The Development of Rendering

Art has been practiced in various forms since Paleolithic times. First efforts were confined to achieving beauty and symmetry in tools. Later, artists found enjoyment in the use of color on their bodies and in their clothing, as well as in ornament. Evidence of the first expressions in painting and sculpture have been found in caverns in Spain and France, where, with the help of artificial light, artists painted numerous pictures in color, chiefly of animals. Paints were made by mixing red and yellow ochre with animal fat.

During the Mesolithic age people still roamed as hunters, and although artistic achievements were less impressive than formerly, both metal and writing were invented. The written word enabled people to communicate information, and by passing it along to those who lived after them, to pyramid it into what we call "civilization." As people settled in groups, clear communication of information became more important and both the picture and the written word were needed.

When people built simple structures they continued to use words, but when buildings became complicated it became necessary to explain the ideas to another person or to make a record of the bui lding. Builders used a pictoria I met hod which gave not only a briefer description, but a more accurate one.

The pictorial method seems to have received strong encouragement from the erection of the great monuments of ancient Kgypt. There, in the Ancient Kingdom (4400-2466 B.C.), architectural hieroglyphs were invented (Figure 1.1).

During the Amarna period (1375- 1350 B.C.), a style of drawing combining plan and elevation was developed and used not only for the guidance of builders, but also as part of the mortuary art on the walls of the tombs of kings (Figure 1.2).

This pictorial type of drawing may be considered a distant relative of present-day delineation. For actual construction, plans were drawn on papyrus (Figure

Transmission Pole Types
Fig. 1.1 Architectural Hieroglyphs.

Fig. 1.2 "The Palace

Paintea on Stucco

Fig. 1.3 Plan of the Tomb of Rameses IV Painted on Papyrus.

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2 / Architectural Rendering

Tor the ceramic lead, the graphite in its crude form is first purified and broken down into minute particles. Similarly, the clay is pulverized, washed, and purified. When it is combined with the graphite, the resultant mixture is a fine powder. The preparations of clay and graphite vary, depending upon the degree of softness or hardness required. The more graphite, the softer and blacker the "leacf will be. The more China clay, the harder and lighter (in value) the pencil will be.

After the powder of graphite and China clay has been made, water and certain chemicals are added to it and it is mixed under pressure. Sometimes wax is added for smoothness. The resultant mass is then compressed under tremendous pressure and forced through a die to emerge as a soft, solid "lead," of pencil length. These leads are soft and unusable — almost the consistency of spaghetti — until they are put intogrooves in boards and tempered by bakingat 2000°For higher. The tempered lead is then encased between two pieces of aromatic cedar wood, grooved to make a depression for it. The halves are fastened together by vinyl resin, clamped, and heated at a low temperature. The individual pencils are then cut to size, sandpapered, and lacquered with six to ten coats. The ends are sliced clean, and the name and grade stamped on the side with a hot dye. Although the Bureau of Standards in Washington has tried to standardize the grades of pencil, the grades still differ according to manufacturer.

Equipment Required

Pencils are graded from hard to soft, as follows:

11 indicates hard.

F indicates firm.

B indicates soft.

The grades available are 911 (hardest), 8H, 711, 6H, 5H, 411, 3H, 211, and 11, F, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, and 6B. Of these, the soft pencils are best suited for freehand sketching and rendering, although some papers require harder pencils than others. There are two schools of thought on this: some delineators prefer to use only one or two of the softer pencils, such as 2B and 4B, while others prefer the effect obtained by varying the pencils according to the paper used.

Graphite sticks are graded from hard to soft as follows:

2B indicates hard.

4B indicates medium.

6B indicates soft.

Soft graphite sticks are used for both layouts and sketching. They are excellent for the broad stroke, where large areas of graded graphite are required. Sizes available are square (]A X lA X 3 inches) and rectangular (Vfc X lA X 3 inches).

Coarse papers, such as Canson and Mongolfier, demand relatively hard pencils such as HB, F, and 211, while layouts are made with an even harder pencil. The reason for using harder or softer pencils according to the quality of the paper is that paper is made of a weblike mass of interlaced fibers. When a pencil is passed over these fibers, it is worn down by the file action of the paper, which holds its particles in slight concavities. The rougher the paper, the more readily this file action occurs. The smoother the paper, the less the file action and the softer the pencil required.

