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Excellent results may be obtained by rendering plot plans in pen and ink and watercolor. Such drawings may be applied to cold-pressed stretches or to illustration boards with the same surface. The plan of the building is first placed upon the sheet in graphite pencil. Lach contour is drawn with a clean pencil line, and textures such as those for the terrace and tile are laid out. Trees and other details such as rock outcroppings are first drawn in pencil. Shadows are applied upon the ground as if the plan were cut 4 feet above floor level. The entire grass area is rendered first, with the same number of light washes as there are contours. The first pale wash of this color is applied to the highest contour, then (after the first wash is dry), to the second highest contour, then to the third highest, fourth highest, etc., until the lowest contour has been given one wash.

Fig 1.29 Preliminary Design of Fonthill Abbey. (Draftsman: James Wyatt.)

Fonthill Abbey Floor PlanArchitecture Ink Wash

Fig 1.29 Preliminary Design of Fonthill Abbey. (Draftsman: James Wyatt.)

Fig. 1.30 Design of a Cottage for a Single Laborer. (Draftsman: Joseph Gandy.)

final design. All human endeavor was to be challenged by the refined technology of the tools used in the industrial revolution; hence political, social, and economic changes occurred with each passing decade of the new century. Depressions, world wars, atomic power, and space travel are only a few factors which have affected and shifted world power.

Traditionally, a student of architectural design studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts Institute in Paris, which was founded in 1671. "Ecole students," as they were known, studied according to a system established at the Institute. The established method of teaching ecole students involved several elements: first, the students worked as members of a studio (atelier); second, older students helped to give instruction to younger students; third, a jury process was organized under the direction of the master architect; and fourth, the students learned from critiques of their esquisscs (sketches). The ecole educational system was adopted worldwide and, among other things, all students were required to know the classical orders of architecture. Upon completion of study, the ecole student was well versed in architectural history and was also a creator of form and a trained delineator of form.

The Ecole des Beaux Arts educational system went unchallenged until 1919, when the Bauhaus was founded in Germany under the direction of Waller Gropius. The ideas of the Bauhaus influenced teaching concepts by merging design, building, and craftsmanship into one overall study. Unfortunately, Gro-pius's Bauhaus school was forced toclose in 1933 for political reasons and never reopened. Many of the famous Bauhaus faculty migrated to England and the United Slates, where international recognition came to some of its artisans — Gropius, Ludwig Mies van der Robe, I aiszIo Moholy-Nagy, and Lyonel Feininger, to mention a few.

In just 14 years of existence the Bauhaus and its founders paved the way for architects and designers to cast off the bonds of the Ecole des Beaux Arts classical education. What later emerged was modern architecture known as the "international style."

Bauhaus Architecture Style

Fig 16.1 Plan of a Residence. (Renderer Milton R. Edelin. Student project.)

Fig. 16.2 Plan of a Residence. (Renderer Leslie Feder. Student project.)

Student Project Architecture
Fig. 16.3 Plan of a Country House. (Ren-derer: Heino Kart. Student project.)
Watercolor Rendered Architecture
Fig. 16.4 Plan of Park. (Renderer: Spencer L. George. Student project. Instructor: Robert F. Lindsay.)

In this way the rise and fall of the ground is shown. Bodies of water are rendered in the same way, but the lowest contour is given the most washes, the higher contour a single wash.

After the ground area has been rendered, the walls, partitions, and furniture are carefully delineated in waterproof black ink. The shadow of the building * then cast upon the ground in a darker tone of the color used for the grouni washes. Shadows cast upon the road areas will, of course, be a darker tone of r> road color.

Flagstones and concrete textures are next applied with pen and diluted ink. The trees are rendered with a small brush by working directly from the paletu . first giving each wooden member of the tree a flat wash, then modeling ear-member with a ciarker wash on the shade side. The foliage of the tree is usualh given a transparent wash so that the architecture may be seen through it. Lovi planting is painted directly from the palette, as are the various plant forms.

Often several kinds of tree indications are used on the same plan. Deciduous trees are given a different indication from conifers, large conifers a differen" indication from small ones. The structure of trees is sometimes shown and ar other times omitted. Variation adds charm and interest to the rendered plan

As in all rendering, it is all too easy to fall into the realistic color scheme of bright green grass, blue water, etc., but sophisticated color schemes have a much greater appeal to the client. The grass areas, for instance, in Figures 16.1 anc 16.2 are blue-green, yellow-green, and gray-green. Water is shown in each, but is gray-blue rather than brilliant blue. Furniture in Figure 16.1 is blue anc grayed orange, while that in Figure 16.2 is brown and black. The terraces in Figure 16.2 are pale blue, those in Figure 16.2 grayed orange. In other words, t bgcolors used in all parts of each rendering are obtained from a previously determined color scheme, as in Chapter 12. These are all mixed together for each hut the shade desired determining the exact amount of each color that is to be included in the mixture.

The illustrations of rendered plans in Figures 16.3 and 16.4 were executed in various media.

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Watercolor Rendered Architecture

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Plate V Trump Tower architect: Swanke Hayden Connell Ltd.

renderer: Richard Baehr, A.IA medium: Tempera

Richard Baehr Architect

Plate VI

Interior of the Circle Theater architect: Dalton, Van Dijk, Johnson & Partners renderer: Howard Associates, Inc. medium: Ink on vellum with color added to photocopy

Watercolor Architecture Art

Plate VII

Florence Composition renderer: Robert Zaccone. AIA medium: Acrylic on watercolor board

Building Rendering Watercolor

Office Building architect". John Graham and

Company - Architects, Planners,

Engineers renderer: Earl Duff medium: Acrylic

Plate VIII

Watercolor Building

Plat© IX Seaport Plaza architect: Swanke Hayden Connell Ltd. renderer: Lewis Iglehart, Architect media: Ink and watercolor with airbrush

Plat© IX Seaport Plaza architect: Swanke Hayden Connell Ltd. renderer: Lewis Iglehart, Architect media: Ink and watercolor with airbrush chapter

Watercolor Rendering Architecture

Fig. 17.1 Nassau Community College architect: The Eggers Groups. P c., Architects and Planners renderer: Octavio Figueroa medium: Pencil

Fig. 17.1 Nassau Community College architect: The Eggers Groups. P c., Architects and Planners renderer: Octavio Figueroa medium: Pencil

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