In a discussion of architectural representation, it is appropriate to include the faculties of memory, imagination, and fantasy as fundamental components of sketching. Each has a specific identity, but they are also inter-dependent. Memory is a part of our conscious and subconscious mind; it is impossible to escape its presence and influence, thus, it has significant influence upon imagination and fantasy (Casey, 1976). A common definition of imagination as an autonomous mental act includes the power of the mind to form a mental image or concept of something that is unreal or not present. This definition is important in understanding architectural sketching as a creative endeavor, because not knowing how mental impressions originate leads creative people not to speculate, but to proclaim that they came from imagination. Imagination, whose main abilities include a lack of determinism of ' pure possibility' , is related to memory and fantasy as an influence or a possible mode of origination (Casey, 1976). Common usage interprets fantasy as creative imagination, or as dramatic fiction marked by highly fanciful or supernatural elements. Fantasy can also be connected to illusion or hallucination. Historically, faculties of memory, imagination and fantasy were seen as being dependent upon images.

The myth of the beginning of drawing provides a good example of image presentation (Evans, 1986). As an attempt to remember her departing lover, Diboutades traces the likeness of him on a wall. Diboutades could have been reminded of her lover in many different ways, but she chose to keep him with an image of his person, specifically his body (this may also be the mythical origin of memory, the fragment to keep the memory). Through history the form of the body is magically part of our being. Diboutades did not keep a lock of her lover's hair or copies of his finger prints, instead she retained a tracing of his shadow as an indication of his person. Thus, using the recollection faculty of memory, the recombination and image-making qualities of imagination, and the future-creating aspect of fantasy, the myth of Diboutades questions how images take on a speculative role in the early understanding of the faculties of the mind.

Architectural sketches retain a certain amount of mystery because of their tenuous connection to memory, imagination and fantasy. Similar to artists' works, architects' sketches flow from an inner stimulus often seen as magical. Alien to the layman, the sketch is a conceptual ' working through' process for design. Beginning with the topic of memory, continuing with imagination and ending with fantasy, this chapter discusses ways in which these elements are intertwined and cannot be seen as entirely separate. Examples of architects' sketches from history, and those of contemporary architects, will elucidate the roles of memory, imagination and fantasy in the design process.

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