Secrets of the Deep Sky

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Secrets of the Deep Sky

Brian Ventrudo, author of Secrets of the Deep Sky, reveals how to look beyond the easy sights such as Venus, Mars, the Pleiades star cluster, and the moon, and find the much deeper parts of the beautiful night sky that most people never get see. You will learn to increase the reach of your telescope to look farther into the sky, and find any object of the night sky that you want to see. You will learn the celestial coordinate system, to learn how to map any object in the sky. You can also learn to estimate distances in the night sky. You can learn to change your field of view to see wide objects like massive nebula, and simple techniques to preserve your night vision and increase the sensitivity of your eyes by 20-40x. This eBook guide shows everyone, from the beginner to the more experience stargazer the best tricks to get the most out of every night sky. Read more...

Secrets of the Deep Sky Summary

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Astronomy In The New Testament

Renan was apparently the first scientist to point out that the biblical book of the Apocalypse contains the verbal description of a horoscope ( 725 ). Not being an astronomer himself, Renan did not date the horoscope, in spite of the fact that the dating of the Apocalypse was of the greatest interest. ( 765 , page 135). But the precise astronomical solution for the Apocalypse horoscope does exist, and it is both unique and unequivocal. This horoscope dates from the 1 October 1486 a.d. (See details below.)

Mediaeval Astronomy In The Old Testament Book Of Ezekiel

Ezekiel Face Wheel Pictures

We shall now return to the mediaeval charts. They often depict planet orbits as concentric wheels, with the Earth in the centre. They reflect the initial concepts of the mediaeval astronomers who used to view Earth We witness mediaeval astronomy on the pages of The celestial temple is depicted as a large hall on dozens of late mediaeval charts as a well-known astronomical object, exactly the way the Biblical prophecy refers to it. A temple, or a hall in the sky can be seen in the book by P. Apianus, for instance ( 1013 , fig. 4.10). Similar celestial palaces can be seen in the book by Bacharach dating from 1545 ( 1021 ) - on the so-called Egyptian Zodiac. See also 543 , pages 81-82, ills. 39-50 and 51. The celestial hall merely reflects the cosmological concepts of the mediaeval astronomers. We can see planets, their orbits, the zodiac, constellations, their movement, etc. This is the pre-Copernican mediaeval cosmology. We may be told that the mediaeval astronomers merely drew the...

History of the New Chronology

In 1981, immediately after our first publications on chronology appeared, the History Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences gathered for a special session on June 29, 1981, that had the criticism of our work as its main objective. The Learned Secretary of the History Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Cand. Hist. Sci. V. V. Volkov and the Learned Secretary of the Principal Tendencies of Human Society Development Council of the History Department of the Academy N. D. Loutzkov sent A. T. Fomenko an official note saying, among other things, that The Department's session took place on 29 June, 1981, conducted by the Vice Academician Secretary of the Department, the Academician Y. V. Bromley Your conclusions were sharply criticized by the specialists of six humanities institutes as well as the staff members of the Sternberg Institute of Astronomy (8 May 1984).

The Veracity Of The Scaligerpetavius Chronology Was Questioned As Early As The Xvi Century

Isaac Newton (1642-1727), an English mathematician, mechanician, astronomer, and physicist, the creator of classical mechanics, member of the Royal Society of London since 1672 and its president since 1703 had developed differential and integral calculus (independently from G. Leibnitz). He had discovered light dispersion and chromatic aberration, researched diffraction and interference, worked on the development of the corpuscular theory of light, made a hypothesis that combined the concepts of waves and particles, as well as building the reflecting telescope, formulating the principal laws of classical mechanics, discovering the Gravity Law, formulating the theory of movement of celestial bodies and the founding principles of celestial mechanics (The Soviet Encyclopaedic Dictionary, Moscow, 1979, page 903). See fig. 1.13 for a portrait of Sir Isaac Newton.

Sawai Jai Singhs Observatories

Almost as much as for founding a city, Sawai Jai Singh is remembered today as India's 'astronomer king' and as the builder of the splendid astronomical observatories known as Jantar Mantar (illus. 40, 41). Of these, the largest and best-preserved are in Jaipur (within the palace boundary or sarahad) and in Delhi. There is some uncertainty about the dates of their construction. The one in Jaipur appears to have been completed by 1734 but may have been founded as early as 1718,62 nearly a decade before the founding of the city (and certainly it would have been sensible to construct astronomical instruments on the open plain by the hunting ground rather than in the congested city of Amber). The one in Delhi was built in 1724 5 for the Mughal Emperor, but on land that was owned The name 'Jantar Mantar' combines a corruption of yantra ('instrument') with a euphonic suffix. The major instruments concerned are the Samrat Yantra, a gigantic sundial in the form of a right-angled triangle with...

