Memory

Memory for humans cannot be escaped, for it is part of all activities. With memory, it is possible to retain knowledge, to use its properties combined with imagination to spark ideas, and to look into the future from past experience. Memory is something called upon for knowledge and, as reminiscing, emerges without much effort (Aristotle, 1928). Being a complex cognitive activity, memory is a necessity in the process of drawing. Sketches, likewise, are dependent upon memory, since thoughts, images and experiences are all part of the architect' s whole being and determine what the sketch will be. For example, body memory, interpretation and even specific items that are retained in memory over other experiences influence what an architect sketches.

At one time memory was viewed as a perceptual imprint on the mind. Plato has described this mnemonic imprint as being similar to a stamp or carving on a wax tablet (Plato, 1953). This concept relies heavily on its relationship to perception, as historically an imprint, and was viewed as a permanent or physical phenomena. Plato appears to lack respect for imagination and elevates memory when discussing (in the form of a dialogue) kinds of knowledge. He likens imagination to dreams. He begins, ' Why, you know,' I said, ' that the eyes, when a person directs them towards objects on which the light of day is no longer shining, but the moon and stars only, see dimly, and are nearly blind; they seem to have no clearness of vision in them? ' ' Very true ' . Then he goes on to say, ' The good is in the intellectual world in relation to mind and the things of mind' (Plato, 1941: 396). Plato seems to be implying that things thought about or from the memory are good and intellectual.

Conversely, both memory and imagination are i mage-making abilities, and their relationships are reinforced by Aristotle who writes that '[t]he thinking faculty thinks of its forms in mental pictures' (Aristotle, 1935: 43ib2). A more contemporary view questions the definitive role of images with the intellect: ' [Representation of spatial layouts of objects appear to preserve much more abstract and hierarchically organized information than do images or representations of individual objects' (Bjork and Bjork, 1996: 157). The various methods of retrieval and use for diverse cognitive goals account for the flexible way memory, imagination and fantasy are used. New studies have concluded that mental impressions are depictive (like pictures) rather than descriptive representations (tightly linked to and accessed by meaning) (Hinton, 1979; Bjork and Bjork, 1996).

Frances Yates believes it is possible to understand how the connection between memory and intellect became common, since thinking contains the mental impressions from memory and, conversely, memory as a part of learning affects intellectual activity (Yates, 1966). When one is not perceiving, or just knowing, memory comes into play: ' [t]he former one claims to perceive and the latter merely to know. But when one has knowledge or sensation without the exercise of these activities, then one remembers' (Aristotle, 1928: De Memoria 449b2).

To express the importance of memory in relationship to knowledge, it is necessary to start with a story of how Simonides invented the art of memory (Cicero, 1942). Simonides was called away from a dinner party, and in his absence the roof of the house caved in. His skills in remembering where each individual was sitting facilitated body identification. 'Simonides' invention of the art of memory rested, not only on his discovery of the importance of order for memory, but also on the discovery that the sense of sight is the strongest of all the senses ' (Yates, 1966: 4; Cicero, 1942: II.1xxxvi.357).

Although memory involves recalling information, Plato believed that knowledge is not only recollection, but that the soul was elsewhere before it became part of the human body (Plato Phaedo, 1953). This universal or human genetic knowledge is reminiscent of Jung 's archetypes (J ung, 1983). It is also part of a more contemporary belief that genetically our bodies hold memories (Gregory, 1987). More than a biological explanation, it seems to be a notion that memories are the conduit of knowledge and that somehow these memories are the foundation upon which all knowledge is based (Yates, 1966).

The whole body is involved in the act of memory, since memory, and especially body memory, is a priori, constantly at work, never inoperative (Casey, 1987). Philosophers name this body memory ( ' not memory of the body ' ), and see it as being ' .intrinsic to the body, its own ways of remembering: how we remember in and by and through the body' (Casey, 1987: 147). Body memory can be described as action which was not reflected, not thought about, just enacted as it is

'pre-reflective' and presumed in the experience of humans (Casey, 1987). This interpretation seems to suggest something between subconscious intention and instinct, because often actions do not fit into a mentally remembered place or that which is purely intuitive. Body memory suggests a theory of the body as habitual (Merleau-Ponty, 1962). It implies innate past in the body, and that in '.such memory the past is embodied in actions ' (Casey, 1987: 149). As architects sketch, emotions and actions which are part of the self surface, and become an active part of the sketch in the present (Casey, 1987). It may be that the hand movements involved are neither subconscious nor intuitive. It might be possible then for architects to interject forms (entirely unspecific) that relate to a body memory, in a way that is entirely unknown to their conscious or subconscious memories.