Extremely rough paper, such as Canson and Mongolfier, is usually satisfactory for a large drawing and unsatisfactory for a small one, since drawing fine detail upon it is difficult. Medium-rough-surfaced paper, such as kid-finish bristol board, Strathmore paper, or rag-bond tracing paper, is best for general work, while pencil sketch-pad paper is fine for small studies.

Choice of Subject

Almost any subject can be rendered with the graphite pencil, ll must be remembered, however, that the pencil is a relatively pointed medium, and therefore is best suited for buildings with small detail and least suited for those with large, plain areas.

Preparing the Pencil

There are several basic methods of preparing the pencil for rendering, but before the point can be made ready for any of these methods, about % inch of the graphite must be bared with a knife, at the end opposite the grade mark. After

Flat Chisel Sketch

Conical Point

Bare % Inch of graphite and form conical point on sandpaper block.

Broad Stroke

Make point conical; then form flat surface by stroking It across a piece of scrap paper

Chisel Point

Step 1: Bare Inch of graphite.

Step 2: Flatten both sides of point on sandpaper block. Step 3: Flatten bottom of chisel to desired angle.

Chisel Point

Step 1: Bare Inch of graphite.

Step 2: Flatten both sides of point on sandpaper block. Step 3: Flatten bottom of chisel to desired angle.

Very Broad Stroke

Bare Ye Inch of graphite and flatten lower side on sandpaper block.

Very Broad Stroke

Bare Ye Inch of graphite and flatten lower side on sandpaper block.

Fig. 9.1 Ways of Preparing the Graphite Pencil.

this has been done, it must be decided how the pencil is to be used: as a penlike point, as a broad stroke (at an angle of about 4b degrees), as a very broad stroke (by holding it at an angle of as little as 20 degrees with the horizontal) as a chisel, or as a pencil "wash" (obtained by holding the side of the pencil practically flat with the paper). See Figure 9.1. Mechanical pencils are readily available for both fine-line detail drawings and broad-stroke sketching.

No matter what point isdesired, it can be worn to the desired shape by the use of a sandpaper block, fine files, or mechanical sharpener. After this, it should be smoothed down on a piece of scratch paper and wiped with a cloth to remove any loose graphite. For quick identification, some delineators prefer to mark the various grades they are using writh notches or cut-in rings, or with grade painted on all sides of the pencil. No matter how they are marked, time and effort can be saved by keeping the pencils in order, either on the drawing board or in the hand. For practice, sharpen four grade B pencils in the ways shown in Figure 9.1 and make the five different sets of practice strokes indicated in Figure 9.2 and described in the list below, using kid-finish bristol board.

a. Penlike strokes made with a conical point b. Pencil wash made by holding a conical point flat and moving it lightly back and forth across the paper c. Broad strokes d. Very broad strokes, made with pencil held at 20-degree angle (or less) with paper o. Chisel-point strokes

Note: A pencil can be used in many ways. Try them all and see which you like best.

Make these practice strokes carefully, deliberately, and as beautifully as possible. Each stroke should abut the next, with perhaps a small amount of white between them. Try building up values not only by strokes of even pressure, but by varying hand pressure (Figure 9.3), as followrs:

a. Begin with light pressure and end with heavy.

b. Begin with heavy pressure and end with light.

c. Curve strokes by bearing down on one side of the pencil point more than the other.

d. Grade by use of graduated pressure or by building graded values with the side of the pencil.

Further exercises utilizing various grades of pencils will now be helpful. Remember that each stroke on a final rendering should be clean and concise, without fuzzy edges or a fuzzy texture. The pencil chosen will vary according to the value desired. An HB or F pencil will give a sharp, clean stroke on the light side of the building, while a 2B or 3B pencil will give a similar clean, but darker, stroke on the shade side.

