Build Your Own Boat
These include sailing catamarans, trimarans, offshore rigs, diving support vessels and ferries. Catamarans are not new as two twin hulled paddle steamers of about 90 m length were built in the 1870s for cross channel service. They were liked by passengers for their seakeeping qualities but were overtaken fairly soon by other developments. The upper decks of catamarans provide large areas for passenger facilities in ferries or for helicopter operations. Their greater wetted hull surface area leads to increased frictional resistance but the relatively slender hulls can have reduced resistance at higher speeds, sometimes assisted by interference effects between the two hulls. A hull separation of about 1.25 times the beam of each hull is reasonable in a catamaran. Manoeuvrability is good. High transverse stability and relatively short length mean that sea-keeping is not always good. This has been improved in the wave piercing catamarans developed to reduce pitching, and in SWATH designs...
Pudong was partially a green-field site of agricultural land but it also contained shipbuilding works, petrochemical plants and other industries along the river. The land is publicly owned. In April 1990, the government of the People's Republic of China announced its plan to develop the Pudong New Area as part of its economic reform effort to attract foreign investment. The goal of the development is to turn Shanghai into a global commercial centre by creating a precinct of prestigious modern buildings and manicured open spaces with a coordinated infrastructure and communications network. One hundred and eighty-two other Chinese cities are reputedly hoping to attain the same end but only the major ones are serious contenders. Shanghai is much better placed than its competitors to achieve its goals.
The distances of the outer hull surface from the centreline plane. The offsets define the hull shape and are usually presented in a table showing offsets for each waterline at each transverse section. Panamax. A term applied to cargo vessels that are just able to pass through the Panama Canal. They are generally about 65 000-80 000 DWT.
Kuching lies on the Sungai Sarawak 20 kilometres in from the sea. The city's riverfront used to be the regional shipping and distribution point of the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It intervened or acted as a seam, depending on one's point of view, between the commercial area on Main Bazaar and the river. The commercial area contained Chinese shop-houses, a high-rise hotel and office buildings. The development of a road network and air transportation during the 1960s and 1970s, and the change in shipping technology led to the abandonment of the godowns (warehouses) and the general deterioration of the waterfront. The river wall had deteriorated, mud-flats filled former shipping channels, and squatters had built shacks along the waterfront. At the same time it was a lively colourful area of fishing boats and commerce. The area contained historic buildings, commuter jetties, and government and commercial buildings. It was also a mess.
Cable stays are an adaptation of the early rope bridges, and guy ropes for securing tent structures and the masts of sailing ships. When very rigid, trapezoidal box girder bridge decks were developed for suspension bridges, it allowed a single plane of stays to support the bridge deck directly. This meant that fewer cables were needed than for a conventional suspension system, there was no need for anchorages and therefore it was cheaper to construct. Cost and time have always been the principal motivators
In the later Middle Ages, as population grew in England and the demand for timber increased, the supply of large trees diminished and their cost rose. Eventually, the shortage of large timbers became so critically short that Henry VIII promulgated an edict to stop the construction of cruck frames in favor of box, in order to preserve the timber for naval shipbuilding. The spread of box framing permitted the use of smaller timber than crucks. A consequence of this new emphasis and the innovation of the chimney was the introduction of upper floors, which cruck buildings could not accommodate very well. The box frame dwellings, which already dominated the east and southeast of England, where cruck trusses were virtually unknown, began to spread westward.
For a ship form it is not clear from looking at the lines whether it will be stable or not. By analogy with the arrow, good stability requires that the resultant hydrodynamic moment following a disturbance should tend to reduce yaw. The disturbing force is said to act at the hull's centre of lateral resistance. For stability this must be aft of the centre of gravity and it is to be expected that a cut away bow, a large skeg aft and trim by the stern would all tend to improve stability. That is about as much as one can deduce from the general hull shape at this stage. A degree of directional stability is desirable otherwise excessive rudder movements will be needed to maintain a straight course. Too much stability makes a ship difficult to turn.