It is important here to interpose the issue that Aristotle finds some differences when comparing memory and reminiscence, or recollection (Aristotle, 1928). Anamnesis, recollection or often reminiscence, is similar to the definition of memory as imprint. However, a person with total recall does not necessarily have skills of abstract thought. This might be demonstrated by an i diot savant; a person with lower than average intelligence, who can possess incredible capabilities for recall or memorization (Yates, 1966). Recall itself is not the whole of memory, because recollections are recovery of knowledge alone. Recollective knowing, Mnemosyne, can be the highest level of knowledge since it is knowledge regained from within, from already acquired cognitions. This is not necessarily relearning or just bringing the past to mind but returning to knowledge or, more exactly, memory itself becomes a function of knowledge: ' Mnemosyne, supernatural power, has been interiorized so as to become in man the very faculty of knowing' (Casey, 1987: 15).

In the writings of Aristotle, the issues of retrieval and memory emerge as the difference between 'passivism' and ' activism'. Passivism depicts that ' .in which remembering is reduced to a passive process of registering and storing incoming impressions' (Casey, 1987: 15). This is basically the process of storing information, as epitomized in the wax tablet analogy. Activism on the other hand '.involves the creative transformation of experience rather than its internalized reduplication in images or traces construed as copies ' (Casey, 1987: 15). Aristotle 's theory permits the capability of the memory or recollection to be interpreted through its time in the individual, not as an immediate replica but as a translation dependent upon time elapsed. The traditions of ' activism' might be explained, as in Plato' s metaphor of searching for memories, as a process of effective ' working through'.

Such remembering — such re-viewing and re-valuing — does not require a re-divinization of this elusive power; it is not a question of resurrecting Mnemosyne in person or in name. But it is a matter of re-inspiring respect for what the Greeks called mneme and the Romans memoria. As memor means 'mindful, ' so we need to become re-minded, mindful again, mindful of remembering described in its own structure and situated in its own realm — a realm neither mythical nor mechanical but at one with our ongoing existence and experience. (Casey, 1987: 18)

This issue of working through has importance for the design process, as the action of recollection combined with knowledge could enhance the interpretive qualities of architectural design and, consequently, sketches. The sketch by Pentti Karoeja (Figure 3.1) displays a page that is covered with three-dimensional sketches studying the Westend Inounnoskirja Day Nursery, Finland Karoeja of Ark-house Architects, in Helsinki, Finland, represents a young and innovative practice building excellent work in steel and wood combinations. These architects have completed projects such as the Helsinki City College of Technology, creating airy open spaces with sensitive proportions. A partner in the firm, Karoeja was the designer for the day nursery. The project presents a playful tenor with colors dancing across patterned façades.

This page shows the sketching and re-sketching of plans and three-dimensional views to interpret the geometric and proportional layout of the building. Each image presents a memory transformed from one image to another. The elements take on similar form since the sketch helps carry the memory between iterations. The images comprise variations on a theme and test the qualities

FIGURE 3.1 Pentti Karoeja; Westend Iuonnoskirja Day Nursery.

of visual relationships. The sketches are closely placed and often overlap as Karoeja is drawing quickly. Here it appears he was trying to understand or memorize the building, not create a presentation replication. Each of the sketches has been based on the geometry that is the theme for the project but it seems he was using the plans as memory devices and instilling new compositions and relationships. Obviously remembering the site and program, he was able to move between forms without losing the focus of the project. It appears he was using his active and passive memory to hold and understand the building, and also to learn from and transform the interrelationship of spaces. This expresses part of a process of 'working through' as a mindful memory.

