Mesocarp

Mechanical controller A sprinkler controller that has manual switches, dials, knobs, pins, etc. for setting irrigation control. (Compare with digital controller.) mechanical joint With regard to pipe connections, a joint tightened with nuts and bolts. Some incorrectly refer to any pipe not glued at its joints as a mechanical joint. mechanical pencil An instrument that clamps down its narrow, cylindrical drawing material when in use and can allow the drawing material's extension as it is used up...

Grandstand

Golf course A tract of land laid out with at least nine holes for playing a game of golf consists of greens, fairways, and hazards. gooseneck In pipe work, any section with a U shape. gopher See pocket gophers or ground squirrels. gpd Abbreviation for gallons per day. gph Abbreviation for gallons per hour. gpm Abbreviation for gallons per minute. gps Abbreviation for gallons per second. grade 1. The amount of slope of an area of ground surface. It is usually expressed in a percentage derived by...

Lateral sewer

Valves to sprinkler heads or points of discharge. Any pipe downstream of an irrigation valve. lateral sewer A portion of a sewer line that has no other sewer discharging into it. latex An emulsion of minute, dispersed particles of rubber or plastic material in water obtained by polymerization and often used for coatings and adhesives. latex paint A paint of latex with pigments and other binders. lath 1. In landscape work, a structure for partial covering overhead to reduce or prevent damage to...

Flanged joint

Fish meal A complete organic fertilizer made of dried, ground fish or fish parts containing 8 to 10 nitrogen, 4 to 9 phosphoric acid, and 2 to 4 potash. fishplate A wood or metal piece attached by nails or bolts to the ends of two abutting ends of lumber. fish tape A long, thin, stiff metal strip used to extend through a conduit or sleeve and then attach to an electrical conductor to pull it through. fistulose, fistulous A botanical term meaning hollow. fitting Pipe connectors (devices for...

Molding

Molding In construction of structures, long decorative pieces added at edges, corners, etc. as an embellishment. mole 1. A long, metal, bullet-shaped, enclosed tube with an internal manner that is driven by forced air through a connected nose. It is used to hammer its way under pavements to provide paths for pipes, wires, etc. 2. Burrowing insectivores (family Talpidae) with tiny eyes, concealed ears, soft fur, short forelegs pointing outward, flattened hands, and claws for digging. They...

Deposited metal

Deposited metal Metal used as filler in welding. depressed In botanical terms, flattened, or as if pressed down from above. depression storage Runoff held in shallow, low spots in the terrain. desertification The degradation of land within dry subhumid, semi-arid, or arid areas resulting in decreased vegetation and less ability of the land to support it, brought about by various factors including climatic changes, fires, diseases, human activities, etc. desiccate To dry up. A drying up of...

Mile m

Building facing a different direction, or in areas protected by trees, or in a building's courtyard. microclimate factor (Kmc) In irrigation auditing, a factor used to compute water needs. The average landscape has a factor of 1. A landscape with shade or wind protection is less than 1. A landscape surrounded by buildings, paved surface, fences, etc. will have a factor higher than 1 with higher water needs. micro-irrigation or low-flow irrigation or low-volume irrigation A term used in...

Tin snips

Horizontal line for laying a masonry course. 2. A flexible clip used to hold a sheet of glass, metal, etc. in place. tin snips Shears used for cutting thin sheet metal or tin. tint A light color made by mixing a small amount of color with a large amount of white. tissue culture In plant research, the aseptic culture (in flasks or test tubes) practice of growing plant cells into plant clones (for propagation) or for biochemical products, preservation, scientific research, genotype modification,...

County agricultural agent

County agricultural agent One who works for the Cooperative Extension Service. coupler In pipe work, a fitting accommodating the connection of the ends of two pipes in a straight line. coupling In pipe work, a device that connects while covering over or inserting into the ends of two pipes or male projections. court In reference to spacial definition, an uncovered space that is completely or mostly enclosed by walls, buildings, plants, etc. cove A concave, curved edge between a ceiling and wall...

Ite

Irrigation head A device in an irrigation system attached to pipes for distribution of water in the system. irrigation schedule A combined legend and table on an irrigation plan referencing symbols on the plan to identify the parts they represent. It usually includes the symbol of the part, the name of the part, the manufacturer, its size, its type or materials makeup, and remarks about how it is installed, where it is installed, etc. irrigation system A method, apparatus, piping, ditching...

Dowel

Faces that are not indented but smooth and able to be exposed on any of these sides with a solid surface. double-cut file A file with two diagonal sets of cutting ridges, each set crossing the other. double-cut saw A handsaw with teeth designed to allow cutting both when the saw is pushed and when it is pulled. double extra strong pipe A steel pipe that has a thicker wall and twice the strength of a pipe of normal wall thickness. double-faced hammer A hammer having a striking face at each side...

