Abstracting the Composition

Beginners invariably try to show too much in a composition. They may indicate too much lawn, too many cars in a parking space, too much detail in the foliage, and so on. As they learn, they can profitably borrow from the approach of some modern artists, such as Matisse, who may begin by drawing or painting a detailed picture and gradually, in successive sketches, simplifying it, each time leaving out a detail which is not absolutely necessary for the purpose of identification. Architecturally...

Helpful Hints for Mixing Colors

As mentioned earlier, a sophisticated color scheme is usually the result not only of careful selection of the scheme and of the proper use of colors in proper areas, but also nearly always of mixing together for each part of the painting all the colors of your color scheme in varying amounts. In general, two kinds of color schemes are used in rendering. In the first, the colors of nature are used, such as a blue sky and green grass. In the second, the colors of nature are modified. An example...

Ink Washes

When you have mastered the basic skills in pencil, graphite, and pen-and-ink rendering you will be ready to try the most basic of all liquid media. Dry media are applied directly to the paper without mixture with any vehicle, and ink is usually applied with a specially designed instrument, the pen. However, such liquid media as ink, watercolor, and tempera are applied with brushes after they have been mixed with water. The use of water, of course, creates an entirely new set of problems. Liquid...

Practice Washes

In general, a building is usually rendered in a series of flat base washes which are modified by lines or textures placed over them. Therefore, before proceeding further it is advisable to practice making tempera washes. To begin with, tempera should be mixed with just enough water to produce a mixture of a creamy consistency. It is meant to be opaque and should, if the wash isapplied correctly, completely cover the surface, so that none of the paper will show through. Washes are best applied...

General Approach to Rendering

At the outset, ii should be recognized that there are many ways of producing a rendering, and the final result will depend upon such diverse factors as the Tenderer's training and experience, and the time available for producing the rendering. Ii should be made clear at this point, however, that there is a difference between a sketch which is usually no more than a rough study for a rendering and a finished presentation, which is the result of a preconceived and well-executed plan of procedure....

Renaissance Rendering

Rendering as we know it was born during the Italian Renaissance. The discovery and publication in the fifteenth century of I he Vitruvius Treatise on Architecture (written during the reign of Caesar Augustus) stimulated a new interest in classical antiquity and an upsurge in the activity of building. In Italy, where the Reformation did not take hold, and where comparatively few churches had been built during the Middle Ages, there was a revival on a grand scale of church as well as domestic...

Selection of Light Source

It is usual to assume a conventional light source for a rendering. This, as most Tenderers and architects will remember, is at an angle of45 degrees from the left and 45 degrees from above. However, it must be realized that this is only a convention, and that while a design might look well with such 45-degree shadows cast upon it, as at noontime, the same design may not look well with shadows cast by an early-morning or late-afternoon sun at an angle of perhaps 20 degrees with the ground line....

Computer Graphic Rendering

Computer graphic technology is a subject beyond the scope of this book however, it is worth mentioning because this electronic technology has made its presence felt in all areas of architectural design, engineering, and planning. The computer, once a luxury of the large corporate architectural firm, is now available in the form of the inexpensive personal computer (PC) system for use in both the home office and the small architectural firm. Computers enable architects to produce plans,...

Minted Media and Unique Media

While the purist will use one medium in a rendering, many experienced delineators will combine various media for reasons such as specific techniques required, economy of rendering time, or particular results. In recent years, the illustrator has been exposed to newly developed products which are compatible with the products and tools of media described in the preceding chapters. Armed with the knowledge of basic delineation, the Tenderer can experiment with these modern products using the...

Grass Areas

Any grass area shows a wide deviation in value, color, or both, throughout its plot. Variations in tone are caused by several factors, including difference of light, showing through of the soil beneath, variation in the natural color of the grass itself, and shadows on the grass. While the actual execution of the grass will depend upon the technique in which it is rendered, there are several different methods of approach. The first is to apply a graded wash, starting with light in the...

Refinement and Style

At times a quick sketch is sufficient, and at others a finished rendering is called for. The time element will always be with us. In all the chapters on technique, the author has endeavored to describe both methods. It is earnestly hoped that the reader will not only try the methods described in this book but will experiment with new media and techniques. Each technique illustrated in this book is excellent for experimentation with new media. All experienced Tenderers test new media, but those...