As Simonides invented the art of memory, this analogy can also be seen as the origination of artificial memory. There are two kinds of memory — one natural, the other artificial: '[t]he natural memory is that which is engrafted in our minds, born simultaneously with thought,. [T]he artificial memory is a memory strengthened or confirmed by training' (Yates, 1966: 5).

The study of memory, and Simonides' efforts in practicing to strengthen his ability to remember, prompted exploration of artificial memory. It was a method used by orators walking through a series of rooms to remember certain parts of a speech. In this mnemonic, ' [t]he first step was to imprint on the memory a series of loci or places,' and thus, artificial memory was established from places and images (Yates, 1966: 3). A 'ocus is a place easily grasped by the memory such as a house, arch, or garden. To remember a concept or object, it is possible to place these mental impressions in definite locations ( foci); these places spark the memory with associations for pre-memorized thoughts. As an example, detective stories often return witnesses to a crime scene in an effort to stimulate their memories for people, details or exact events.

Whereas spaces force remembrance, similarly certain visual settings promote recall of other spatial interactions. It is possible to observe the different roles of location versus object. Cicero wrote '.we may group ideas by means of images and their order by means of localities ' (Cicero, 1942: ixxxviii.359). Because location is spatial, the movement of our bodies through these spaces creates new stimuli to the memory as our position changes. ' For the places are very much like wax tablets or papyrus, the images like the letters, the arrangement and disposition of the images like the script, and the delivery like the reading' (Yates, 1966: 7).

Obviously, movement through rooms is not always practical when trying to remember progression, so l oci must be manufactured. This is important for architectural sketches, as invention of places and forms in memory affects the creative and imaginative impressions for architecture. Memory can also be visualized in human terms; it might be associated with friends or contra-rily with unusual faces (Yates, 1966). Since concentrating on the irregular or abnormal helps an individual stand out in memory, it is also possible to concoct locations and forms for memory; narratives of people and places provide recall. Architects may utilize these modes of recall when sketching to record or design.

Many architects travel accompanied by a sketchbook for visual recording. Several of Antoine Predock' s travel sketches provide examples of the relationship between recollection and location. There are several reasons why Predock might want to store images of architecture he has witnessed. If the mind thinks with images as mental impressions, then sketching and thinking simultaneously could help to understand that which is drawn. The intense concentration of drawing can inform knowledge of the subject studied. As Carlo Scarpa wrote that he understood a thing by drawing it, likewise Predock may be using sketches to understand the examples of world architecture he experiences.

In another way, Predock, by drawing, could have been imprinting the perception on a field in his brain, in an attempt to learn it (or encode it). He may have been inspired by the scene and wanted to capture its essence to show colleagues in his office. Figure 3.2 displays a sketch of the Royal Palace in Bangkok. A study of the Bangkok skyline, this sketch relays the distinct and graceful forms of the palace domes. The striking comprehension of the shapes of the domes, along with their color, created an impression Antoine Predock wanted to preserve, possibly a landscape of sinuous form and colors not unlike the desert southwest. This view may have been impossible to explain verbally and required visual clues to recall the momentary experience. As a memory device, the overall impression was more important than the detailing of individual domes. Their juxtaposition and overlap formed a collage that, by sketching the scene, helped to record a spatial relationship so important to the urban context of Bangkok. Predock 's use of color, and the loose marks that make up the illustration, display qualities that may represent a method to 'keep' a pleasurable event.

An additional reason to draw an event during travel might be to capture an image to take home to show others. In this way, an experience can be captured for remembrance. Sketches may hold concepts in the form of images for further use in design. Architects often draw architectural space while traveling to collect images as a visual dictionary or thesaurus. A reference point that evokes other mental images could help architects to understand and reuse visual clues for the design process. Throughout the education of architects, students are required to study precedent, which hones these skills of observation and analysis.

Another sketch by Predock presents a contextual impression. Figure 3.3 is a composition from his travels to Chenonceaux, France. Here, shapes on a skyline act as nodes for procession. The building

FIGURE 3.2 Antoine Predock; Royal Palace Bangkok 'An apparition against the sky, played off the insane energy of the Chao Phraya River'.

FIGURE 3.3 Antoine Predock; Chenonceaux, France 'Building as bridge in the fullest sense'.