David Edward Skinner was a native of Michigan. Skinner's company, Skinner and Eddy Shipyards, established ship construction speed records during World War I. He also served as president of the Metro Building Company. Friends and business colleagues urged him to become involved in politics, hoping that he would run for mayor of Seattle, but he declined, focusing his attention on business interests.
Usually there will be a certain volume of goods the ships of a fleet need to carry. This may have been established by a market survey. The 'goods' may be cargo, people or weaponry. How many ships are needed and the amount to be carried in each individual ship will depend upon the rate at which goods become available. This will depend in turn, upon the supporting transport systems on land. Taking ferries as an example, one super ferry sailing each day from Dover to Calais, capable of carrying one day's load of lorries, cars and passengers, would not be popular. Transit for most would be delayed, large holding areas would be needed at the ports and the ship would be idle for much of the time. Whilst such an extreme case is clearly undesirable it is not easy to establish an optimum balance between size of ship and frequency of service. Computer modelling, allowing for the variability of the data, is used to compare different options and establish parameters such as the expected average...
Budgeted at approximately 15 million, the tram will connect Oregon Health Sciences University, which lies atop Marquam Hill overlooking downtown Portland, with the newly rezoned South Waterfront neighborhood immediately below, which will be transformed in upcoming years from shipyards to biomedical research facilities and mixed-use development. Only the second aerial tram in the United States (the other stretches over the East River in New York City), the project has been subject to a pitched battle between the city, which favors the plan, and residents of an historic neighborhood over which the tram will pass, who oppose it.
Viking ships used clinker-formed hulls whereby strips of wood were joined together to form a thin, weathertight and efficient structural skin. The shell is an efficient form and the creativity of man was needed to create large sheets of timber so that the form could be realized. This philosophy was repeated many centuries later when steel was first produced in small sheets a riveted form of construction was conceived to create
These relate to the underwater form and give a broad indication of the hull shape. They are the ratios of certain areas and volumes to their circumscribing rectangles or prisms. Computer-aided design (CAD). Computer-based systems assisting in the design of ships and other products.
Buildings began to appear where single-family dwellings once stood. William Hainsworth tore down an existing one-and-a-half-story house to construct the cottages, while at the same time renovating five other cottages built earlier, on a lot at Elliott Way and Vine Street. Advertising signs placed in the windows of the newly completed cottages read Save Car Fare and Time, Modern Cottages, 16 to i8 month. During the 1920s occupants of the buildings included shipyard workers, fishermen, longshoremen, a telephone operator, and a waitress.
These figures were based on tests that did not directly measure elastic limit. For example, when David Kirkaldy conducted his investigation into the properties or wrought-iron and steel in 1858-61 at the Napier shipbuilding firm, his instruments could not measure elastic limit. When Napier and Sons discontinued Kirkaldy's testing program he resigned his position with the firm so that he could devote his entire time to materials testing. He designed a new form of testing machine and set up Britain's first commercial testing works in 1865 (Smith 1980). Records of his tests conducted in 1866 show that by this time Kirkaldy was able to measure elastic limit.
In some cases shipyards, particularly those building small ships, lie on relatively narrow rivers into which a conventional stern first launch is not practicable. In these cases a sideways launch is adopted. The ship is built parallel to the river bank and the launch ways are normal to the line of keel and set 3-5 m apart, the supporting cradle being adjusted accordingly. One advantage of sideways launching is that the ship can be built on a level keel.
Is used in manual fairing of the hull form, each set being faired in turn and the changes in the other two noted. At the end of the iteration the three sets will be mutually compatible. Fairing is usually now carried out by computer. Indeed the form itself is often generated directly from the early design processes in the computer. Manual fairing is done first in the design office on a reduced scale drawing. To aid production the lines used to be laid off, and refaired, full scale on the floor of a building known as the mould loft. Many shipyards now use a reduced scale, say one-tenth, for use in the building process. For computer designed ships the computer may produce the set of offsets for setting out in the shipyard or, more likely, it will provide computer tapes to be used in computer aided manufacturing processes.
The parking requirement may be complicated by other factors. In many areas coaches may be used to bring visitors to a particular beauty spot. In others, trailers for boats, kayaks, horses or trailer caravans may need to be accommodated. Such large or unwieldy vehicles have less flexible requirements for turning or manoeuvring, and take up more space per unit.