And Plate VII

Fiat skies with clouds. (See Figure 13.9.) 3. Graded or domed skies. (See Plate IX.) Graded skies can be painted in the same way as described for wet-into-wet graded washes, or by a series of rough-edged flat washes as in Plate IX, which the lightest flat wash at the horizon and the darkest at the top of the picture. It is advisable, when painting any sky other than a flat wash, to mask the top edge of the building with drafting tape and paper to assure a clean line. 4. Airbrush skies. By...

Comparative Renderings

The renderings discussed below illustrate various techniques for tempera rendering. It is sometimes necessary to prepare a number of comparative renderings to illustrate variations in a basic design. See Plates V and IX. These renderings are particularly meritorious in that the buildings are all shown in rich, colorful settings. It is interesting to note that clients are attracted to buildings that are bathed in bright sunlight. All the foregrounds in Plates V and IX are dark yet somewhat...

The Natural Setting

The world of nature supplies an inexhaustible storehouse of inspiration to the delineator, who may be required at any time to portray in its natural setting a mountaintopski lodge, a tropical house, or anything in between. The delineator, who must have the ability to visualize scenes in brilliant sunlight or dull gray mist, according to the location and mood of the project at hand, should be familiar with all kinds of trees and shrubbery, from the twisted, gnarled limber pine of the heights to...

Shortcuts in Pencil Rendering

Many renderers save time in pencil work by using a good grade of rag tracing paper for the final rendering. Instead of laboriously transferring the perspective from one sheet to another, they merely place a clean sheet of tracing paper over the line perspective, and, after making a value study, render. Tracing paper requires the use of slightly harder pencils than kid-finish bris-tol board, but provides an excellent surface. When the rendering has been finished it may be fixed with pastel...

Master Masons

Of the many names of architect-craftsmen that have come down to us, one stands out that of a Frenchman named Villard de Honnecourt, who lived about 1250. Like most cultured men of his time, de Honnecourt traveled through France, from north to east, and across the entire German Umpire. During these travels he recorded details of French cathedrals, making ink sketches in a vellum sketchbook that he kept for his own use and for the instruction of his pupils. Here we find plans, elevations, and...

Rules plus Experience

Most beginners do not realize the importance of making a proper perspective before they actually begin to render. There is no substitute fora thorough knowledge of all aspects of perspective, which it is assumed the reader already has. Most students of perspective, however, are appalled, not only by its complexity, bui also by ihe fact that very little is said by many authors to bridge the gap between the rules for constructing a linear perspective and the magical finished mental image which...

Colored Papers

No discussion of color would be complete without mention of colored charcoal and pastel papers. These are available at any art materials store in a number of shades, including gray, brown, yellow, green, orange, and red. (See the section on carbon pencil rendering in Chapter 9.) Orange and red may be quickly eliminated, since colors as bright as these are usually not suitable for renderings. Generally speaking, the more delicately tinted papers such as cool brown, warm or cool gray, pale...

The Lithographic Crayon Pencil

While the carbon pencil has a slightly gritty feel when used on paper, the lithographic crayon pencil is smooth and somewhat waxy. It is used in the same manner and on the same kinds of paper as the carbon pencil (when it is used alone) and is capable of producing the same jet blacks, atmospheric effects, and tonal variations. The best known is Korns Lithographic Crayon Pencils, which are made in the following grades No. 1, soft No. 2, medium No. 3, hard No. 4, extra hard No. 5, extremely hard...

Early Delineation in England

Because England was so far away from Rome, it was the last country to be stimulated by the new movement, and English Renaissance drawings were linear in quality. Inigo Jones (1573- 1652), who traveled in Italy and modeled his work after the Italian architects of the Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, rendered first in pen and line (Figure 1.21) and later in line and pale wash. When the grand tour became popular among the wealthy, travelers' stories of the new type of Italian architectural...

Textures

The textures described herein are for surfaces in sunlight. Generally speaking, the color that is used for a surface in sunlight is darkened for shade and shadow by adding more of each pigment, and in particular, more of the darker colors in the palette being used. Usinga 20- X 30-inch pieceof white illustration board, draw a Vfe-inch border around the outside edge in pencil and divide the remaining 29-inch width into 1 1 equal spaces, with ' 8-inch space between each two. Then draw a line 8xh...

Rendering Plans

The rendering of plans presents different problems for the delineator which must be overcome for a successful presentation. The major problem in plan delineation is that the plan is essentially a two-dimensional concept. Perspective, shadows, cloud formal ions, entourage, and textures are limited tools when creating this type of drawing. Plans are primarily used by the architect to define the size and shape of space, todescribecirculation patterns, and toclarify the major structural elements....

