompts a return to Rationalist order; for example, C+S Associati's Kindergarten at Covolo (2006) stands out from the practice's mainstream work.

These contemporary buildings are placed uneasily in relation to the received mythology of the Rationalism in Italian architecture (less than exceptional when viewed in the wider context of pre- and postwar periods). In both its key moments, Italian 20th-century architecture presented a Rationalist experience that settled into unsuspected patterns of thought. Out of key with fashionable predilections, these retained a tangible presence in the later work of Grassi and Gregotti. Back in the 1920s Gruppo 7 were polemically preoccupied with a Rationalist lucidity, highlighting the persistent gloom of a received, if simplified, historicism (as they saw it). The legacy of what constitutes the double bind of Italian Rationalism, beyond the buildings constructed during the two periods, or the divide between practical reality and the realm of ideas, is only revealed, momentarily illuminated, on the periphery of contemporary architectural discourse in Italy. 4

the late 1940s, was later to pursue an unrepentant commercial formalism, and Ridolfi's Neorealist urban vernacular immediately subsumed the framed aesthetic of his Rationalist apartment buildings. Pollini and Figini remained more obdurate (as in their Via Harrar housing, Milan, 1952-53).

14. Although he is accused later on of overlooking the limitations of the Tendenza. The work of BPR, Samona and Gardella all follow a similar pattern postwar.

15. The conclusion to Danieli Vitale's 'An Analytic Excavation', 9H, No 7, 1985, p 23, and the contextual agenda of Thomas Schumacher's Surface and Symbol: Giuseppe Terragni and the Architecture of Italian Rationalism, Princeton Architectural Press (New York), 1991.

16. P Eisenman, Giuseppe Terragni: Transformations Decompositions Critiques, Monacelli (New York), 2003, and D Libeskind, 'Life after life', in L Molinari (ed), The Terragni Atlas: Built Architecture, Skira (Milan), 2004, pp 54-61.

17. 'Gruppo Sette's "Architecture" (1926) and "Architecture (II): The Foreigners" (1927)', translated in Oppositions, No 6, Fall 1976, pp 89, 100.

19. A Rossi, 'Architecture for Museums', op cit.

20. A term often taken out of the context in which he used it.

21. A Rossi, 'Rational Architecture', op cit, p 57.

22. A Rossi, The Architecture of the City, op cit, p 21. The book is structured in chapters that read as the series of 'lectures' on which they were based; their titles suggest a logical 'treatise', but the text habitually veers towards a more discursive 'poetic'. The book is all of these or, more accurately, none of them.

23. R Moneo, Theoretical Anxiety and Design Strategies in the Work of Eight Contemporary Architects, MIT Press (Cambridge, MA and London), 2004, p 105.

24. Gregotti's early theoretical text on territory complemented Rossi's on the city and Grassi's on a logical architecture: V Gregotti, Il territorio dell'architettura, Feltrinelli (Milan), 1966; A Rossi, The Architecture of the City, op cit; G Grassi, La costruzzione logica dell'architettura, Padua, 1967. He preferred the notion of the 'design of reason' to the Neorationalist label.

25. He 'distanced' historical form (Funerary Chapel, Guissano, 1981); accommodated market forces (Centro Torri Shopping Centre, Parma, 1985); provided a framework for contemporary interiors (Hotel Il Palazzo, Fukuoka, 1987), and confronted the anonymity of air travel (Linate Airport extension, Milan, 1991).

26. M Galli and C Mühlhoff (eds), Virtual Terragni, Birkhaüser (Basel), 2000. Peter Eisenman reconstitutes Terragni's virtual space for the electronic era in a more sophisticated manner in his own work.

Text © 2007 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Images: p 10 © Centro Studi Giuseppe Terragni; p 11(l) © Paolo Rossi; p 11(r) © Andrew Peckham; pp 12 & 14(c) © Eredi Aldo Rossi; p 14(t) © Giorgio Grassi Associati; p 14(b) © Werner Tscholl

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