Bosk

Ing construction and maintenance, or highway construction and maintenance. bosk, bosque The heads of trees or large plants intertwined into a mass, thicket, grove, etc. boss 1. A botanical term meaning a tight, rounded cluster, usually referring to stamens. 2. In an employment setting, one who directs another's work. 3. With regard to pipe systems, a protuberance on a fitting or pipe for strength, for fastening it to objects, to assist in alignment, etc. bossing Soft sheet metal shaped to a...

A

The more common abbreviation for acre is ac. 2. Abbreviation for ampere(s). 3. Abbreviation for area. In landscape applications, area is often expressed in square feet, square yards, or square meters. 4. In botanical terms, a prefix meaning not different from away from without. A1 horizon A soil layer that is a subhorizon of the A horizon, distinguishable by its darker color from the rest of the A horizon due to a higher content of organic matter. A2 horizon A...

Bog

Block insulation A rigid or semi-rigid slab of material used for thermal protection. block plane A small, wood, planing device useful in cleaning up miters and end grains. blood meal An organic fertilizer made of dried animal blood (usually cattle) with an acid reaction and an NPK ratio of approximately 15-1.3-0.7 Nitrogen ranges from 12 to 15 , with 15 most common. bloom 1. An open or showy flower. 2. The flower of any plant. 3. A whitish, or bluish-white powdery, glaucous, usually waxy...

Hydrozone

Easy location of the leak for repair. (Compare with operational test.) hydrozone A portion of a landscaped area having plants with similar water needs that are watered by one irrigation valve, or a set of valves with the same irrigation schedule. hygroscopic Absorbing moisture from the air plants taking up and holding moisture from the air. They sometimes swell, shrink, or change in position with the humidity. hygroscopic water 1. Water bound tightly by soil solids at potential values lower...

Dog run

Be buried, a foundation to be constructed, an electrical conductor to be placed, a sleeve to be buried, etc. ditcher or ditching machine See trencher. diurnal In botanical terms, daytime or pertaining to the day. It may often refer to flowers that only open in the daylight hours. diurnal damping depth The maximum depth from the surface that soil experiences temperature change over a 24-hour (diurnal) period. divaricate In botanical terms, very widely divergent or spreading from the axis or...

Soil fabric

Softwood cutting A cutting from soft, succulent new spring growth. softwood lumber Wood cut from coniferous soil The upper layer of the earth consisting of unconsolidated natural surface material above bedrock formed by weathering that can be dug or plowed. It is the natural medium in which plant roots survive. It is naturally a result of the interactions between geologic effects (weathered mantle existing on the earth's terrestrial surface), vegetation, and climate. It is comprised of mineral...

Sod

Itoring the weather or the soil moisture. They adjust station run time(s) or the frequency when there are changes detected in the soil moisture or the weather. Some will monitor wind, rain, or temperature. Another feature of some of these controllers is that they can monitor flow in pipes, determining if there is a break in the line. The features of these controllers are not all the same, but they include some method of automatically adjusting their schedules through the seasons of the year in...

Potager

Post emergent An herbicide that will kill weeds after they have germinated. post hole A narrow hole in the ground dug to accept a fence column (post), or support post for a structure. post hole digger A tool for digging narrow holes in the ground to accept posts. They have two long handles with curved jaws on their ends moving on a pivot point. The handles can be held together while the open jaws are thrust into the ground. The handles are then pulled apart to squeeze the dislodged soil and...

Perspective drawing

Pergola A garden structure with an open wooden-framed roof, often latticed and covered by climbing plants while shading a walk, sitting area, or passageway. perianth The outside envelope of a flower that protects its reproductive parts during development. In most dicotyledons, it is composed of two separate whorls, one being the calyx of sepals, and the other being the corolla of petals. In monocotyledons the sepals and petals are often indistinguishable and the segments of the perianth are...

Compact

Combination pliers A tool capable of wire cutting and gripping with jaws having a hinge point and handles. The handles can be squeezed and the jaws can grasp or cut items. The hinge point has a slip point giving the jaws two adjustments as to size. combination square A tool that may be used as a square, a level, a marking gauge, a straight edge, or a plumb that has one leg of the square capable of sliding along the other for adjustment. combined aggregate A mixture of both fine and coarse...

Calcium cyanamide

Calcium magnesium carbonate See dolomite. calciummagnesiumphosphate See calcium-magnesium phosphate. calcium metaphosphate A phosphatic (53 ) fertilizer that is nearly neutral in pH. calcium nitrate A nitrogen fertilizer with 34 nitrogen (34-0-0). See nitrate of lime. caliber The internal diameter of a pipe. caliche A type of hardpan condition usually in desert areas. It is a deposit of calcium carbonate (lime) that cements soil particles together beneath the soil surface and does not allow...