From Tract I on architecture mid1670s

Renaissance architecture in Britain in the second half of the seventeenth century is today synonymous with the name of Christopher Wren, who built upon the classicism of Jones. Wren was a man of commanding intelligence, having established his reputation in his early years as a classical scholar, mathematician, founding member of the Royal Society (of science), and as a professor of astronomy at Gresham College in London. His interest in architecture very much grew out of his scientific endeavors. In 1663 he was asked to give structural advice on the remodeling of the old church of St. Paul's Cathedral in London around the same time he was also asked to prepare designs for two buildings at Oxford. In 1665, in order to enhance his architectural knowledge, Wren made a trip to France, where he was able to meet Bernini, Francois Mansart, and Louis Le Vau. The great London fire of 1666 essentially mandated his change of profession. He was first appointed to a six-member committee charged...

Surespans Hatches Allow Space Observation

When open they enable both telescopes to point at any part of the night sky and move around freely within a 2.5 metre diameter. The observatory, which opened earlier this year, Is sited on top of Black Fell, a hill close to the Scottish border and overlooking Klelder village In Northumberland. The area was chosen because of Its lack of light and air pollution which allows professional and amateur astronomers to enjoy a clear view of the night sky. The new facility hopes to encourage more people to develop their Interest In astronomy and welcomes visits from researchers and small school groups. Surespan designs and manufactures access hatches to suit all types of Internal and external applications. Ranging from FACTA Class A to F loadings, their hatches are available In standard sizes or can be custom made to suit your needs. They also provide smoke release dampers, roof lights, floor ducting, handrail fittings and a comprehensive range of ladders, which can all be built to order....

Laboratories in research buildings main features and developments

The schools of the ancient world, for example the Museion at Alexandria, the Atheneum at Athens, the Medrese in Cordoba, Toledo, Syracuse, Baghdad, Damascus, or Samarkand - even though teaching medicine, mathematics, and astronomy - did not comprise laboratories. At the beginning of occidental history, the preparation of remedies was carried out in a manual non-scientific way on the basis of tradition and empirical experience. After 1870, laboratories and research institutes of the industry could be found at paint and chemical producers BASF, Hoechst, Bayer, and Agfa, and at large companies, for example Krupp (from 1863 on) and Siemens (after 1905). In 1928, AEG began building one of the most modern industrial research institutes, but also Schering, Zeiss, Schott, and many other firms recognised the necessity of research for their entrepreneurial future. Over time, the new institutes for chemistry, pharmacy, astronomy, physics, etc. developed specific requirements in terms of natural...

Preface by Anatoly T Fomenko

One often hears the question about what could possibly motivate a mathematician into wanting to study a seemingly historical problem. The answer is as follows. My primary interests are those of a professional mathematician they are thus rather distant from historical and chronological issues. However, in the early 70's, namely, in 1972-1973,1 had to deal with the dates of ancient eclipses during my studies of one of the key problems in celestial mechanics (see Chroni, Chapter 2 for more details). It had to do with computing the so-called coefficient D in the Theory of Lunar Motion. The parameter characterizes acceleration and is computed as a time function on a large historical interval. The computations were performed by Robert Newton, a contemporary American astronomer and astrophysicist. Upon their completion, he had made the unexpected discovery of parameter D behaving in the most peculiar manner, namely, performing an inex It was equally true, however, that fitting something like...

Twentyfour Sidereal Hours And The Constellation Of The Northern Crown

Any complete astronomy textbook points out that in the days of yore the sky was divided into twenty-four wing-shaped stripes, that is, into twenty-four meridional sectors which converge at the poles of the celestial sphere. (See 542 , page 44, or 544, Volume 1, page 7, ill. 6, for instance). These sectors are also called sidereal hours, or direct stellar ascension hours. The twenty-four hours define the celestial coordinate system, which can clearly be seen in the mediaeval image of the celestial globe in Zacharias Bornman's book (fig. 3.12). Thus, each elder of the Apocalypse apparently is a star hour in the equatorial system of coordinates, which is the division standard for the celestial sphere in astronomy.