Practicing Materials and Textures

Before beginning a final rendering it is a good idea to practice various parts of it on the same paper that is to be used for the final rendering, and at the same scale. Since each person's individual style will differ, only general suggestions for technique can be given here, but no matter what the technique, one major premise must be kept in mind: The Tenderer should not attempt to capture the realism of a photograph, or the drawing will be monotonous and lack interest and life. There will be occasions when more or less contrast than a normal photograph will be required. What is more important, the light and dark masses of the sketch must be manipulated so that they form a pleasing composition. If the normal pattern of light and dark is followed, the picture may become complicated and trite. Generally speaking, the major effect of such a picture pattern will be determined by the dark mass, and all other parts of the pattern must be related to it. Compare Figure 9.4, Relation of Dark Mass to Pattern, with a similar final rendering, Figure 9.19. Care must be taken in the indication of subordinate parts of the picture to fit them into the predetermined general pattern; otherwise camouflage, instead of clarity, will result. Similarly, if completely accurate rendering of local color and detail results in spottiness, these elements should be subordinated. Remember that the form of the building or object must be easily understood when the rendering is finished.

Methods of Indicating Textures

Roof shingles. Cover the roof area with some strokes parallel to the ridge and with others parallel to the pitch of the roof (Figure 9.5, sketches a 1 anda2). These can be drawn in relatively short strokes, leaving plenty of light between them and between groups of strokes. When this has been done, shingle butts and joints between shingles can be drawn over the base wash in wavy, varying lines, using a pointed pencil. Purposely avoid drawing too many of these, particularly joints between shingles. The base washes will vary in intensity according to the local color of the shingles to be used. For a white roof, for instance, no general value need be laid down first.

Tile roof. Follow the same procedure for flat shingles, except that the edges of the tile, like the single butts for flat shingles, should be drawn with the sharp point of the pencil (Figure 9.5, sketches ¿)1 and 52).

Wall shingles. To render shingles in sunlight, give the wall a pencil wash similar to that described for roof shingles. To render them in shade, render each shingle separately, using vertical strokes, leaving the vertical joints white. Then draw

Hand Rendering Shingles
Fig. 9.5 Textures: Shingles, Tiles. Clapboards.

in dark, wavy lines under some of the shingle butts (Figure 9.5, sketches c 1 and c2).

Siding or clapboards. Draw the joint lines lightly. Then add a light wash with perhaps an H or F pencil over the entire area, varying ii so that it is lighter here and darker there. Draw slightly wavy, freehand shadows under the butts and at the joints. Vary these in intensity and leave some of them out in order to avoid monotony (Figure 9.5, sketch d).

Flush boards. These can be rendered similarly to siding or clapboards. The joints between the boards should be kept thin, and can be drawn in with a T square and a sharp-edged pencil, using a wiping motion to avoid monotony ( Figure 9.5, sketch e).

Stucco or Cement

The value of stucco or cement will depend upon its actual local color, as well as how it will Fit in with the total pictorial composition. It should be remembered that even white stucco will have a light-gray quality in shade. If any value is given to the stucco in sunlight, it should be done with an II or 2H pencil. Sometimes it is best not to put a wash on the light side at all, but to indicate texture by the use of dots made with a fairly hard pencil (Figure 9.6, sketch ¿0.

Stone

Cut stone. Cut stones, such as limestone or granite, are rendered in a manner similar to stucco, except, of course, that joints must be indicated. If the entire

Fig. 9.6 Textures: Stucco, Stone, Brick.

will] is covered with joints, they will be monotonous; therefore eliminate many of them, making them appear "washed out" by bright light in certain areas (Figure 9.6, sketch e).

Fietdstone. Draw the pattern of fieldstone with a sharply pointed B pencil. Remember that its local color will vary from very light to medium dark, and therefore each stone must be rendered separately. 'Fry using vertical lines to express the verticality of the wall. Generally speaking, it is advisable not to render all stones, but only enough to express the texture of the wall. In most cases this means showing the stones at the edges, top, and bottom of the walls. A pleasing pattern can be formed by leaving streaks of white running in the direction of the sun's rays, with perhaps an occasional stone or joint breaking into this area (Figure 9.6, sketch f).

Brick. There are two ways of rendering brick in pencil, according to the scale of the drawing. In both cases the brick joints should first be drawn in lightly. For a small scale — say Vfe inch = 1 foot — a general wash, varying in intensity, should first be put upon the wall surface. Remember to leave plenty of light areas. The brick joints can then be put in with slightly wavy lines, varying in intensity throughout the drawing. Here and there the faces of a few of the bricks can be rendered (Figure 9.6, sketch b).

Bricks at larger scale — say lA inch = 1 foot—can best be rendered by a broad stroke, the width of a single brick course, leaving the joints white. Monotony can be avoided by the occasional omission of bricks and the inclusion of diagonal strokes made in the direction of light rays (Figure 9.6, sketch c).

