In Lighting Modern Buildings1 the Case Studies were divided into eleven categories from Residential to Institutional/Public Buildings, as representing the different building functions. When discussing daylighting this categorization is less appropriate, since the criteria for daylighting art galleries have many of the same characteristics as the daylighting of supermarkets, despite the fact that the final solutions may be very different. A decision has been made not to repeat any of the Case Studies from the former book, but it may be of interest as an aide memoire to mention one or two in the area of the new categories. The eight new categories used are as follows:
• Offices To include public buildings and institutions
• Residential To includes homes, hospitals and hotels
• Education To include schools and university buildings
• Ecclesiastical To include churches and chapels
• Leisure To include leisure centres, sports halls and restaurants
• Display To include art galleries and shops
• Transport To include over- and underground buildings
• Industrial To include any form of industrial use.
A brief introduction to these categories is included, with illustrations of one or two of the original projects, where daylighting was critical.
Six offices were included in Lighting Modern Buildings, the most techically advanced in terms of daylighting being the solar office by Studio E in Doxford, where photovoltaic panels are employed to harness energy. The BA offices at Waterside are also an excellent example of daylighting in offices for a corporate headquarters.
Offices are one of the programmes where the requirements of vision are critical, and therefore the daylighting design must meet stringent requirements in terms of illumination level, and glare control; but where the intangibles are also of importance, such as the view out. In the
1 Lighting Modern Buildings. Architectural Press, published 2000
following examples it will be seen that the nature of the window design becomes crucial, with high tech designs being developed in buildings such as Hopkin's ''Portcullis House'' where the ventilation system is linked with the needs of acoustics, and daylighting to achieve a holistic solution.
The daylighting of residences is perhaps the least difficult problem for architects, but it becomes more of a problem interpreted by an hotel. Some of the finest examples of daylighting of homes was during the modern movement when the new solutions to structural problems allowed large areas of glazing.
It is in the field of educational buildings that some of the most innovative daylight solutions have been developed because the education authorities are insistant that in any new buildings for schools and universities the question of energy savings is fully investigated and solutions adopted.
The daylighting of churches has usually been dealt with in a satisfactory manner, because of the economic imperative. A church is not occupied for many hours in the day, but is visited more often. Therefore the daylighting must be sufficient for general use, perhaps backed up by additional artificial lighting when the church is in use.
An exception to this is the Methodist Church in Wisconsin, where a high tech solution has been adopted to overcome the difficulties associated with the climate, and the site, leading to an economic solution, well related to its location within a hillside (Case Study, pp 142-143).
This is a further example where it is recognized that daylighting is best and many examples could be found of swimming pools, leisure centres and sports halls relying entirely on daylighting during the day, provided that associated problems of solar glare can be overcome.
A particularly interesting example of Sports Lighting is in the Chelsea Club, where the natural advantages of the ''view out'' have been eliminated. The use of a special wall panelling permits daylight to enter, but which restricts the view in to allow for the paramount need in this instance for privacy, in contrast to a further example of leisure lighting in which daylight has totally replaced the need for artificial light.
Cranfield College Library
This category was incorporated in the previous book by Shops/Display and Art Galleries, but is now amalgamated into a single category, since, while the functions of a project may differ widely, the criteria demanded are not dissimilar.
There may be little similarity between the interior of the Sainsbury Supermarket in Greenwich, and the lighting of the Charioteer statue in Delphi; but the object, that of emphasis on the one hand, of the goods on display, and on the other, the folds in the stone statue's garments, are both derived successfully from overhead daylighting. The difference in the case of Sainsbury, being the additional artificial lighting to highlight the gondolas with their display of goods for sale.
Whilst above ground transport buildings were generally designed for the economic use of daylight, with airports and railway stations leading the field, the concepts had rarely been applied to underground stations, so this is an area ripe for development.
The Jubilee Line stations are a good example, where daylighting has been considered an important part of the brief, carrying on the tradition of good design of the original underground stations, but with the addition of daylight (Case Study, pp 180-187).
The King Khalid Airport, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Some industrial installations require high levels of lighting for manufacture and assembly which cannot be provided by daylight alone; however daylight can be used successfully to provide the overall environmental light, whilst artificial light can supplement this where required. Many factories were built for various reasons in the twentieth century to exclude the natural source.
There is little that resembles ''the dark satanic mills'' of the 19th Century in our latest factory designs, and a fine example of this is the Cummins Engine Company Factory built near Manston Airport in Kent (Case Study, pp 190-191). Lit by lines of overhead daylighting, it also provides side lighting from large windows, which add a light and airy appearance to the interior. Such buildings do have to rely on artificial lighting for the dull days, and ideally these should have daylight linking, to ensure that the electric light is used only when required.
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