It has been noted that some motions are non-linear. Some non-linearity is introduced by the changes in the immersed hull shape as the ship moves relative to the waves. The change can be very significant at large motion amplitudes the fore end of the ship may leave the water completely before slamming back down into it. Another cause of non-linearity, particularly for rolling, is the differing way in which damping forces vary with velocities of motion. The situation is still further complicated by the cross coupling that occurs between motions. Both effects become more pronounced at higher motion amplitudes and are important in the study of extreme loadings to which a ship is subject.
It is interesting to make a comparison with the boat-building industry, where this 'tooling up' process is done once and is paid for by the production of a large number of products. In cladding this would require a complete development programme every time a new contract was initiated. Glass-reinforced polyester being a complex design material leads to development time for this process to take place, whereas building components, such as cladding, are often subcontracted, there being a short time between the design and requirement of the product, putting the manufacturer under considerable pressure to met specific deadlines in relation to other design work construction processes. Hand lay-ups and spray techniques are slow the production of one panel per
In all structure that from its nature is purely scientific - in fortifications, in bridges, in shipbuilding - we have been emancipated from authority by the stern organic requirements of the works. The modern wants spurned the traditional formula in these structures, as the modern life outgrew the literary molds of Athens. In all these structures character has taken the place of dilettantism, and if we have yet to fight for sound doctrine in all structure, it is
MoonTkk Garden will have a large, ever-changing audience Some 40 to 50 cruise ships dock in Portland per year, Carrol estimates, and from May to October the catamaran ferry departs from here three days a week. Moon fide is theoretically a temporary installation because of the unreliable structure of the crib. But McNeil says, It will be here until the crib collapses.
Strangely, although we tend to associate the boat-building industry with one-off large boat designs, the reason why GRP is widely used for boats is that the production of large numbers of identical products pays for the initial tooling up and capital expenditure in such items as rotating moulds.
Great Britain is a relatively small, densely populated and urbanised island. It is often suggested that there is a north-south divide. London and the South-East are regarded as prosperous, but suffer from a housing shortage which pushes up prices and increases the pressure to build upon greenfield sites. In the old industrial conurbations of Northern England, South Wales and the West of Scotland, the story has been one of traditional industries, such as coal-mining, steel-making and shipbuilding, going into decline, with a resulting loss of population to the more prosperous south. Newcastle and Sheffield can both be classified as post-industrial cities. Little remains of the industries with which they were once synonymous, coal-mining and shipbuilding in the case of Newcastle, steel-making and metalworking in the case of Sheffield. Both have been looking for ways to shake off the negative images associated with their industrial heydays. Following the example of Glasgow, which was...
The Lord's Cricket Ground Media Centre (Fig. 5.19) was the world's first semi-monocoque building in aluminium. The media centre is a streamlined pod raised 14 m off the ground on two concrete support towers, giving journalists and commentators an uninterrupted view over the cricket ground. The structure consists of a curved 6 and 12 mm aluminium-plate skin welded to a series of ribs. Thus acting together, the skin and the ribs provide both the shape and the structural stability, a system typically used in the boat-building and aircraft industries. The building was made in 26 sections and transported to the site for assembly.
Feather and in the flower, but in winds and waves, and he bent all his mind to hear and to obey. Could we carry into our civil architecture the responsibilities that weigh upon our shipbuilding, we should ere long have edifices as superior to the Parthenon, for the purposes that we require, as the Constitution or the Pennsylvania is to the galley of the Argonauts. Could our blunders on terra firma be put to the same dread test that those of shipbuilders are, little would be now left to say on this subject.
The process of finding wood with grain that naturally follows the curve required goes back centuries. It was this tradition that led to the oak forests of Britain being scoured for timber which would naturally supply the structural curves which were necessary for roof stresses and boat building. Sadly, because of industry's demand for straight-grained, easily worked wood, it is more difficult today to find these natural curves. It is this shortage of naturally curved timber that has led to an increase in the use of the other methods, and laminating is now the main technique used to achieve curved shapes, especially where any quantity is required.