Finetextured soil

Spaces are filled with water, but the larger pores drain due to gravity and the smaller pores are left with water retained. Field capacity is determined by the amount of water in the soil or the moisture condition of the soil at that point. Expressed as a percentage, it may be calculated by subtracting the oven dry weight of a soil sample from the wet weight of a soil sample, and dividing that difference by the oven dry weight of the soil sample. field check 1. To observe or measure on-site....

Fertilizer

Feathering This often means to slightly change. Two edges not flush often need feathering. Shutting a valve off slowly, or turning it on slowly can be feathering. fecal Relating to, pertaining to, or constituting feces. fecundity The potential reproductive capacity of a plant, taking into consideration the number of viable seeds produced. feeder roots These plant roots are mostly within about 12 to 18 inches of the soil surface and absorb most of the nutrients and water for a plant. They are...

Orchidaceae

Orchideus, orchidea, orchideum orchioides orchoides orchid-like orchidflorus, orchidflora, orchidflorum flowers looking like those of orchids oreganus, oreganao, oreganum oregonus, oregona, oregonum from Oregon oreophilus, oreophila, oreophilum of orientalis, orientale of the Orient, Eastern origanifolius, origanifolia, origanifolium origanoides looking like marjoram ( Origanum) ornatus, ornata, ornatum showy, ornate, adorned ornithocephalus, ornithocephala, ornithocephalum shaped like a bird's...

Nominal size

Taken from the atmosphere at the time of lightening strikes by its electrical energy and changed to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. It dissolves and comes to the earth as rain in a diluted form. (2) Certain legume-type plants through cooperation with bacteria (rhizobia) are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds. (3) There is a metabolic assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen gas into ammonia or nitrogen compounds by soil organisms such as Azotobacter chroococcum and...

Reducing valve

Reducing valve A valve that decreases the upstream pressure of the pipe system it is installed onto. It assures less pressure for the pipe system downstream of it. reduction ratio In stone crushing, the ratio of the maximum dimension of rock before crushing to the maximum dimension of rock after crushing. reel mower A mower that has a spiral reel of blades that spin as the wheels turn and cut against a stationary sharp bar. They are drawn behind tractors or pushed by hand. They make a nice cut...

Gauge pressure

Etc.) used to keep its thickness or depth constant. 3. The portion of a slate, shingle, etc. that is exposed after placement in roofing. gauge pressure Water pressure minus the value of atmospheric pressure at a particular elevation above sea level. gazebo A small, free-standing, roofed structure open on all or some sides, usually placed in a landscape or garden for seating or standing out of sun or rain, for observing appealing views, or for its aesthetic value. gear-driven head In irrigation,...

Valve in head

Valve in head A sprinkler head in which the valve is actuated by the controller for turning the head off and on and is built into the sprinkler head. Most are currently electrically operated, but some are still hydraulically actuated. These types of heads are usually large and capable of spraying long distances. They are commonly used on golf courses and in large lawn areas of parks. valve key A long, slender, metal rod with a handle forming a T shape and an end that is placed down on a valve...

Edible plant

Edible plant A plant with some portion of it that may be eaten. It may be the leaf, root, flower, stalk, or the fruit. effective span The distance between supports measured from center to center of vertical supports. efficiency curve With reference to pumps, an indication on a pump performance curve showing the best ranges for a pump with regard to head-capacity performance. It is expressed or measured as a percentage, and is created from a ratio of liquid output horsepower to the input...

Needle cast

Is because many believe humans are influenced by natural environment, but do not consider humans to be part of the natural environment. All organisms influencing the environment would include humans. natural erosion The amount of erosion expected on undisturbed land, usually between 0.18 and 0.30 tons of earth per one acre per year. (Compare with accelerated erosion.) natural features In terms of land, conditions produced by nature such as surface land forms, geology, slopes, vegetation, water,...

Greenfield

Gravel board or gravel plank A board (usually treated for resistance to decay or a decay-resistant board) attached at the bottom of a wood fence to prevent the rest of the fence planking from contacting the ground where the planks would decay faster. graveling-in The process or action of spreading gravel on built-up roofing. gravel stop A raised edge on a gravel roof to prevent gravel from falling from the roof. gravity wall A heavy concrete wall prevented from overturning mainly by its own...

Grout

Grotto A cave or a recessed area made to resemble a cave. When artificially created, they often include waterfalls or fountains with decorations or representations of sea shells or sea creatures, etc. ground 1. Any solid portion of the earth including soil, rock, or minerals. 2. A reference to the surface of the earth as in placed on the ground. 3. A conductor that facilitates electric current being connected to the earth (ground) through the conductor(s) and used as a common return for an...