Wash Off Film and Positive Film

Wash-off film, commonly known as wash-off Mylar, is basically the same material as noted earlier. However, the image is created by a photographic reproduction made from the illustrator's original. This silver image can then be added to or altered as previously described when working on the original Mylar with ink. To avoid damaging the wash-off Mylar surface when making changes on a specific area of the drawing, it is advisable to mask off the area with tape. Then moisten a Q-tip with household...

Nineteenth Century Germany and England

The same kind of photographic quality was obtained by Carl Friedrich Schinkel in Germany (1781 - 1841) in his Dekoration zur 'Zauberflote' (Design for The Magic Flute' ' Figure 1.27). While tho watercolor rendering illustrates his ability to simulate reality when he wished to do so, his pencil presentation Packhofgebaude, Berlin (Figure 1.28) shows that he could also, when he wished, present a much more simplified study. This simplification may have been a frank recognition of the simplicity of...

Reflected Light

It must be remembered that light rays bounce from place to place, and in so doing modify shadows such as G1 in Figure 5.2. Let us examine the course of several such rays that ricochet from the ground in section. Ray RL1, bouncing upward at an angle of 45 degrees, strikes plane G near its outer edge, then rebounds at an angle of 90 degrees to the bottom of shadow G1. Ray RL3 acts in the same way, falling into shadow Gl, near its top. The intensity of light diminishes according to the distance ii...

The Finished Rendering

I laving completed the value and color studies, you are well prepared to begin the final rendering. You will meet problems that you did not anticipate and that you have not settled, but these will be few and minor. It should be remembered that the end result will be a combination of the correct values of the value study and the colors of the color study, and that the final rendering will be an interpreta- lion and improvement on these preliminary studies. If the preliminary studies look well,...

Acknowledgments

The editors of t he I hird edition of Architectural Rendering would I i ko lo lake th is opportunity on behalf of Albert O. Halse to pay tribute to those who have been involved in this effort. This volume has been made possible by the support, encouragement, and faith of some special individuals. I thank, first, Helen A. Halse for sharing in the organizing, assembling, and refining of each chapter second, my wife Jane and our son Ian for their daily inspiration and third, my mother for making...

Computer Aided Design

Computer-aided design (CAD) is important to understand, for its basic procedures are similar to those used in overlay drawing, as discussed earlier in this chapter. 'The delineator should approach CAD in the same way as any other medium, that is, from the standpoint of basic tests and exercises, as shown in Figure 15.3a -c. Procedures for a simple line drawing of a building are prepared, and details are then added in various separated segments of the drawing as desired. For example, a level...

The

The pen existed as a writing instrument long before it was used by artists and architects. Pens were first made of bamboo roots or other hollow woody plant forms, with the ends prepared by fraying. It was the Greeks and Romans who cut reeds to a point and slit them like modern pens. Eventually, pens were made of such metals as copper and bronze these imitated in form the earlier pointed reeds. Use of goose quills, which were easily prepared, came later. The modern pen dates from the latter part...

Rendering the Entourage

The building itself is the major element in the completion of a rendering, yet it cannot stand alone. Surrounding it, according to its location, may be trees, bushes, grass, roadways and walkways, adjoining buildings, scale figures, water, automobiles, trucks, trains, airplanes, and above all, a sky. Since each is an important part of the total abstract composition of a rendering, and since even the lay person can detect poorly drawn or poorly located surrounding elements, each item should be...

Psychological Effects of Color

It is probably well at this point to mention that colors affect people psychologically. Blue, for instance, reduces mental excitability and therefore helps one to concentrate. It is both cooling and sedative, but cannot be used indiscriminately, as too much of it will produce melancholia. These qualities were discovered during the Middle Ages, and are partly responsible for the use of so much blue in the stained-glass windows in the great cathedrals. Green is also cooling, and acts as an...

Example Guggenheim Museum

Ihe rendering in Figure 10.1 1 illustrates two important points of technique. The drum of the building was rendered by the French method. Since the drum diminishes in diameter at the bottom, the diminishing of the various steps was achieved as indicated in Figure 10.12. After the highlight and darkest dark had been located in Figure 10.13, the rendering became a mere matter of applying washes from light at the highlight to dark at the right side, and from light at the highlight to dark at the...