Spaces have been provided in 35 projects, ranging from the dramatic old shipyard, NDSM, to Plantage Doklaan and Elektronstraat. Other spaces include the Westergasfabriek, a modern park and a cultural complex etched out of an old gas landscape, which balances well the need for innovation with economic sustainability and has been one of the more successful examples of balancing innovation and economic sustainability.57 As an example to remind ourselves of the fragility of these places, however, take the 0T301, an artist studio and performance complex
It is said that, even as a child, John Wesley Powell showed an extreme interest in the natural world. On his own, he studied botany, zoology, and geology and made many expeditions. One of these excursions was a solo trip in a rowboat from the Falls of St. Anthony to the mouth of the great Mississippi River all at the age of 22.
'Constructing Memory' is a commemoration of people and of piace Memorial that has also become the epicenter for the redevelopment of a urban waterfront. Over 50 years ago, World War II required the transforn a salt marsh in Richmond. California into Kaiser Shipyard 2, a twenty-* industrial site employing 100,000 people, one-quarter of whom were Although there is no evidence of that shipyard today, a strong nationa m to commemorate working women in the war effort provided the impet project competition. The designers were charged with the creation of a -to communicate the history of an invisible landscape and the people v inhabited it.
The first step in getting a city back on its feet is to regain a sense of self, and psychological factors play an important role. Change processes initially cause places to lose their self-confidence as those things that are distinctive about them and the tried and tested ways of doing things are shown not to work. This might range from industrial decline, the loss of services or the brain drain of the more gifted leaving town. Gijon in Spain took two decades to regain some confidence after the loss of its shipyards, coal industry and role as a port city Glasgow's re-emergence from its slow decline stretched many decades, as did that of Pittsburgh.
For example, well-intentioned installations of full-house central heating may involve upheaval to furniture and floors and microbore piping chased into walls that then need redecoration or run within trunking hopefully placed unobtrusively on the surface. Often these systems are controlled by mechanisms that old people find difficult to adjust and to adjust to. Frequently the systems are designed to provide room temperatures determined by professionals for thermal comfort, only to find that tenants cannot afford the running costs - a situation known as 'fuel poverty'. Fuel poverty has been a significant problem in some local authority estates, particularly in areas associated with the former 'smokestack' industries of coal, steel and shipbuilding. These areas suffered greatly in the recession of the 1980s and many families became reliant on Social Security payments. Sherwood District Council in Nottinghamshire took a radical new approach. Instead of the usual 21 C, the design...
Another feature of Thomas Heatherwick's scheme is the spiral staircase which links the new public square to one of the city's main car parks across the Central Motorway at Manors. Designed as an elegant replacement for an existing steel structure, the staircase has at its core a simple broad spiral made of 1,340 individual pieces of marine plywood. It was decided that only a boat-builder, used to the complex curves of hulls, would be able to construct this sophisticated and technically-demanding shape and the work was given to McNulty Boats Ltd of Hebburn. The metalwork of the stairs themselves was manufactured by Hi Def (UK) Ltd. The stairs
For the Greeks, harmony meant matching parts to the whole. In boat-building this could be fitting two tree trunks together to make a raft or in cooking combining flour and butter to create a new and fitting whole, a crumb-like dough. Viewing harmony as uniting opposites goes back to the mythological figure of Harmonia, who appears in Hesiod (700 BC) as the daughter of the war-god Ares and Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty and love. The concept of harmony was stated mathematically by the Pythagoreans, who discovered the mutual correspondence of notes and numbers, of qualities and quantities in their number theory. If the ratio on a string starting to vibrate on a monochord is 1 2, you hear an octave if it is 2 3, you hear a fifth, and in a ratio of 3 4 a fourth. The fact that an octave expresses half a whole - whether it is on the string of a musical instrument, a drawn line or a lump of butter - was once seen as general knowledge and also affected culinary practice. It's starting to...
As the position of the centre of gravity is so important for initial stability it is necessary to establish it accurately. It is determined initially by calculation by considering all weights making up the ship - steel, outfit, fittings, machinery and systems - and assessing their individual centres of gravity. From these data can be calculated the displacement and centre of gravity of the light ship. For particular conditions of loading the weights of all items to be carried must then be added at their appropriate centres of gravity to give the new displacement and centre of gravity. It is difficult to account for all items accurately in such calculations and it is for this reason that the lightship weight and centre of gravity are measured experimentally.