Bricks in shade are merely rendered darker by the use of a softer pencil. In shadow, bricks are rendered individually with clean, sharp strokes, leaving the joints white and giving an occasional shadow next to or on top of some of the bricks (Figure 9.6, sketch d).

Rendering Windows

As mentioned in Chapter 5, one of the most important things to remember in rendering windows is that sash and glass usually occupy a position slightly back

Value Schell Lewis Renderings
Fig. 9.7 Rendering of Windows. Housing Project. (Renderer: Schell Lewis.)

from the face of the wall. In addition to the outside reveal thus formed, an inner reveal, which may or may not be covered by curtains, also exists. In small window openings (particularly if Venetian blinds, shades, or curtains are used) the amount of the inside of the building that can be seen is so limited that dark shading of varying intensity can be used to indicate the interior.

A small window such as the one shown in Figure 9.7a is best rendered as follows:

1. Draw the window complete with shade, blinds, curtains, etc.

2. Darken that portion of the window not obscured by the items as shown.

3. Put in shade at head and jamb.

4. Put in shadows cast by muntins and meeting rail on curtains and blinds.

5. Put in shadows cast on glass by muntins and meeting rail.

In order to avoid monotony, use a varying line pressure when doing the above five steps.

If the glass opening is large, and the glass is not in glare, the glass itself can be treateci as nonexistent. Furniture and furnishings inside the building must be meticulously drawn and shaded in values that will not conflict with those on the exterior of the building. Plants and patterned materials inside the glass opening should be rendered in a subdued manner so that they will not attract undue attention in relation to the whole picture.

Architecture Perspective With Trees
Fig. 9.8 The Perspective of Trees.

Rendering Entourage

Foliage. Foliage should be practiced before it is drawn on the final rendering. Its location and size can be determined in the value study. Remember that while there may be large trees and certain bushes on the site that cannot be moved, those that you add can be placed wherever you wish. When you practice drawing foliage, keep the following rules in mind.

1. Limit the amount of foliage to the necessary minimum. Too much will draw attention away from the building itself.

2. Remember that foliage should complement the architecture and not detract from it; therefore, do not make it more conspicuous than the building itself.

3. Show only live-looking specimens. This is no time to indicate trees that have been struck by lightning or otherwise partially destroyed.

4. Rarely, if ever, should only one tree or bush be indicated in any location; a grouping is always much more pleasant to look at.

Realism in the indication of trees comes with the realization that a tree is never an isolated thing. The greatest realism in shrubbery is obtained by drawing generalized, light-valued trees in the distance, slightly detailed; larger, darker trees in the mid-distance; and still larger, darker, and more detailed trees in the foreground (Figure 9.8). The latter are near the spectator's eye, and therefore the bark, tree structure, and leaves must be exceedingly well drawn. A

j general description of iree structure is given in Chapter 8, so we will confine our discussion here to the various ways of rendering trees in pencil.

To draw trees in pencil, first block out the rough shape of the tree with a 2B pencil, then draw the trunk, branches, and twigs lightly but as completely as possible. Remember that the branches and twigs radiate from the trunk in all directions, not only to the left and right. Remember also that the total cross-sec-tional area of any particular group of branches, twigs, etc., must be slightly less than the part of the tree from which this group springs. Draw all parts of the tree from the ground up, using ''growth-motion strokes" as shown in Figure 9.9. Most of all, remember that even though it will take some time todoit, the entire structure of the tree, including a number of twigs, should be drawn or it will not look real. A rule of thumb is to always draw the tree structure from the ground up, as the tree grows, and in short, straight strokes, each deviating in direction from the previous one below.

Strokes. In drawing the structure of the tree, some of the shading strokes may follow the length of the members that they fall on, and some strokes, particularly shadows, can be drawn around the members. As in all pencil work, leave some areas of the tree structure white.

Foliage In the mid-distance. As foliage is made up of a series of masses, it is first necessary to block these in lightly. Leave holes in the foliage masses and draw branches in these spaces. Using the side of the pencil (and remembering that there should be no hard edges to the foliage masses), practice making light strokes. Use an F pencil for the foliage in sunlight, and a B or 2B for foliage in shade and shadow (Figure 9.10, sketch a). Touch the paper with the flat of a broad-stroke pencil and go back and forth in as many different directions as you can without taking the pencil off the paper, turning the pencil as you go. This method can also be used for bushes (Figure 9.1 1).