Example A Carillon Tower

While making the charcoal study for the carillon tower shown in Figure 10.10, the renderer decided to make the tower dark at the base and light at the top, so that the dark bells would stand out. In making the actual rendering, No. 4 and No. 10 brushes were used, the smaller for mixing and the larger for rendering. Before the rendering was started, the paper was given a wash of alum mixed in water in order to recalender the paper and neutralize any possible greasy perspiration spots. This alum...

Preparation of the Mother Wash

The mother wash, from which all the lighter washes in the rendering are made, can be made by mixing water and ink to the consistency desired. As perfect as it is, pure mother wash cannot be applied undiluted to the paper. Instead, it is mixed with water in a clean pan and used in a series of light washes. Washes such as these provide an opportunity for greater uniformity, since it is easier to build a tone of a number of light layers than it is to make it of one heavy wash. In addition, such...

Perspective as Indicator of Bad Design

What are the purposes of a linear perspective Certainly to provide a good, clean drawing which describes the shape of the building and gives a complete guide for the rendering. But even more than that, and more basically, the linear perspective shows, before the renderer has spent a great deal of timeon the rendering, what the building is going to look like from various angles. If the proportions of the design are bad, this shortcoming will quickly manifest itself, and it will be immediately...

The Impact of Computers

Discussions with professional renderers nationwide have revealed some verf interesting opinions about the impact of computer technology. Generally, rer-derers are extremely interested in the computer as a drawing tool. However most delineators interviewed stated that they earn their living by drawing anc feel they lose artistic touch when using a machine. Large rendering studios havr undertaken practical analyses of the economic return of using a computer. Such studios can well afford CAD...

Photographing the Rendering

Fhe period following the completion of a rendering is usually quite hectic, and there is often a strong temptation to deliver the original drawing without first having had it photographed. Once a drawing leaves your hands, however, getting it back is hard, and so, at all costs, it should be photographed before delivery. Photographing artwork is a specialty, and you should have your renderings photographed by a competent specialist in this exacting field. In a well-equipped photography studio,...

Subject and Medium

The subject to be rendered often determines the medium to be used. Pencil and pen are pointed and therefore are ideal for rendering buildings heavily textured and fine in detail. Smudge charcoal, on the other hand, is well suited to rendering structures or interiors which have large plain areas and are fairly large in detail (Figures 11.1 and 11.2) It is a fact that more Tenderers can obtain a Fine finished result with smudge charcoal the first time they try it than with almost any other...

Light in Modern Architecture

Perhaps in no other era have buildings been glazed in so many different ways. Often glass is used in small openings sometimes it is used in large areas. Occasionally glass is used as the major part of the facade. Many times exterior elements such as low walls and gardens are visually extended through the glass and into the interior. The manner in which glass is rendered depends upon its size and location in a given building. The Lever House appears to be of transparent panes as part of what has...

Selection of Viewpoint

There is no substitute for a correct and honest perspective. In addition to its truthfulness, a perspective should be marked by its ability to make the building seem to live to look exactly as it will when it is constructed. The viewpoint chosen must be believable but need not necessarily be at the usual eye level. Sometimes it is better to take a viewpoint that is either higher or lower than eye level. The viewpoint should vary with the size and type of building. The viewpoint, or point of...

History of Watercolor

The medium that we now call watercolor is one of the oldest known. There are records of its use in China in the third century, and also of its use by Japanese and East Indian artists. Their brushes were of sable hair or pig bristles, and they were masters of the delicate and beautiful line in black ink, dark brown, or sepia. Early watercolors were painted on wood bark later, silk was used, mounted on paper by a method similar to that used for making stretches today. lew people realize that...

Drawing in the Monasteries

The lack of pictorial architectural drawing (other than the plan drawings mentioned) extends to the period between the fall of Rome and the year 1000. What little drawing was done then was probably executed in monasteries, where the feeble flame of civilization was kept alive. The plan of the Cloister of St. Gallen ( A.I). 820) shown in Figure 1.' , a building on the shores of Lake Constance, in what is now Switzerland, is typical of this simple type of drawing. A later plan (Figure 1.8), this...

Water and Reflections

In rendering water, the delineator must first decide whether it is to be made placid, slightly rippled, or rough. If it is to be placid, the reflection will look very much like the building itself, in an inverted position (Figure 8.9). On the other hand, if the water is rippled or rough, the depth of the reflection will vary according to the roughness of the water the height of the building will be greater in the water than in actuality because of the reflection of the building in waves far in...