FIGURE 3.3 Antoine Predock; Chenonceaux, France 'Building as bridge in the fullest sense'.

forms in this sketch appear less important than the view delineating the approach. The sketch reveals a profile of the height of the buildings in comparison to the elevation of the street. Predock may have been exploring the ground to building relationships and these relationships might have provided a visual reference that would assist him when designing similar solid/void juxtaposition. The composition exhibits spatial relationships or proportions that may have aided acts of visualization.

FIGURE 3.4 Steven Holl; Knut Hamsun Museum.

The memory of the scene was supported through the act of sketching and may represent the recording of a spatial precedent for later use.

Memory is often spurred by metaphors; thus loci should not be too similar to objects as reminders, because they could be hard to differentiate. In theories of mental impressions, within the study of memory, there are two kinds of these forms: one for 'things' and the other for 'words' (Cicero, 1942). i Things' are thus the subject matter of the speech; 1 words' are the language in which that subject matter is clothedi (Yates, 1966: 8—9). It is much easier to find an object or picture that reminds one of a thing. It is possible that a word is more specific causing abstract associations to be limited. The question arises as to whether remembering the object which gives recall for the specific word is as difficult as remembering the word itself.

In the same vein, metaphors can become too confusing, as the complex mental impressions, which lead to allusion, are more difficult to remember than the original concept or object itself. The step between the postulate and the representative metaphor is often too distant and can get lost in new analogies. These mental impressions might be confusing, '[b]ecause metaphors represent a thing less accurately than the description of the actual thing itself i (Yates, 1966: 65). Although the actual reminders give more exact information about the thing itself, metaphors (metaphoria) '.move the soul more and therefore better help the memory' (Yates, 1966: 65).

Architects may utilize words, in addition to images, to further define objects or events. If a drawing seems incomplete, and they fear it will be forgotten, or misunderstood, architects can clarify with words. As an example, in Figure 3.4 Steven Holl uses words to provide information impossible to relay in a quick sketch, such as color or materials. His Knut Hamsun Museum in Hamaroy,

Norway, is a metaphor for the dark wood Nordic churches of the area. The building' s concept 'building as body,' expresses this concern with orifices and protrusions emulating a human body.

In this sketch, Holl employs words to elaborate on his visual notes. This notation is adjacent to and almost overlapping a plan and elevation sketches for the Knut Hamsun Center. Although exhibiting a small hillside, Holl writes a reminder along side the building elevation — 'windows frame mountain views'. This note acts as a memory device to hold critical information. Although it is unlikely this information would be forgotten, the verbiage helps to explain his thinking during the process. The limitations of the sketch prevent him from drawing the mountain view, or even the image of the mountain, but the note helps remind him of the issues important in the siting of this building.

Other notes assist in defining and remembering the process as ' isolated balconies ' and ' one wooden bench ' . Limitations of the sketch may keep the bench form from being recognized. In a plan drawing, and certainly in a sketch, a bench may be appropriately portrayed as four lines that make a rectangle. Without adequate notation the lines could represent steps, or a table, for example. The message that says 'isolated balconies' helps clarify a function that may be obvious but may also have been included to act as a reminder. The words may have also reinforced a design decision.

On the top right of the sketch, Holl has made a legend to indicate materials. The sod roof is obvious but the specifications for steel and wood are less easy to represent in a plan and needed to be clarified. The materials chosen for this project might not be recognized without the use of words, since the sketches provide visual impressions but cannot furnish specifics. Along with the inherent incompleteness of words and sketches, the function of the sketch in recording also acts as a notebook to record the process and the decisions to be remembered throughout the process.

Similarly, in a sketch by Renzo Piano (Figure 3.5) words assist the architect 's ability to remember and analyze. The Renzo Piano Building Workshop is located in Genoa, Italy, the place of his birth. Beginning his architectural career using structure as a way to articulate his buildings, his style was labeled High Tech. Currently employing architectural character based on technological forms, he experiments with materials with 'elegantly expressed structure' . Honored with the i998 Pritzker Architecture Prize, Renzo Piano' s buildings blur the boundaries between technology and art. Several of his most celebrated projects include the Redevelopment of the Genoa Old Harbour, the Zentrum Paul Klee Museum in Bern, the Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center in Noumea, New Caledonia and most recently the Shard London Bridge Skyscraper.