By and large the hull design of both a surface ship and a submarine is dictated by considerations other than manoeuvring. If model tests show a need to change the handling performance, this would normally be achieved by modifying the areas and positions of the control surfaces and skegs, which is usually quite effective.
We may benefit from looking at areas of knowledge that lie outside the field of construction. We have already made the point about looking at biology as a source of ideas from which to stimulate innovation, and there are other areas. For example, the field of new product design offers a variety of tools and models that integrate design and production through innovation and collaboration. Other industries that design and build unique products, for example shipbuilding, provide other routes to explore for inspiration and technological transfer. Whatever our source of inspiration we should recognise that the principles of detailing are most commonly based on shared experience.
Los Angeles would be only one of several heavily populated southwest areas if it were not for World War II. Because of our fight against Japan, immense resources were committed to the West Coast and the Los Angeles area was a main beneficiary in California because of its excellent rail connections and harbor. Precisely because of the war effort, Los Angeles became a key manufacturing city in the United States. Aerospace, shipbuilding, military hardware manufacturing, and transportation industries grew up there. The government transferred billions of dollars in value to underpin this infrastructure. The scale of this spending activity was unprecedented. An entire steel industry was built from scratch in Fontana, California, outside of San Bernardino, for example, because of this effort. Yet, World War II military spending was just the beginning of government largess. Dollar amounts during the 1940s were dwarfed by spending because of the Asian wars that Often overlooked, the transfer...
'The outdoors' is an all-embracing term that covers all those places where people feel they can achieve that special feeling of being 'away from it all'. To some, born and bred in the city, it may be an area of farmland a few steps away from home. Urban forests, increasingly common in Europe and North America, can provide opportunities for solitude and quietness well within the city limits. Other people may need to go further afield, such as to the emptier, less humandominated landscapes of the Scottish highlands, the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, or the Black Forest of Germany. Further afield are the mountain ranges above the settled valleys of the Alps or Pyrenees, the fells of Lapland, or the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington, where a few hours' hike from a road or village can take you into areas where nature dominates. Finally, there are truly wild, remote areas, accessible only by long hike, float plane or helicopter, boat or kayak, where civilization is utterly...
Declaring plagiarism and superficiality, and proving beyond all question the absolute poverty of our imaginative faculties, and general absence of right feeling and correct taste. Whether we like it or not, this is the undeniable fact of 1864. And not merely this an explorer of our ruins would often be at a loss to guess the uses or purposes of many of our public edifices. He could detect bastard Grecian temples in scores, but would never dream they were built for banks, colleges, or custom-houses. How could he account for ignoble and impoverished Gothic chapels, converted into libraries, of which there is so bad an example at Cambridge, Massachusetts, or indeed for any of the architectural anomalies which disfigure our soil and impeach our common sense, intensified as they frequently are by a total disregard of that fundamental law of art which demands the harmonious relation of things, condemning the use of stern granite or adamantine rock in styles where only beautiful marbles can...
By the sixteenth century iron making and shipbuilding had seriously depleted the wood supply in the two great southern English woodlands, the Weald near London and the Forest of Dean near the Welsh border. Henry VIII, concerned by his dependence on Continental and Scandinavian armaments, ordered a survey of potential British metal working sites. Wales, with still-wooded forests and numerous rivers, was identified as a prime location for expanded iron production. The county of Glamorgan in South Wales, made up in part by steep valleys of the Brecon Beacon foothills, contained most of the potential Welsh sites.1
Tankers ordered after 1993 had to comply with the MARPOL double hull regulation (Figure 17.4). This is opposed to single hull tankers where one or more cargo holds are bounded in part by the ship's shell plating. In the double hull design the cargo tanks are completely surrounded by wing and double bottom tanks which can be used for ballast purposes. The USA, under its 1990 Oil Pollution Act required all newly built tankers trading in US waters to be of the double hull
Ever since John Winter audaciously clad his seminal Highgate house in a skin of weathering steel back in 1969, Cor-ten's quasi industrial aesthetic of shipyard and factory floor has become globally ubiquitous. According to Neil Jackson, in his entertaining study of the genre in The Modern Steel House, it took seven years forWinter's little building to slowly acquire the coveted purplish-brown patina of worn-out boiler plating. Now pre-weathered Cor-ten clads the world, from police stations
It is not just by chance that the roof suggests similarities between building and shipbuilding (in the arsenal at Venice the roof also serves as a crane for building ships). In theatre design the roof becomes a very complex part of the stage machinery, a place for producing special effects and illusions (Friedrich Weinbrenner, Karl von Fischer).