Professional Techniques and Shortcuts

Renderers known for their ability with watercolor use a number of short cutsand tricks that are worth mentioning, since the end results are most helpful to the final rendering. To begin with, Whatman rough-finish illustration board gives interesting pigment-settling effects to flat and graded washes. Also, masking all borders with drafting tape before starting will give the rendering sharp borderlines thus making a mat unnecessary. Detailed leaves may be drawn with black chalk and fixed by...

Making a Tempera Rendering

A perspective line drawing is first applied to the paper or illustration board by the method described in Chapter 3. A val ue study and a color study must be made for each project, and an explorat ion of the color scheme selected should be made before the rendering is begun, as described in Chapter 12. With the exception of renderi ngs on colored paper, i t is advisable to cover al I portions of the paper with tempera, even areas that must be painted white, since any portions not covered in...

Perspective by Approximation

Delineators are always looking for shortcuts, to reduce the amount of time required for making line perspectives. Some merely lay out the main lines of the building and then locate doors, windows, and other details by eye. Others, like Vincent Furno, use (on ground perspectives only) either of the two methods illustrated in Figure 3.3A and B, in which the main lines and a number of perspective guidelines are used as a basis for perspective by eye. Fig. 3.3 Perspectiv by Approximation. 1. Draw a...

Inks

The earliest inks, like the early pens, were employed for writing rather than drawing. They were made of vegetable stains berry juices and mixtures of soot, charcoal, resin, and sometimes schist, a crystalline rock. Ink was used in China as early as 2500 B.C., and at approximately the same time in ancient Egypt by the ruler Ptahhotep, who used both red and black ink. Chinese ink and stick inks in general are made ready for use by grinding sticks of ink in water, straining the solution, and...

General Rules for Mechanical Perspectives

There are a few general guides which should be followed in making a perspective, and although most of them are mentioned in books specifically devoted to the subject, it is worthwhile repeating them here. Fig. 3.1 Locating the Station Point. 1. The location of the station point will determine the location of the vanishing points and measuring points. Angle C, created by projections between the point of station and the limits of the building, should not be more than 60 degrees. Some authorities...

WeHnto Wet Method for Trees

Fig. 10.14 Student Design Project. (Rendered Arnold Syrop.) Fig. 10.14 Student Design Project. (Rendered Arnold Syrop.) Several methods for rendering trees in wash have been mentioned for instance that in which the treesare first drawn and then textured in dilute waterproof in* and also that method in which the tree foliage masses are formed by flat washes or stippling. Another method, looser in appearance, is described below . The tree masses are blocked out in pencil. A pale wash of dilute...

Drawing as Communication

Sumei Collaborative Ink Drawing

Drawing, then, is of great value, not only to the architect, but toeveryone in this complex society. But if our society has become complex, so too has architectural drawing, and today few lay people can understand or read working drawings. Because of this, the architectural picture, or rendering, hasbecomean important and indispensable part of today's practice. The picture is a bridge between the < < intellects of the client and the architect a common meeting ground without...

Materials Paper

Handmade watercolor paper is available in three different finishes cold-pressed (medium texture), hot-pressed (smooth Finish), and rough (used for watercolor paintings). For ink washes medium texture is best, since ii accepts washes more easily hau the other two. There are a number of good brands of paper, with different *oiintries of origin, such as the French D'Arches, the Italian Fabriano, the English . B. Green, the English Royal Watercolor Society, and the American St rath more. Each sheet...

Artists Architects and Perspective

The development of perspective drawing by ihe painters and architects of the fifteenth century gave them and all who lived after them a means of combining in one drawing width, depth, and height. Drawings made before that time were distorted and flat. For about four centuries the three-dimensional perspective was used by artist and architect alike, and many painters produced pictures of existing buildings and also worked along with architects to render in perspective buildings still on the...

Felt Tipped Pens

For occasions when a broader penlike instrument may be required, a number of felt-tip pens are available. The Flo-Master felt-tip pens are made in several sizes, such as standard, advanced, and king size. Essentially, this type of instrument has a refillable metal fountain-pen-like body. The felt tips come in various sizes and shapes conical, rectangular, and round. Flo-Master ink is made in eight colors black, red, blue, green, purple, orange, yellow, and brown and is sold in metal cans. It...