L

Abbreviation for linear. L.A. Abbreviation for landscape architect. labiate In botanical terms, bilabiste, or having the limb of a tubular corolla or calyx (as with mint plants) divided into two different sized portions with one overlapping the other. labor and material payment bond A monetary guarantee by an insurance company to an owner that a contractor will pay for all labor and materials of a contracted work or, in the event that the contractor does not,...

Polyandrous

Podocarp A plant having fruits with stalks. pointed ashlar A stone block for use in masonry having markings on its face produced by striking it with a pointed tool. pointing 1. The finishing treatment of mortar joints by troweling mortar. 2. The act of filling gaps in mortar joints of brick or stone with mortar. 3. Removal of mortar between joints of masonry units and replacement with new mortar. pointing trowel A mason's trowel with a pointed tip used in pointing or removing mortar from joints...

Construction loan

Construction loan A loan obtained for building a structure or landscape, etc. for the short duration of the construction period only. consultant One hired to provide professional advice or design. cont. Abbreviation for continuous or continued. contact adhesive, contact bond Glue that is dry to the touch, but sticks and adheres upon contact. contact splice A splice of reinforcement rebar where the two bars overlap and are in direct contact with one another. container In landscape work, a...

Controller

A mechanical or digital timer operating valves or heads to allow irrigation to be automatic at programmed intervals for programmed periods of time. See sprinkler controller. 2. Any device that controls other electrical devices as to when they operate. control valve In irrigation, the valve that allows water to enter distribution lines, may regulate amounts of flow, and also turns the flow of water off. control wire 1. Any wire connected to the automatic controller and extended to...

Portland cement

Moving water (though it may be a portion of one) a water body that is observed to be mostly still. poorly drained soils Soils in which water is removed so slowly that the water remains wet most of the year. Water tables usually occur at or near the surface. Poor drainage is caused by the high water table, a slow permeable layer within the profile, or seepage. popout The breaking away of small, usually conically shaped, portions of a concrete surface. pop-up head An irrigation head designed to...

Drain pocket

Escaping, debris from clogging the sewer access, and animals from crawling in. drain pocket In landscape irrigation, an amount of gravel (or similar granular material with voids for water to drain through) surrounding a manual or automatic drain. See illustration under drain. They allow water to easily flow from the drain and provide a larger area for water to filter into the surrounding soil. These are particularly useful in heavy soils where the water may otherwise have considerable...

Erosion control fabric

And human features in an area proposed for a planning project. environmentally friendly Said of a process or product that is beneficial to, or not destructive of, the environment. enzymes Substances (organic catalysts) produced by living cells that may bring about or speed up chemical reactions. EPA The Environmental Protection Agency of the United States. EPDM Abbreviation for ethylene propylene diene monomer, a synthetic rubber liner often used to line water features, roofs, or roof planters...

Drop hammer

Drop hammer A heavy weight used for driving a pile into the ground. drop manhole A manhole provided for inspection and maintenance of sewers where the incoming sewer pipe is considerably higher than the outgoing sewer pipe. drop siding Cladding for walls in horizontal pieces that overlap when one is placed (dropped) upon another. It is usually made of vinyl, aluminum, or wood. drop tee A pipe tee having lugs in its side, allowing it to be attached to a support. drought A prolonged period when...

Entablature

Endangered species A species in considerable danger of extinction in all or a significant portion of its range. end lap The amount of overlap at the end of a roll of material such as roofing felt. endemic A native plant in a restricted region, or being restricted to a particular region. endocarp The inner layer of a pericarp of a fruit of a plant (as with an orange or apple), which contains two or more layers of different texture or consistency. endogenous A botanical term referring to...

Als

The French sometimes used them in geometrically designed gardens or parks. (Compare to avenue.) allelopathy A condition in which a plant produces antibiotic chemicals that repress its growth or the growth of other plants. Allen wrench A hexagonal bent bar used to tighten and loosen screws or bolts that have a hexagonal indentation for insertion. all-heart lumber Lumber that is completely heartwood with no sapwood. alliaceous A plant onion-like in odor or other aspects. allochthonous...

Deformation

Decorative fountain A water feature indoors or outdoors that uses water as an aesthetic interest for its sound, humidity, reflections of surroundings in its surface, or interest of flow. decumbent 1. A plant growing flat and close to the ground with the summit, apex, or extremity tending to rise. 2. Any plant with a form that is flat or prostrate on the ground. decurrent In botanical terms, extending downward from the point of insertion. decussate In plant identification and botanical...