Fig. 9.9 Drawing the Tree Structure with Growth-Motion Strokes.

Fig. 9.9 Drawing the Tree Structure with Growth-Motion Strokes.

From The Ground Sketch
Note Always draw tree structure from the ground up. as the tree grows, and In short, straight strokes, each deviating in direction from the one below

a. Branches of a foreground tree b. Radial broadstrokes used for foliage of a mid-distance tree c. Locating shade areas d Leaving the pencil on the paper and radiating strokes in qli directions a. Branches of a foreground tree b. Radial broadstrokes used for foliage of a mid-distance tree c. Locating shade areas d Leaving the pencil on the paper and radiating strokes in qli directions

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Fig. 9.10 Drawing Foliage Masses.

Trees and bushes in the foreground. For detailed trees or bushes in I he foreground, groups of individual leaves must be shown (Figure 9. lOa-d and Figure 9.1 la and c). The shape of the leaves will vary with the species shown.

Fig. 9.10 Drawing Foliage Masses.

Trunk textures. The trunk texture, of course, depends upon the kind of tree. It need not be detailed, but can be shown in a generalized way. Texture on tree trunks in

Fig. 1.6 The Marble Plan of Rome. Fragment 184.

Fig. 1.4 A Plan on Limestone of the Tomb of Rameses IX.

Fig. 1.5 Clay Tablet with Plan of Nippur.

Fig. 1.6 The Marble Plan of Rome. Fragment 184.

$) or on limestone (Figure 1.4). Both of the plans illustrated were drawn in veral colors of ink to represent the various materials shown. W hile this remarkable development was going on in Egypt, a similar develop-n t toward the pictorial was in progress in Babylonia and Assyria. There earth, id scape, fields, and buildings were drawn on clay tablets with a pointed stick, irved lines were avoided because they were difficult to draw in soft clay :.gure 1.5).

Although there are many epigraphic and literary references to a developed - -tem of architectural drawing in ancient Greece, none of these drawings has • n found. This is probably because they were made using such perishable aerials as whitened or waxed wood, lead or charcoal on wood, and pottery, thorities who have studied the administration of the Greek temples explain wit the choice of wood or marble depended on the importance of the document i the length of time it was to last. Architectural plans were evidently classified . - temporary.

The early Roman works were built by Greeks. A Greek architect, for example, s imported for the construction of the temples of Jupiter and Juno, both of ; ich were built in Rome in 146 B.C. But because the practical side of architec-rH appealed to the Romans, they soon undertook the work for themselves. " nermae, amphitheaters, basilicas, temples, aqueducts, bridges, tombs, pal-s and houses all testify to the ability the Romans eventually developed, -re is little doubt that drawings must have been used in building these great rks. Their very complexity and the perfection of parts are proof enough. Yet me, like Greece, left few drawings, and only record plans on marble, such as le Marble Plan of Rome" (Figure 1.6) have survived.

Fig. 1.4 A Plan on Limestone of the Tomb of Rameses IX.

The Development of Rendering / 3

e

a. -d Four methods of rendering shrubbery e. -h. Tree trunk textures: e. Paper birch, t, Sycamore, g. Shagbark history, h. Black locust the foreground should be detailed as carefully as possible. Some suggestions are shown in Figure 9.11 c-h. Generally, if one remembers that a tree is made upol a series of cylindrical (not flat) members, more realistic tree drawings will result.

Rendering Grass

Grass can be rendered in several ways:

1. By parallel vertical strokes for the entire grass area

2. By some vertical strokes for only those areas of grass which are in shadow, leaving the remainder of the lawn white

3. By horizontal strokes

No matter what technique is used, the grass will become lighter as it recedes into the distance.

Tree shadows on grass. Shadows on grass areas should first be constructed on tracing paper so that they look realistic. First draw the shadow of the tree trunk and its branches upon the ground, remembering to foreshorten the total shadow sufficiently so that it appears to lie flat on the ground. Each portion of the foliage mass, which is approximately spherical in shape, will cast its own small elliptical shadow upon the grass. These will overlap to form a shadow which will have a number of light areas in it (see Figure 8.5). Grass in the shadow areas will, of course, be darker than grass in the sun. Effort should be made to minimize detail in the shadow; otherwise it will detract from the building.