Surrounding Buildings

The problem of how to render surrounding buildings is easily solved if they are kept indistinct and uninteresting. They should do no more than frame the buildingand locate it in time and space in other words, identify the neighborhood. They should be definitely lighter or darker than the building being rendered, according to the values required to make the new building stand out. It is also usual todraw or paint them rather loosely, in a less precise manner than the subject. If the rendering is...

Color Schemes

It should be recognized at the outset that good color schemes are made of only a few colors, properly selected, mixed, and blended. The difference between good art,such asthat found in thegreat museumsof the world, and calendarart can be explained to a great extent by this phenomenon. The professional artist uses a few colors with many shades of these colors, while the amateur is inclined to use a great many more colors than needed for the situation thus creating more problems than can be...

The Color Study

For renderings that are to be made in color such as watercolor, tempera, or pastels it is also necessary to make a color study. This may be done in a manner similar to the value study by using pastels on tracing paper, watercolor on tracing paper or watercolor paper, or perhaps tempera on tracing or water-color paper. While it would seem that watercolor or tempera might seep through the tracing paper and damage the illustration board below, this will not happen if a good heavy grade of tracing...

The Importance of Rendering in Architecture

Modern construction is complex, but what would it be like if instructions were by words alone The answer is, of course, thai a large building such as a sky- Fig. 1.39 The Westin Hotel. Seattle. Washington. (Architect John Graham and Company. Architects, Planners. Engineers. Renderer Earl Duff.) Fig. 1.38 Copley Place Project. (Architect The Architects Collaborative, Inc. Renderer Howard Associates.) Fig. 1.38 Copley Place Project. (Architect The Architects Collaborative, Inc. Renderer Howard...

Example Pencil Rendering of a Meeting House

Pencile Randaring Plan

The entire perspective for the rendering in Figure 9.16 was constructed on tracing paper and then reproduced on charcoal paper by placing a large sheet of white carbon paper between the tracing paper and the charcoal paper (carbon side down). Each line of the perspective was traced with a 3H pencil, lightly but firmly, to reproduce it on the rendering paper below. It is necessary to use carbon paper because thecarbon pencil will not take on lines which have been drawn by a graphite pencil, but...

Scale Figures

Most renderings include scale figures. If the structure is to be used by great numbers of people, groups may be shown. No matter how many figures are indicated, they should be located so as to draw the spectator's eye to a focal point usually the entrance to the building. This may be done by drawing a few figures in the foreground at large scale, a few more to the left or right in mid-distance, and several more near the entrance itself (Figure 8.12). If figures are distributed indiscriminately,...

Materials

Tempera can be used on cold-pressed or hot-pressed handmade paper that has been stretched, on illustration boards with the same finishes, or on stretched colored charcoal paper. The better grades of boards are recommended because they have hard, tough surfaces that withstand such hazards as sponging and drafting tape, which frequently destroy the surfaces of less expensive boards. Tempera is available in ready-mixed sets of grays, either warm or cool. The numbers of the shades in sets vary...

The Development of Rendering

From The Ground Sketch

Art has been practiced in various forms since Paleolithic times. First efforts were confined to achieving beauty and symmetry in tools. Later, artists found enjoyment in the use of color on their bodies and in their clothing, as well as in ornament. Evidence of the first expressions in painting and sculpture have been found in caverns in Spain and France, where, with the help of artificial light, artists painted numerous pictures in color, chiefly of animals. Paints were made by mixing red and...

Example Porch Detail

After the perspective for Figure 9.2 1 was transferred to the pastel paper by using white carbon paper, a value study was made over the tracing-paper perspective. It is impossible to make a value study over a dark sheet, as the values become confused. The light source was assumed to be directly behind the spectator, since this would create shades and shadows which would best express the architectural forms. Shading. This rendering was executed with carbon pencil combined with chalk on Herga...

Twentieth Century Delineation

The beginning of the twentieth century brought overwhelming changes to ar-hitectureand the methods used to illustrate buildings from conception through a. Eberhard-Faber Pink Pearl No. 100 and No. 101 c. A. W. Faber-Castel 1 Parapink No. 7021 Plastic or Mylar pencils work best with Mylar film because they are compatible media, as illustrated in Figure 15.1. Graphite pencils (11, F, and B leads) can Fig. 15.1 Administration and Chapel Building. Arneytown Veterans' Cemetery. (Architect Frank C....