Casehardened

Case-hardened Steel or iron that has been hardened on the outside. case-hardening 1. In metal, a way of increasing durability and strength of steel or iron (see case-hardened). 2. In timber, when drying and seasoning lumber if the outer layers dry too quickly this causes stress between them and the inner layers. casing 1. The exposed molding, framing, or trim around a door or a window. 2. A portion of pipe used to line a hole. 3. The housing that encases the impeller of a pump. casing nail A...

Depauperate

Density bonus The allocation of development rights allowing a parcel to accommodate additional square footage or additional residential units in excess of the maximum for which the parcel is zoned, in exchange for some provision such as the preservation of an amenity at the same site or at another location. Such amenities could be public open spaces, plazas, landscaping, etc. density factor In irrigation auditing, the vegetation density factor. Newly planted and sparsely planted landscapes...

Pinnatetrifolioate

Capability to roll up into a ball about the size of a pea. Other common names are sow bugs, roly-polies, or potato bugs. They feed mostly on decaying vegetation however, they will feed on young tender plants, especially those just germinating or on fruits that are usually overripe or damaged. They are encouraged to proliferate by mulching and composting. pilose In botanical terms, long, straight, hairy or shaggy with soft, spreading, slender hairs. pilot hole A punched or drilled shallow hole...

Surface skimmer

Most often apparent around trees in heavy pedestrian traffic, or where soils are highly compacted around them due to construction or other activities. They are prone to be damaged or cause girdling. They are caused by the difficulty of roots attempting to penetrate highly compacted soil or by the lack of water percolating to soils beneath. surfaced size A reference to a piece of lumber's size that was rough sawn to a particular size and after being planed or surfaced for a smoother or more...

Compression fitting

Lumber comprised of more than one piece of lumber attached firmly together by fasteners, or glue, or both. 2. Wood particles pressed and glued together to form a wood sheet or board. composite plant A plant of the dicotyledonous family called compositae. composite roofing See built-up roofing. compost Decomposed or decomposing organic material (or mostly organic material) used as an amendment to soils in fertilizing land and improving the texture of soils. It may also be used...

Chelate

They are also useful in preventing pumps from losing their prime when the pump is turned off. chelate An organic substance holding micronu-trients in a form available for absorption by plants. These are fertilizers with an extra metal ion, making the fertilizer available to plants. They are also known as metal-organic complex fertilizers. Iron chelate is used in alkaline soils to overcome chlorosis as it makes iron available to the plant. Chelate micronutrients...

Soil sterilant

The higher the number is above 7, the higher the alkalinity of the soil. The lower the number below 7, the more acid the soil is. soil pipe A pipe carrying the discharge of toilets or other sanitary sewage. soil polymers Materials that absorb water hundreds of times their weight and that are used around plant material roots to provide water over a longer period of time. They are often called superabsorbents. They are most helpful in potting soils. soil profile The...

Topsoil stripping

Gin used especially when they are sharp, like saw teeth, but do not point forward. toothed plate or bulldog plate A toothed metal plate used to connect timbers. toothed ring A metal ring with toothed edges used to connect timber. top back of curb The line or point on the line of the upper portion of a curb on the side away from the pavement of a road. top dress In landscape work, applying something to the surface of the ground or to a lawn such as a mulch or manure. top dressing 1. Application...

Winterizing

Winterkill Plants that die as a result of exposure to cold winter conditions. winter solstice The shortest day of the year with the least amount of daylight hours. This day marks when winter officially begins. It is on or near December 21 or 22 in the northern hemisphere and about June 22 in the southern hemisphere. wiper seal With regard to landscape sprinklers, pop-up heads that have a special seal preventing contaminants from being pulled into the head as it is retracted from extension. wire...

Food chain

Emitters, or other devices that could become clogged with debris (rocks, sand, etc.) left in piping systems during construction fitting (especially when work has been done in a trench). flush-cut joint or flush joint A joint in masonry work where the joint of mortar is made flush with the brick or masonry unit face. This is not often used out-of-doors, especially in temperate climates, as moisture tends to eventually enter the joints and cause damage when freezing. flush-head rivet A rivet that...

Introduced species

Introduced species Any species not presently (or previous to some arbitrary date) found native to a particular site or area. introrse In botanical terms, turned or facing inward or toward the axis of the flower or growth. (Compare with extrorse.) intuitive design Quick and ready insight or knowledge about design without rational or burdensome thought. invasive A term used to describe plants that vigorously spread, propagate, have rapid unchecked growth, or invade a surrounding landscape area....