Brief Account Of Several Examples Of Egyptian Zodiacs

Description Egypte

However, the dating of horoscopes is a tricky business. The concept of using astronomy for the purposes of dating old documents was already familiar to I. Scaliger and the rest of the XVI-XVII century chronologers. Thus, the ones responsible for the forgery of history may have employed this concept and must have certainly done so. Since the written sources have largely been edited in the XVII-XVIII centuries, as we understand, the astronomical information contained therein may also be a forgery - especially in cases when this did not require much time and effort, as with horoscopes. The astronomers of the XVI-XVII centuries already knew planetary revolution periods well, and could calculate horoscopes for any given date, including those belonging to days long gone. ple in Egypt. Multiple attempts by XIX-XX century astronomers to find ancient solutions that would fit the horoscope depicted on the Zodiacs, have failed to yield any results. Such eminent scientists as Laplace, Fourier,...

Education of Designers

As much art as science, the design professions are not simply technical disciplines, having to do with the intersection of form, materials, technology, and real estate. The design professions such as architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning are first and foremost practical liberal arts with technical aspects. Writing in the first century BC, Vitruvius (1960, 5-6) proposed that architects be educated, skilful with the pencil, instructed in geometry, know much history, have followed the philosophers with attention, understand music, have some knowledge of medicine, know the opinions of the jurists, and be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens. That is a start of a liberal and liberating education. Therefore, design education ought to be a part of a broad

Windows and opacities

Outside the forum of the treatise proper, what was referred to as perspective around 1600 was a large body of phenomena, dealing not only with goldsmithing and machines, but with alchemy and theology. It was also frequently imbricated with senses other than sight. For the Oxford occultist Robert Fludd (b.1574), perspective was one of the liberal arts, along with astronomy, geomancy, and music. In his colossal treatise, De Naturae

General Information About The Apocalypse And The Time Of Its Creation

Lifshitz noted that the author of the Apocalypse is quite familiar with astronomy the images of the dragon, beasts, horses, and so forth that he describes resemble the figures of the constellations in the celestial sphere, which are similarly designated on the mediaeval star charts ( 489 , pages 235-236). Apparently, some time after the Apocalypse was written, its explicit astronomical meaning was forgotten. Even if some professional astronomer noted

The Education Of The Architect

The subjects he prescribed are not far removed from a liberal arts curriculum in present-day institutions. They include eleven disciplines. Drawing is needed in order to make sketches. Geometry helps one to employ a rule and compass in making a design and also to figure proportions. Optics is useful to determine the quality of light in buildings. Arithmetic is needed to calculate costs and dimensions. History helps one to explain features of famous buildings to clients. Philosophy provides the basis for cultivating personal virtues. Physics is needed to understand the laws of nature. Music, as an intellectual rather than a practical pursuit, helps one to acquire mathematical theory (related to acoustics) and to tune weapons. Medicine is useful in judging the health conditions of building sites. Law informs one about regulations related to building. And astronomy helps one to understand the harmony of the universe. Although each of those subjects is individually important, he...

Paschalian Calculator

For zodiacal constellations, for example. This can mean that astrology had been born relatively recently, in the epoch when the means of communication between the astronomers of different countries had already been developed well enough to provide for regular information exchange and a similar astrological language - in Europe and in Egypt, for instance. Nowadays we have a rather vague concept of the way of thinking pertinent to mediaeval astrologer astronomers. The astrological hue had been dominant in the perception of many mediaeval scientists, not just astronomers. Mediaeval books on astronomy are filled with astrological symbolism despite the fact that they describe real celestial events. These books weren't written in a cipher - this was the usual way of writing down celestial observations understood to both writers and readers. For instance, dates of death on gravestones and monuments, or memorable dates, have been often written down as horoscopes - in other words, drawn as the...