This sketch appears to be a design analysis for the London Bridge Tower. The drawings on the page support the analytical thinking that uses images to initiate design decisions, since the images create questions that need appropriate solutions. The sketch exhibits a diagrammatic elevation/ section of the tower. Here, Piano employs a fluid green felt pen to outline the form with surprisingly straight lines. Piano 's control of the medium by using swift strokes may account for the very straight lines. Although the marks are made with a confident hand that presumes a predetermined form, he was using this sketch to ponder. Important intersections (or areas of concern) have received highlights in red colored pencil. In several areas dots can be seen as places where the pen rested on the paper, possibly a moment for Piano to collect his thoughts.

As with any opportunity for analysis, this sketch seems to provide Piano with a personal dialogue. He writes notes concerning issues he wishes to remember and, also, provides emphasis by using exclamation marks in an effort to reinforce intentions. Analysis involves isolating portions for specific study and this can be viewed distinctly in the red 'hot' spots of activity. Either a typical convention of drawing or a need to recall relationships, he draws arrows between the words and the corresponding image. The words record locations of significant building elements and methods of treatment. Piano 's use of words may act, or assist, the act of articulating concepts he wanted to imprint on his mind. Not surprisingly the rest of the tower remains relatively vague and diagrammatic. This example reflects the limitations of quick sketches; they may provide impressions but cannot furnish specifics.

Remembering and recording decisions can be a function of sketches for architects. A sketch by Erich Mendelsohn (Figure 3.6) demonstrates this function well. Erich Mendelsohn began his architectural career in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s with projects such as the Albert Einstein

FIGURE 3.5 Renzo Piano 's sketch, September 2003 — hand drawing on paper showing the project of the London Bridge Tower.

FIGURE 3.5 Renzo Piano 's sketch, September 2003 — hand drawing on paper showing the project of the London Bridge Tower.

Observatory in Potsdam. Once associated with the Futurist Movement, he spoke about his work in terms of Dynamism that was manifest in expressionistic and individual design. His other projects in Germany include the Schocken Department Stores and Columbus-Haus in Potsdammer Platz, Berlin. In the years before World War II he emigrated to Israel, then England and eventually to the United States.He settled in California, teaching and lecturing along with designing community and religious buildings, such as the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

This project, the Library and Office Building for Salmon Schocken in Jerusalem, consists of several hard-edged drawings of elevations and freehand perspectives. The ruled drawings show façades with extensive ground to roof windows. In this example, Mendelsohn was using the drawings and sketches for evaluation and decision-making. On two of the most dominant elevations, he has drawn large x's across the windows. The x's act as a decision he was concerned would be forgotten. The marks may have provided definitive elimination as not to be confused with chosen compositions.

FIGURE 3.6 Erich Mendelsohn; Library and Office Building of Salman Schocken,

Jerusalem, perspectives and elevation.

FIGURE 3.6 Erich Mendelsohn; Library and Office Building of Salman Schocken,

Jerusalem, perspectives and elevation.

This confirmation may have been for his personal benefit or to ensure that others in his office understood his intentions. The action (x 's) could also represent a physical act that, by doing, made the decision more conclusive. A diagonal line can be seen on the center elevation, which may not have been sufficiently bold. In this condition, the heavier crosses reinforced the decision.

Three perspective sketches to the right of the page show alternatives with smaller punched windows. These sketches were completed after the ruled elevations because the lower one overlaps an elevation. This overlapping shows a disregard for the earlier version by partially obliterating the form. The top of the page has a large X, which has been circled. Possibly rejecting the drawings and then returning to them, Mendelsohn may have needed to iterate the validity of the new decision. The middle sketch on the right is accented by a check, which may also indicate a positive assessment. The perspective on the lower right has been ' finished' with an arc, possibly providing a background horizon. It is also possible that seeing the completed illusion may have helped Mendelsohn arrive at the most adequate solution, thus the arc may have functioned as a variation on a circle — to emphasize a positive solution.