Finish carpentry

Finish carpentry The application of wood trim to structures, as well as the installation of doors, windows, etc. finish grade or finished grade 1. The final grade, slope, shape, and elevation of all surfaces (lawn, walks, patio, etc.) at the completion of an outdoor project. This may be the surface of sod, soil, mulch, pavement, a wood deck, etc. 2. The smooth completed grading of soil prior to seeding, planting, sodding, etc. finishing Smoothing, brushing, troweling, treating, etc. to give a...

Saliens

Saliens An artificial fountain with water shooting up through a constricted tube. saline soil A soil containing enough soluble salt to impair plant health. salinity The amount of salt in a substance. In landscape work, this usually refers to the salt content of soil or water. Excess salt can be toxic to plants, but more often symptoms are leaf scorch, stunted growth, yellow leaves, or withered leaf margins. Salt also interferes with germination of seeds, and can build up in the soil from...

Seamless pipe

Seamless pipe A pipe not having a longitudinal joint or seam. seawall A wall or embankment for stopping the encroachment of a water body. seaweed Dried kelp. Used as an organic fertilizer. It has an NPK ratio of about 2.5-1.5-15. secateur A mostly British term for pruners. second Having flowers only on one side of a flower spike. secondary nutrient In soils, these are the nutrients calcium, magnesium, and sulfur that are secondary (see primary nutrient) in importance for fertilizers because...

Dolabriform

Dolabriform A botanical term, pick-shaped and attached toward the middle, or at some point along the length rather than at an end. dollar spot on lawns A fungus (Sclerotinia homeocarpa) encouraged by spring's warm, wet, weather and fall's wet weather with cool nights. Lawns low on fertilizer (esp. nitrogen), or poorly drained areas are most susceptible. This disease is recognized by small, round, brown spots later becoming straw colored. A white cobwebby fungus growth seen most easily in early...

Borrow pit

Bond timber A timber built into a brick wall or a stone wall, usually in a horizontal position for the purpose of giving it strength. bonding capacity The amount of monetary exposure a bonding company will extend. This is usually based on a contractor's prior performance and capabilities. bonding layer A layer of mortar laid on a masonry or concrete surface for bonding with another layer of masonry. bone ash Residue of calcined bones used in making pottery, glass, and as a fertilizer. It is...

Sod cutter

Roll or sheet of grass (or other herbaceous plants), soil, and its roots cut from the ground in a thin piece for transplanting. It is produced by cutting an inch or two below the ground-surface and piling the slabs or rolls on pallets. It is important to get the sod laid down in place and watered before it undergoes dessication. sod cutter Any of various motorized machines used to cut and provide sod pieces in slabs or rolls of various sizes. sodic soil A soil with a significant amount of...

Orchard

With sandpaper, used for flattening or smoothing surfaces by sanding. orchard A group of fruit or nut trees also used in reference to any tree harvested for its food value (i.e., sugar maple trees, etc.). order 1. A ranking in the plant classification system (taxonomy) that is a subcategory of a class, and ranks above a family, which is a subcategory of it. See also taxon. 2. The broadest category in soil classification. ordinance A law or regulation adopted by a local governmental or...

Canvas

Campanile A free-standing bell tower. campanulate In botanical terms, a bell-shaped or cup-shaped flower with a broad base. Canadian Standards Association An organization that tests and publishes standards for the construction industry in Canada. canaliculate A botanical term indicating that a plant part has parallel grooves or channels. candelabra A pattern (form) of an espaliered plant that resembles a candelabra with branches generally forking horizontally and turning upward. candle or cd In...

Compacter volume

Liquid-like, preventing compaction by mechanical means until dried sufficiently. The cyclical wetting by rain (or overhead irrigation) impact and drying generally increases compaction. Soil compaction is advantageous and usually essential to the stability of structures and paving, but is detrimental to plant growth. Plants find compacted soils adverse due to little aeration, little gaseous diffusion, difficulty in root extension and penetration, and the lack of water as it does not infiltrate...

Gamophyllous

Gamophyllous A botanical term identifying a plant with connate leaves, petals, etc. gamosepalous With the sepals connate, at gap grading A measurement of particle sizes in earthen material where intermediate-size particles are completely lacking. See also continuous grading. garage A building, or a portion thereof, used or designed to be used for the parking and storage of vehicles. garden 1. An ornamental outdoor landscape. This type of garden is almost always near a building or in a city and...

NGR stain

NGR stain or non-grain-raising stain A liquid wood stain free of water with a base of alcohol or another solvent. NIC Abbreviation for not included in the contract. niche 1. The area and materials needed by an organism for survival considering its habits and environment. 2. A recess in a wall, usually masonry, that is often semicircular in plan view and sometimes contains an urn or sculpture. nickel A silver-colored metal alloy used with steel to assist in making it more resistant to corrosion...