The Carbon Pencil

The carbon pencil isa much more versatile instrument than thegraphitepencil. Basically, a combination of carbon andasort ofgum paste ispressed intoastick, and then encased in a wooden container in much the same way as a graphite pencil. Beyond this basic similarity of general appearance, the two have little in common. Whereas the graphite pencil glides across the paper, thecarbon pencil grips it. When it is.drawn across the paper it produces a clean, dry line, jet-black in tone, velvety in...

Pastels

Pencil Study Buildings

When you wish lo use color for rendering bui do not have the lime to use watercolor or tempera, a dry medium such as pastels can be used. Pastels have a number of advantages they can be used alone or with other opaque media they are fast, produce a delicate tone, are good for impressions rather than detailed renderings, and need relatively few accessories. In addition, pastel renderings can be made on various kinds of paper without the necessity of making a stretch. Pastels are sold in sets or...

Characteristics of Tempera

Tempera is a water-soluble paint that becomes sufficiently insoluble when dry to allow overpainting with more tempera. Imperfect washes and errors can be eliminated by sponging, or they can be repaired by merely covering them with more paint. Tempera can be used on white or colored paper or illustration board, and is excellent for night as well as day renderings. Almost any project can be rendered with this medium, as shown in the illustrations presented in this chapter. Tempera is available in...

Value Studies

There are a number of basic approaches which are worth considering in developing value studies. The First of these, and probably the most usual, is as described in the chapter on light an arrangement showing elements in the foreground as darkest and those in the distance as lightest, with gradations between. As illustrated in Figure 4.9, Basic Value Arrangements, a number of variations on this scheme are possible t. Gray foreground, light building and mid-distance, and dark background. b. Light...

Making a Value Study

Value Study Drawing Lesson Plan

Assuming that a daylight view has been chosen and that the 45-degree shades and shadows have been mechanically laid out, a value study may be made in charcoal or soft pencil on tracing paper placed over the perspective. The lightest values other than the white of the paper will be the highlights on pitched areas which receive the light rays most directly see Figure 5.1, sketch 1 . The lights, o. The relative Intensity of light In plan o. The relative Intensity of light In plan which are the...

Procedure for Rendering

Crow Renderings

As in pencil rendering, the perspective drawing should be transferred to the rendering paper with a graphite pencil see Chapter 3 . Extreme care should be media Hum pons crow-quill and No. 99, No. 22B, and No. 56 Higgins' waterproof black ink Pr l ct. plate-finish brisiol board, three-ply chamois and Ruby, glass, and artgum erasers. taken not to dent or gouge the paper, since the pen is easily caught by such irregularities. A charcoal study is particularly important in making a pen-and-ink...

Trees and Bushes

Tree Rendering

The lives of humankind have long been enriched by the trees of the earth. Few of us realize how much we depend upon the Iree. We use it for shade, and for protection against the elements. Wood is used for the building of houses and ships, in the manufacture of furniture, for the tanning of leather, for fuel, for medicine, and for the making of hundreds of other objects closely related to our daily lives. But our affection for trees goes further than the utilitarian. Trees are things of beauty...

Getting to Know Your

Before attempting the more complicated means of producing tones, textures, and values, it is well to familiarize yourself with your pens. Using a piece of the same paper or board on which you intend to draw your final rendering, take a medium-nib pen, dip it into the ink, shake off theexcess, and hold it in a manner similar to that used for writing. Then practice the following series of strokes see Figure 10.1 a. Sets of straight strokes from left to right, about V amp 2 inch, Via inch, and Vs...

The Ostwald Color System

Ostwald Colour System

While on the one hand the various parts of the Munsell system are made up of hue, value, and chroma, the Ostwald system, also in use, concerns itself With hue, black, and white. The Ostwald solid Figure 6.3a is in the form of a double cone rather than a sphere. In this system there are 24 hues around the equator and 8 value steps from white at the top, or north pole, to black at the bottom, or south pole. If the solid were to be cut in half vertically, the resulting section would be...

Ink and Watercolor Plans

Watercolor Rendered Architecture

Excellent results may be obtained by rendering plot plans in pen and ink and watercolor. Such drawings may be applied to cold-pressed stretches or to illustration boards with the same surface. The plan of the building is first placed upon the sheet in graphite pencil. Lach contour is drawn with a clean pencil line, and textures such as those for the terrace and tile are laid out. Trees and other details such as rock outcroppings are first drawn in pencil. Shadows are applied upon the ground as...