It appears Mendelsohn was using the sketches to remember important decisions and the evaluation of a design element. It is unknown whether he made those decisions immediately after drawing the image, or at a later date. If he was critiquing his sketches while they were being drawn, this might indicate that he used the sketches primarily to test his designs. Although this process of viewing thoughts visually can represent a mode of critique, it is only one of a variety of reasons architects use sketches, and it would be unusual if Mendelsohn saw this as their only function. But the act of crossing out images which are no longer useful, or appropriate, is a method to preserve a decision, as a memory device. Several hundred years earlier Borromini (Figure 2.4) had used a similar technique to record decisions in a process, and the visual qualities of the image imprint the conclusion. The mode of resemblance might be at issue here.

Resemblance is an 'indication' that provokes a memory. 'Indication', as the relationship between reminder and remindand, is a sign that evokes an action by signaling its actual or possible presence. '[A] thing is only properly an indication if and where it in fact serves to indicate something to some thinking being' (Casey, 1987: 96). Here Edward Casey emphasizes the important tie in memory to architectural representation as a spatial and imaging discipline.

In the mental activity of imaging for design, recollections spark association through similarity or dissimilarity (Aristotle, 1928; Hume, 1978). This most often happens with memory, because the mind (as in reminiscence) wanders when not immediately stimulated. It is possible to conclude thinking about something very different from where one began because of a train of associations. This connection of ' free associations' constitutes the search for abstract concepts and form in the design process. Architects depend on memory and imagination to mingle and furnish new interpretations.

Association is a quality seen in many architectural sketches. Often the images made by the hand spark a series of similar or associative thoughts. These sketches may act as variations on a theme where one image is transformed into a like image — as the different is infused into the familiar. One sketch may then start a reaction that the architect cannot control as memory and association flow. On a page of sketches by Michael Rotondi (Figure 3.7) it is possible to view what may be a series of associative images. It appears that the architect 's memory combined with imagination creates a thoughtful opportunity for idea generation. Michael Rotondi was a co-founding partner of the practice Morphosis. In 1991, as principal, he opened RoTo Architects. Based in Los Angeles, Rotundi has completed such projects as UCSD Joan and Irwin Jacobs Center for the La Jolla Playhouse, the Sinte Gleska University in South Dakota (buildings and master plan), and numerous private residences. He has received many American Institute of Architects awards and views his practice as a teaching lab for young graduates of architecture schools.

This page is a whimsical flow of three-dimensional, and plan, forms. Appearing haphazard the sketches are instead meaningful and intentional techniques he uses for inspiration. Rotondi discusses his use of sketches as 'dea-gram; they give him an opportunity to think through conceptual beginnings while drawing. He writes: 'drawing is the way I think visually — outside my head, and while I am drawing by hand it gives me time to think as well as reach higher states of concentration — fun and meditational.'1

On this page, the three-dimensional shapes morph easily into plans or diagrams. To the left can be viewed blimp-like three-dimensional forms. The lines carry to the center with a landscape and contained diagram that may pertain to orientation. The right side of the sketch displays watercolor forms, and on the lower right a scale for measurement or music. The way one line begins as a figure and ends in a different context suggests that the sketches were employed to connect disparate thoughts that may begin with one idea and end with another. If this were true, the changing context from one side of the page to the other presents a view of the process. The remarkable creativity that stems from the association of lines, in juxtaposition to each other, reveals an active mind.

1 From a written statement by Michael Rotondi when asked about his use of sketches.

FIGURE 3.7 Michael Rotondi; idea-gram. 'Drawing an idea-gram is conducive to the speed of my generative thinking. It 's the right speed.'

Interjected into the images are philosophical writings that may frame the exploration. Although seemingly arbitrary, the images contain a theme and volume relationship to suggest Rotondi 's memory connects the forms to investigate new approaches to a specific destination. It is suspected that he does not know where the exercise will lead him but trusts the process of association.

In a sketch by Michelangelo (Figure 3.8) it is possible to view an additional example of associative memory. This page has been covered with various versions of molding profiles. These profiles exhibit the depth and section shape of carving at the base of columns. The fact that Michelangelo was concerned with the exaggeration and manipulation of column bases references his concern for the Mannerist development as an evolution from Renaissance ideals. Michelangelo, a Renaissance architect, was also a painter and sculptor.