Reducing pipe fitting

An original use and then made available for reuse (often in an irrigation system). reclamation The reuse or reclaiming of resources, usually in reference to natural resources. This term is often used for revegetation of an area that has been disturbed or denuded of vegetation. record drawings The drawings prepared by a contractor before, during, and after completion of a project, showing the project as it was actually constructed with any changes from the original design drawings. record sheet...

Emarginate

Elephant trunk A hopper with a long tube for assisting in placing the concrete in deep shafts or forms. elevated planter A planter with an elevation higher than the grade beneath it. The planting soil is contained and held aloft by poles, cables, or other points of attachment. elevation 1. The measured amount above or below sea level of an object or area. It is usually expressed in feet or meters. 2. The measured amount above or below a given base point on a drawing or site. This base point is...

Pretreatment

Pressure-compensating emitter or flexible diaphragm emitter In drip irrigation, an emitter that is able to keep the emission of water fairly constant with variations in pressure within pipe supply lengths. This is accomplished by deformation of an elastomeric disc, diaphragm, or water passage. The drawback to these devices is that elastomeric materials have a tendency to absorb water, lose their elasticity, or creep under prolonged stress, which will change the performance of the emitter over...

Negative environmental impact

Negative environmental impact Consequences in a realm involving interrelated or interdependent living things and their surroundings having influences of a detrimental nature, or being influenced in a detrimental way. It is most often used in the context of an anthropomorphic (human) cause of detrimental environmental changes, and focuses on the effects of those changes. However, what is viewed as a negative impact upon one element or organism may be a positive impact to another. See...

Greenhouse

Greenhouse or conservatory A building or structure constructed chiefly of plastic, glass, glass-like or translucent material, cloth, or lath, which is devoted to the protection or cultivation of flowers, vegetables, ground covers, or other tender plants. In these structures where the climate is modified or completely controlled, the climate is improved for the growing of plants. They may have artificial means (natural gas heater or electrically powered humidifier, etc.) of controlling...

Lagging

Shank may extend the entire length or for only a portion of its length. lagging 1. Thermal insulation of pipes, tanks, ducts, etc. 2. In excavation, the use of boards placed side by side along an excavated bank of earth. laitance The fines (fine particles) and water in excess on a concrete surface that is usually the result of too much working of the surface. This material is weak and will usually crack off in the future. See also spalling. lake sand Rounded instead of sharp sand particles....

Polycarpic

Polycarpic Descriptive of a plant that fruits and flowers multiple times in a life cycle. polyethylene A low-cost, flexible plastic. In landscape work, it is most often useful in two forms. It is made into a somewhat bendable pipe, sheets, or rolls of plastic. As a pipe, it is useful because it generally does not break when frozen with water inside. As a sheet membrane, it is useful because it is waterproof. It has been used to line ponds, assist in roofing, and as a weed barrier. The...

Controlledrelease fertilizers

Contour interval The vertical distance between contour elevations. contour line A line on the earth's surface connecting points of equal elevation on the surface of the ground. On a plan they are drawn to a definite scale and every part of the line is expressed as the same elevation above or below a given datum. Contours with a curve pointing uphill indicate a swale, while those pointing downhill indicate a ridge or rise. They can only intersect on paper in the extremely rare case of...

Drop cloth

A machine used for boring holes in the ground. drinking fountain A device that supplies water in such a manner that one may drink from a flow of water without the use of a container to catch it in. Most provide water for consumption by a slow-moving, usually arching water jet and a basin into which the spillage falls. The water emission device is metal, and the basin may be stone, metal, masonry, etc. drip edge A protrusion at the lower end of a roof or top surface of any...

Emboss

Emboss A raised or indented design or message. embryo In botanical terms, a young seed plant still within a seed and capable of becoming a mature plant. emergent plant 1. An herbaceous plant standing erect, rooted in shallow water but having most of the plant growing above the water's surface. 2. A rooted plant that grows on land that is periodically or permanently flooded, and, when flooded, has portions of the plant (stems and leaves) extending above the water surface. emery A granular form...

Potash

Potash (K) Can refer to potassium, or various potassium compounds, but it is correctly used in reference to potassium carbonate (usually derived from wood ashes). It contains potassium, which is essential to plant growth. Potash can be obtained by washing wood ashes with water and evaporating the resultant solution until dry. This process used to be done in iron pots and thus the name derived from pot and ash. It is often used as the potassium in the basic components of a complete fertilizer...

Outfall

Built-in pressure regulators can assist in overcoming some difficulties with pressure change over distance. See also emitter. ornament In design of a construction project, color, shape, etc. added as aesthetic attraction or embellishment. These adornments are not usually structurally essential. ornamental 1. A reference to a plant grown for its decorative qualities. 2. A reference to any decorative element in design. ornamental grasses Grasses and grass-like plants not utilized to sustain foot...