Walkways and roadways are generally kept light. It is usual toshow roadways without texture, but some delineators prefer to indicate the motion of traffic by an overlapping series of tire marks. Walkways, on the other hand, may be built of any of several materials of distinctive texture, such as brick, flagstone, or cobblestone, and for these the foreground at least may be detailed by shading the individual components of the walk, joining the values together here and there by the use of an 11 or 2H pencil. Whatever joints are indicated, either in roadways or walkways, must be drawn with a fine light stroke, since they are invariably seen in quite a foreshortened manner.

Outdoor steps. Vertical strokes are usually used to express the vertically of outdoor risers and to draw attention to them.

Remember that the value of a shadow, wherever it falls, is determined by the material it falls upon. On grass, it is quite dark. On a roadway or walkway made of light material, it is correspondingly light. As with shadows on lawns, tree shadows on roadways and walkways should be constructed so that their appearance is believable.

For additional interest, streets and walks may be assumed to be wet, as from

Fig. 9 11 Bushes and Tree Trunks.

the movement (Figure 9.12). This can be a plain sky or a cloudy one, depending upon the type of building.

Since the pencil strokes themselves are so definite that they do not lend themselves to clouds, the clouds are sometimes rubbed down and softened in the surrounding areas by the use of a cardboard stump. Some delineators find that the side-of-the-pencil technique is better for skies than the broad-stroke technique, because it minimizes texture.

Scale Figures

See the discussion of these embellishments in Chapter 8. Making a Pencil Rendering

To create the rendering shown in Figure 9.12, a line perspective was drawn on white bond tracing paper. Another piece of tracing paper was placed over the perspective and the lines of the building and the surrounding areas were traced upon it. This paper was then turned face down, and each line was drawn on the back. Then this drawing was placed right side up on top of a piece of kid-finish bristol board, with the perspective in the proper position, and each line was traced with an HB pencil. Care was taken not to groove the bristol board, since grooves show up as white lines in a Finished rendering.

Charcoal Study

Next, a new piece of tracing paper was placed over the tracing-paper perspective and a charcoal study was made as described in Chapter 7. In thischarcoal study, it quickly became apparent that the perspective of the building at the left side of the sheet would have to be stopped in some way, so several trees and a tree branch in the sky were introduced. The horizontal sky accomplishes a similar task. A light source from the front and upper right waschosen because it gave the opportunity to express the forms of the building most clearly. It was decided at this time that the roof fascias of the building should be left light and that a dark sky and trees behind it should be used to make the building stand out.

Shading

1. The first values to be rendered were those on the sides and soffits of the grid. All these, except those on the second floor, were put in with an I IB pencil with a broad-stroke point, and were drawn in perspective in order to help express the shape of these members. The shading on the first floor was purposely made vertical to relieve the monotony.

2. The light values on the glass of the upper floor were next washed in with an H pencil, and the shadows upon the glass were rendered with long, clean strokes, using a 2B pencil.

3. On the shade side of the building, the smooth-cut stone was shaded with an F pencil, the strokes being made in perspective. The cut stone was shaded by rendering each stone separately, some light, some dark, for interest and local color. The joints were permitted to remain white, and the monotony of the stonework was eventually relieved by creating white streaks with a Ruby eraser.

4. 'Fhe shadow on the adjoining portion oft lie building was rendered with I Ili and B pencils, and reflections on the lighter part of the building were introduced with a Ruby eraser.

5. The lower portion of the building was rendered with an F pencil for the

Fig. 9.13o Preliminary Study for a Church. (Architect: O'Connor and Kilham, Architects. Renderer: Schell Lewis.)

Broadstroke Pencil Drawing

Fig. 9.13o Preliminary Study for a Church. (Architect: O'Connor and Kilham, Architects. Renderer: Schell Lewis.)

light areas and a B pencil for the dark areas. The street and the building in the distance lo the left were put in with an HB pencil, as was the sky.

6. The stone of the plant pocket at street level was rendered with H and HB pencils, while the shrubbery and the palm trees were indicated with F, B, and 2B pencils.

7. Fhe perspective was Fixed with clear pastel fixative.

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