Certainty And Doubt

The impact of the telescope and the new sciences of astronomy and optics on existing understandings of vision was further complicated by developments in the representational techniques of visual art. Just as the art of lens manufacture upset the contemplative stance of natural philosophy by pointing to a world of mathematical principles underlying sensory experience, so other arts also contributed to this process, not least painting. Leon Battista Alberti's On Painting (1435) offers a practical methodology for single-point perspective, based on the vanishing point as the organizing principle of the picture plane.3 While Alberti's text is more concerned to offer a practical guide than a mathematical exposition, and while he famously claimed that the artist is concerned only with what is directly available in visual experience, his method depends on an initial geometrical organization of the picture plane which, although subsequently effaced, underpins the resulting representation. The...

Mark Cousins

Let him be educated not educated in something, just educated skilful with the pencil, instructed in geometry, know much history, have followed the philosophers with attention, understand music, have some knowledge of medicine, know the opinions of the jurists, and be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens.4 'Skilful with the pencil, instructed in geometry.' All he really says about this is that it would enable the architect, as if it were an optional extra, to make plans. And, actually he says in the same breath, arithmetic is also quite useful as this enables you to charge the client the correct amount. It is not given any great emphasis. Why should the architect be well versed in history His knowledge of history should be able to entertain visitors to his building such that he would be able both to make and explain ornamentation that is the story of this, this is in memory of that. Why should the architect study philosophy Because 'it makes an architect high-minded...

Makers and breakers

It is certainly associated with a grappling with limits, and in its widest interpretation, could be viewed as 'culture', the sum total of our efforts to protect ourselves from the contingencies of nature, standing in opposition to 'tuche', luck. Techne encompasses everything from crafts such as house or boat building, to arts such as dancing or music playing, to sciences such as mathematics or astronomy. In The Fragility of Goodness, Martha Nussbaum (1989) cites four features common to all these forms of techne universality, teachability, precision and concern with explanation. Such criteria, however, do not lead to consensus, in ancient Greece or now. Nussbaum describes two versions of techne found in Plato's Protagoras that of Protagoras himself, and that of Socrates. Socrates' definition favours the sciences, the more practical and effective kinds, those that can measure and be measured ' W hat is measurable or commensurable is graspable, knowable, in order, good what is without...

Joel Mokyrs Theory

Mokyr is not fully clear on the conditions that create variation (or innovation ). He calls the creation of new useful knowledge mutation, and defines such mutations as discoveries about natural phenomena , but does not specify a mechanism for it. He does suggest that the creation of new techniques often results from new combinations of knowledge in Q. He refers to the possibility of a general drive in human agents to devote resources to innovation, but does not develop this idea. Moreover, new techniques need not result from new (combinations of) knowledge. Techniques can also change through experience and learning by doing, or may emerge from pure novelty like mutations. The use of new techniques may also influence the set of useful knowledge . For instance, the invention of telescopes impacted knowledge of astronomy, and early steam engines influenced the development of theoretical physics. So technological evolution, in Mokyr's theory, may also involve Lamarckian feedback...

The Bedouin

Centuries of migration through desert terrain have honed spatial perceptions. When moving by day, the Bedouin are guided by an acute awareness of subtle changes of hue and form, wind direction and humidity, the terrain and scents of the desert. At night, they depend on their gathered knowledge of astronomy to navigate the desert vastness, as well as shadows cast by moonlight and the changing sounds and feel of the land surface underfoot.


The site for the new building lies within the mature gardens of Madingley Rise (see Figure 12.1), a large Victorian house occupied by the Department of Earth Sciences, and describes an arc between the house to the south and its stables building to the north. It will provide 816m2 of accommodation, arranged on three floors, comprising a full ground and first with a basement floor on the western side only, and will accommodate 30 people. Discussions with the Department indicated that the best way to suit the needs of the research staff would be to provide a number of individual offices of varying size, as well as an area in open plan format, together with a director's office, meeting room, and ancillary service areas. Access to the completed building will be from the existing roads currently serving both Earth Sciences and the Institute of Astronomy.

The Site

A fourth misconception is the idea that the regularity of Jaipur's plan is an indication of European influence.26 It is true that Sawai Jai Singh's activities in the field of astronomy were informed to a limited extent by Western science and certainly as a patron he was open to foreign ideas. But Jaipur's contact with Europe historically came after the establishment of the city.27 More importantly, external influence is not necessary since the plan can be wholly explained within the indigenous system. It is perhaps tempting for European writers to see Western influence everywhere, and the attribution of Jaipur's plan to a Western source is reminiscent of the once fashionable attribution of the Taj Mahal to Italian jewellers.

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