Parenchyma

One owner or a piece of land divided from another piece. parenchyma 1. The tissue of plants consisting of thin-walled cells capable of division, and being used in photosynthesis, or for storage. This tissue comprises much of leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. 2. An abnormal growth distinguished from supportive tissue. parent materials The portion of soils weathered from stone or bedrock, including the stone or bedrock itself. parging A Portland cement plaster applied over masonry. park Any...

ALT alt

Abbreviation for alternate. 2. Abbreviation for altitude. alternate In botanical terms, any plant parts (leaves, buds, branches, etc.) arranged singly at the stem nodes (not on opposite sides). They alternate which side of the branch they emerge from. alternate bid An optional bid to the base bid that deducts or adds services or materials and usually increases or decreases the base bid accordingly. alternate host Either of two plants that a fungus or insect finds necessary to...

Landscape construction

Some life forms are decreased, sometimes others are increased. land development Any improvement to a land. In most government jurisdictions, it applies only to buildings, roads, utilities, walks, parks, etc. in creating an urban or suburban area. land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) A numerical system for assessing the quality of farmland. It is generally used to select tracts for agricultural protection or to determine lowest quality farmland to allow development. This information is...

Granolithic concrete

Granolithic concrete A hard surface concrete usually with granite aggregate suitable for finished floor surfaces. granular fertilizer or granular herbicide A fertilizer or herbicide incorporated with particles usually about K0 inch diameter, or with any material that has a coarsely ground carrier suchlodicule as coal, corn cobs, or calcined clay, that is applied dry and incorporated into the soil by watering it in. granular material Gravels, sands, or silts. granular structure In soil science,...

Edible landscaping

They are most often found on undersides of leaves but also appear on petioles, cacti, etc. The most common cause is abundant, warm soil water and a cool, moist atmosphere. These conditions cause the roots to absorb water at a rate faster than transpiration, which creates a loss of water on the plant's surfaces. Water accumulates in the leaf or plant tissue in excess of its storage capability, some cells enlarge and block the stomatal openings, which usually vent...

Plant schedule

Planted molding or applied molding A molding fastened to a work instead of cut into the solid material. planter 1. An area of ground for plants on a project. 2. A container for plants. planting 1. In landscaping, the act of placing plant material, roots, bulbs, rhizomes, or seed in soil or other growing medium anticipating or intending future survival or growth of a plant. (See appendix for construction details.) 2. In masonry work, the placement of the bottom courses of masonry units as a...

B

Baccate A botanical term used in plant identification that means berrylike and pulpy. bacillus popillae Now known by the name of paenibacillus popillae. A biological (bacteria) control for the grub worms of Japanese beetles. back charge A monetary charge for damage, noncompliance with contracted construction design, or faulty construction by an owner, contractor, or subcontractor against any entity supplying or constructing a project. backer strip An asphalt-coated, water-repellent piece...

Spun concrete

Spun concrete Concrete compacted by spinning, as with the manufacture of pipes. spur 1. Some fruits such as apples and cherries that bear their fruit on specialized short twigs. 2. Projections from a flower (usually tubular) such as found in columbine (Aquilegia) flowers. They arise from sepals or petals. 3. An offshoot or projection away from the main body. sq. ft. Abbreviation for square foot (feet). sq. in. Abbreviation for square inch(es). sq. km. Square kilometer(s) 1,000,000 square...

Adt Full Form Botany

Abbreviation for addendum. 2. Abbreviation for addition. addendum A change or revision to drawings, specifications, or other information on a project out for bid, which has an effect on bids. It occurs before receipt of bids, and is usually stated in letter form that ethically should be delivered to all bidders (in fairness) with the drawings or papers indicating the change so as to allow understanding in comparison of bids. These changes become a part of construction documents for...

Hydrostatic test

Hydrograph method A way of forecasting stream flow by using a hydrograph to depict the changes in runoff of a drainage basin throughout a rainstorm. hydrologic cycle The ongoing circulation of water between ocean, atmosphere, and land. hydrologic equation The proportion of the amount of surface runoff on a piece of ground to the precipitation amount minus evapotranspiration loss, plus or minus changes in groundwater or soil water. hydrologic response The properties, distribution, and...

Fertilizer analysis

(N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). They are usually listed on containers of fertilizer in the foregoing order as a percentage of each (i.e., 5-10-8 or 5 nitrogen, 10 phosphorus, 8 potassium). See also secondary nutrients, complete fertilizer, and micronutrients. fertilizer analysis The breakdown usually labeled on fertilizer products showing the minimum percentages of nutrients included. fertilizer burn This is a burning or wilting of leaves caused by salts commonly found in fertilizers...