His adherence to designo, the Renaissance concept of idea, is evident in this sketch. The molding profiles are juxtaposed with sketches of faces, which may be a factor of a need by Michelangelo to draw on every piece of paper at hand. Thus it may have been purely accidental that they appear on the same page, they may also represent a conscious, or subconscious, egalitarian treatment of the subjects in his mind. Each was considered an opportunity for exploration with ink or graphite, whether a human or stone column base. Michelangelo also may have comprehended a relationship between the two; the molding profiles caricaturing human faces. The profile on the upper right corner of the page seems to include an eye. Some of the profiles are drawn to appear much like human profiles, even to the point of curling the upper lip down (as in the profile on the upper left), a detail not practical for a column base in stone. The association between the profiles and heads may have been logical for him.

Comparatively, the volume of faces and molding profiles, both subjects which Michelangelo worked in stone, may have developed a strong relationship in his mind. The faces have been sketched with graphite while the profiles were drawn in brown or sepia ink. It is impossible to know which were drawn first, since the faces fit into the empty center of the page. A faint mustached face, in graphite, on the lower left, suggests the ink was the later medium. In which case, the faces may have influenced the form of the profiles. The speculation that the relationships between the

FIGURE 3.8 Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475—1564); Sketches of columns and faces

(pen, pencil and ink on paper).

FIGURE 3.8 Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475—1564); Sketches of columns and faces

(pen, pencil and ink on paper).

forms may have been subconscious, questions the memory of the body, as eyes and hands may act independently of the conscious mind. It might be easy to understand the use of recall and association when studying memory of events and written language; it is less so when discussing mneme or enacted body memory.

The idea of ' time elapsed' can also suggest the active ' working through' of a design. As remnants of thinking or working on a design, sketches are often vague, redrawn, and drawn over (with

FIGURE 3.9 Reima Peitila; Kaleva Church, Tampere.

overlapping lines — lines drawn on top of lines) in a pondering manner. Contrarily, sketches can be fast flowing lines that might be racing to capture an escaping thought. As mneme they are ' mindful or reminded' in whatever form they take because the notion of time reveals memories and the interpretation which transforms them. Translation is also difficult to recognize, since these sketches become intensely personal.

A sketch by Reima Pietila (Figure 3.9) for the Kaleva Church, Tampere, Finland, reveals several elusive qualities of mneme. This sketch of a building plan shows a thought process that embodies a concept of time. The sketch was completed in three media, as if each medium fulfilled a distinct purpose. The layout or outline has been drawn in graphite and the center section has been rendered in a soft medium such as charcoal. The erasures and smears reflect a manner of evaluation, a ' working through' the process. Either Peitila was unconcerned that the erasures were not complete, or with his excitement to view the form emerging on the page, he 'erased' with his fingers.

The lines in pencil seem to be fast and sketchy, whereas the lines in charcoal are bold and expressive, evoking the volume of the space. These heavy lines have been drawn quickly as he poches the thickness of the walls. The smeared and ' gestural' marks suggest an amount of time, as if he was working and reworking the plan over a period of time. It appears he was afraid to move to another sheet of paper in fear of losing a sequence of thought, as he was continually reinforcing the dark lines to make visual corrections. Immersed in the action of the sketch, small dots of charcoal appear across the page, where Peitila rested his charcoal covered fingers. This sketch reveals a thinking process where it is possible to view the beginning, and comprehend the labor, of the development.

For architectural design, and especially sketching as a manifestation of the process, the experience of the past had a great influence on the present, especially concerning interpretation of its form. The importance of location for a spatial discipline such as architecture, as well as recollective knowing, the use of analogies, and metaphors, is revealed in sketches by architects. Imagination, the topic of the following discussion, speaks of the future rather than the past. The two are inherently connected, since the imagination makes use of the mental impressions of memory. This active memory has the ability to make forms from memory, in combination and interpretation, to provide entirely new compositions. Distinctly different from ' recall', the imagination working on memory expands this faculty of knowing.

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