The Zhongshan Shipyard Park in Zhong-shan, China, designed by Turenscape in Beijing, won top honors. The Boston Children's Museum, with a landscape designed by Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates of Cambridge, Massachusetts Shangri-La in Orange, Texas, by Dallas-based mesa Harborside Fountain Park in Bremerton, Washington, by Portland, Oregon's Walker The jury was impressed by the combination of natural and industrial elements in the design of Turenscape's Zhongshan Shipyard Park in China. The jury was impressed by the combination of natural and industrial elements in the design of Turenscape's Zhongshan Shipyard Park in China.
Wind energy has been used for thousands of years to propel sailing ships, grind grain, and pump water. There is evidence that wind energy was used to propel boats along the Nile River as early as 5000 BC, and simple windmills were used in China to pump water in ancient times. Windmills erected as the American west was developed during the late nineteenth century pumped water for farms and ranches. Small electric wind systems were developed to generate direct electrical current by 1900, but most of these fell out of favor when rural areas became attached to the national electricity grid during the 1930s. By 1920, wind turbine generators were producing electricity in many European countries. In the United States, rural electrification in the 1950s offered electricity at rates below what could be produced locally, and the small-scale windmill became a thing of the past.
In terms of quantity, oil is the most important pollutant arising from shipping operations. The harmful effects of large oil spillages have received wide publicity because the results are so concentrated if the spillage is close to the coast. Most incidents occur during the loading or discharge of oil at a terminal but far greater quantities of oil enter the sea as a result of normal tanker operations such as the cleaning of cargo residues. Important as these are they are only one aspect of marine pollution to be taken into account in designing a ship. Many chemicals carried at sea are a much greater threat to the environment. Some chemicals are so dangerous that their carriage in bulk is banned. In these cases they may be carried in drums. Fortunately, harmful chemicals are carried in smaller ships than tankers, and the ship design is quite complex to enable their cargoes to be carried safely. One ship may carry several chemicals, each posing its own problems.
A ship's hull is three dimensional and, except in a very few cases, is symmetrical about a fore and aft plane. Throughout this book a symmetrical hull form is assumed. The hull shape is defined by its intersection with three sets of mutually orthogonal planes. The horizontal planes are known as waterplanes and the lines of intersection are known as waterlines. The planes parallel to the middle line plane cut the hull in buttock (or bow and buttock) lines, the middle line plane itself defining the profile. The intersections of the athwartships planes define the transverse sections.
Along its eastern edge, where a row of semi-detached houses previously stood, there is a continuous frontage to Shore Road, which historically was a main route north out of Belfast and is still a busy multi-lane highway. To the west the land rises very steeply in a densely wooded escarpment. From the top, nearly eight metres above the road, there are dramatic views of Belfast Lough, the Harland and Wolf dockyards with their twin yellow cranes, and the city centre.
Over the last few decades the structure of work, the workforce, workplace and the working week have changed a great deal. Many of the former labour-intensive heavy industries of the Midlands and north of England, South Wales and central Scotland, including coalmining, steel, shipbuilding and manufacturing, have declined severely, putting many out of work. In large part manual jobs have been replaced by positions in the 'softer' service sector, sometimes in those same regions, often elsewhere, particularly in south-east England.