Effect of Surroundings on Color

There are certain other phenomena which should be kept in mind in selecting colors for a rendering. An area of a picture rendered in a bright color will seem larger than it actually is, because a bright color is more stimulating to the nerves of the retina of the eye than a grayed hue. A white area enclosed by a darker area appears to swell in dimension. If the same color is used in several different parts of a picture, it may appear to be different in hue because of the different colors that...

History and Properties of the Airbrush

The airbrush was developed about 1882 by the Airbrush Manufacturing Company of Kockford, Illinois. It is an instrument roughly resembling a fountain pen, through which may be sprayed a mixture of air and paint. The air source can be either a compressor or a tank of carbonic gas. The earliest mechanical compressors were hand pumps. Later hand pumps resembled those for bicycles, while early electric pumps were similar to those used for dispensing beer. The chief advantage of the airbrush is that...

Example Pencil Rendering of an Office Building

Earthbags Building Drawing

Preparation for Figure 9.19 was similar to that for Figure 9.1but a black carbon paper was used to transfer the perspective drawing. Fig. 9.19 An Office Building. New York City Renderer Edward Devine White. Jr Student project. materials Sheet of black carbon paper American-made charcoal paper, 19X25 inches B, BB, and BBB pencils kneaded eraser chamois Fig. 9.19 An Office Building. New York City Renderer Edward Devine White. Jr Student project. materials Sheet of black carbon paper American-made...

The Value Study

A value study is the best way to begin your preliminary investigation, whether the rendering is tobe in black and white or color. In a black-and-white rendering there will be no contrast if the values are not correct, and in a color rendering the colors will not look well if the values are not right. The value study is usually drawn on tracing paper which has been placed over the perspective line drawing on the illustration board below. It is usually drawn in charcoal or soft pencil. The author...

Making an Airbrush Rendering

Preparation for an airbrush rendering is similar to that for brush tempera. The perspective line drawing is applied to the sheet or illustration board with a clean Fig. 14.10 Interior Lobby. Architect Igle-hort amp Struhs, Architects. Renderer Lewis Iglehort, Architect. Fig. 14.11 Entrance to Continental Center. Architect Swanke Hayden Con-nell, Ltd. Renderer Lewis Iglehart. Architect. Fig. 14.11 Entrance to Continental Center. Architect Swanke Hayden Con-nell, Ltd. Renderer Lewis Iglehart....

Pencil Drawings on Tracing Paper

Ornaments Architecture Drawings

Schell Lewis makes his pencil renderings on tracing paper, using a rag bond with a good tooth not slick or smooth. Aftera perspective line drawing and a preliminary study Figure 9.13a are made, another sheet of tracing paper is placed over the line drawing, and the finished rendering is made, beginning at Fig. 9.13b Partially Completed Rendering of Preliminary Study. Renderer Schell Lewis. the left and finishing at the right, as shown in Figure 9.13b, being guided by the line perspective which...

Perspective Charts and Perspective Scales

For those who prefer a less mathematical method of constructing perspectives, there are perspective charts. These consist of perspective grids which have been laid out for different perspective conditions. A set of such charts consists of perspective grids for a number of desired types of perspectives. The architect simply fastens the desired chart to the board lays a piece of tracing paper over it and, using each grid section as a module related to the scale of the perspective, determines the...

The Munsell System of Color

In the United States today the best-known and most widely used system of color Standardization is that invented by Albert H. Munsell. He became greatly interested in the practical application of color, and was disturbed by the fact that the popular names for colors do not describe them adequately for professional purposes. Colors are often named after flowers or plants violet, indigo, old rose, primrose , fruits peach, pomegranate, grape, avocado, plum or places1 French blue, Naples yellow,...

Gallery of Professional Renderings

Bain Bridge Apartments Austin

Fig. 17.2 Interior Walkway Washington University ARCHITECT The Eggers Group. P.C., Architects and Planners renderer Octavio Figueroa medium Pencil Fig. 17.3 Proposed Residence ARCHITECT AND RENDERER Robert Zaccone. A.I. A. medium Colored pencil on tracing paper Fig. 17.3 Proposed Residence ARCHITECT AND RENDERER Robert Zaccone. A.I. A. medium Colored pencil on tracing paper MM gt '- 2 -v f amp s amp sb hsk M Ei MM gt '- 2 -v f amp s amp sb hsk M Ei Fig. 17.4 Proposed Office Building ARCHITECT...