Some buildings have been designed to take advantage of the unequal weathering in the profile of the panel for example, faceted panels (now removed) were used at the mathematics building at Liverpool University (architects Westwood, Piet, Poll and Smart). Vertical ribs or striations also help the appearance of panels. Panels for Portsmouth Dockyard (architects Arup Associates) were produced by Minsterstone, using concrete moulds and ribbed to control weathering marks (Fig. 1.33).
As with other sections of Hudson River Park, the TriBeCa segment offers a free kayak program, above. Hudson River Park is built around various pieces of infrastructure Pier 34 leads out to the Hudson Tunnel Vent Shaft, right. Piers 25 and 26, below, are to be rebuilt in subsequent
A ship's rolling motions can be reduced by fitting a stabilization system. In principle pitch motions can be improved in the same way but in practice this is very difficult. An exception is the fitting of some form of pitch stabilizer between the two hulls of a catamaran which is relatively shorter than a conventional displacement ship. In this section attention is focused on roll stabilization. The systems may be passive or active.
It is certainly associated with a grappling with limits, and in its widest interpretation, could be viewed as 'culture', the sum total of our efforts to protect ourselves from the contingencies of nature, standing in opposition to 'tuche', luck. Techne encompasses everything from crafts such as house or boat building, to arts such as dancing or music playing, to sciences such as mathematics or astronomy. In The Fragility of Goodness, Martha Nussbaum (1989) cites four features common to all these forms of techne universality, teachability, precision and concern with explanation. Such criteria, however, do not lead to consensus, in ancient Greece or now. Nussbaum describes two versions of techne found in Plato's Protagoras that of Protagoras himself, and that of Socrates. Socrates' definition favours the sciences, the more practical and effective kinds, those that can measure and be measured ' W hat is measurable or commensurable is graspable, knowable, in order, good what is without...
A ship's hull form helps determine most of its main attributes its stability characteristics its resistance and therefore the power needed for a given speed its seaworthiness its manoeuvrability and its load carrying capacity. It is important, therefore, that the hull shape should be defined with some precision and unambiguously. To achieve this the basic descriptors used must be defined. Not all authorities use the same definitions and it is important that the reader of a document checks upon the exact definitions applying. Those used in this chapter cover those used by Lloyd's Register and the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence. Most are internationally accepted. Standard units and notation are discussed in Appendix A.
An aerial ropeway in the children's scheme was changed to a bridge running between two towers. Designing this latter feature was a challenge for the landscape architect, who brought in an engineer to advise on stability. The bridge itself was constructed by a 'rigger' from a local shipyard.
A large part of the museum's collection consists in documentary items collected from European countries, including photographs, papers, personal objects, such as shoes from the camps, and larger items, such as a railway boxcar and a Danish fishing boat, all obtained by voluntary donation (in the manner of other museums that collect worldwide). Objects enfold stories suitcases, for instance, speak of journeys which begin and end - at Auschwitz bearing the names, birth dates and numbers of victims in 'a registration system' for the machinery of annihilation (Rogoff, 2000 44).12 To counter the oblivion of the suitcases, Irit Rogoff turns to pages from the diary of Charlotte Salomon, who was killed at Birkenau 'replete with the images and dramas of everyday life, they bring us to the moment of departure and beyond with a full recognition of the abundance and breadth of the life that had been lived in situ' (Rogoff, 2000 47). But the design of the museum building is itself a narrative. The...
The lightweight monocoque structure is a hybrid of techniques appropriated from boat building and aircraft engineering. The internal rigid rectangular box was built first and plywood ribs added to generate the basic cocoon shape. Green hardwood battens were then attached to the ribs, forming fixing points for the narrow steel shingles. Like a woven basket, the meshing together of the various elements
Also specified will be the shipyard tests needed to be carried out as fabrication proceeds. Thus the testing of structure to ensure watertight and structural integrity will be defined. Tests of pipe systems will lay down the test fluid and the pressures to be used, the time they are to be held and any permissible leakage.
Lake Mead is now a part of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area that is run by the National Park Service. Lake Mohave, located downstream from the dam, is also a part of the national recreation area. Attracting more than 9 million visitors each year, the Hoover Dam's reservoir has become one of the most popular vacation and recreation areas in the country, catering to boaters, swimmers, fishing enthusiasts, and sunbathers alike.
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