Street lamp

Street lamp A light on a pole alongside a street. street noise barrier A high wall, typically made of concrete, that parallels a street and reflects the noise of the traffic. streetscape 1. The ground area adjacent to a street that may contain sidewalks, street furniture, landscaping, etc. 2. The scenery viewed from a street and the visual positive or negative experience or feelings generated by such. street tree A tree that is currently located or proposed for planting along a street. stress...

Mesocarp

Mechanical controller A sprinkler controller that has manual switches, dials, knobs, pins, etc. for setting irrigation control. (Compare with digital controller.) mechanical joint With regard to pipe connections, a joint tightened with nuts and bolts. Some incorrectly refer to any pipe not glued at its joints as a mechanical joint. mechanical pencil An instrument that clamps down its narrow, cylindrical drawing material when in use and can allow the drawing material's extension as it is used up...

Lateral sewer

Valves to sprinkler heads or points of discharge. Any pipe downstream of an irrigation valve. lateral sewer A portion of a sewer line that has no other sewer discharging into it. latex An emulsion of minute, dispersed particles of rubber or plastic material in water obtained by polymerization and often used for coatings and adhesives. latex paint A paint of latex with pigments and other binders. lath 1. In landscape work, a structure for partial covering overhead to reduce or prevent damage to...

Flanged joint

Fish meal A complete organic fertilizer made of dried, ground fish or fish parts containing 8 to 10 nitrogen, 4 to 9 phosphoric acid, and 2 to 4 potash. fishplate A wood or metal piece attached by nails or bolts to the ends of two abutting ends of lumber. fish tape A long, thin, stiff metal strip used to extend through a conduit or sleeve and then attach to an electrical conductor to pull it through. fistulose, fistulous A botanical term meaning hollow. fitting Pipe connectors (devices for...

Deposited metal

Deposited metal Metal used as filler in welding. depressed In botanical terms, flattened, or as if pressed down from above. depression storage Runoff held in shallow, low spots in the terrain. desertification The degradation of land within dry subhumid, semi-arid, or arid areas resulting in decreased vegetation and less ability of the land to support it, brought about by various factors including climatic changes, fires, diseases, human activities, etc. desiccate To dry up. A drying up of...

Tin snips

Horizontal line for laying a masonry course. 2. A flexible clip used to hold a sheet of glass, metal, etc. in place. tin snips Shears used for cutting thin sheet metal or tin. tint A light color made by mixing a small amount of color with a large amount of white. tissue culture In plant research, the aseptic culture (in flasks or test tubes) practice of growing plant cells into plant clones (for propagation) or for biochemical products, preservation, scientific research, genotype modification,...

County agricultural agent

County agricultural agent One who works for the Cooperative Extension Service. coupler In pipe work, a fitting accommodating the connection of the ends of two pipes in a straight line. coupling In pipe work, a device that connects while covering over or inserting into the ends of two pipes or male projections. court In reference to spacial definition, an uncovered space that is completely or mostly enclosed by walls, buildings, plants, etc. cove A concave, curved edge between a ceiling and wall...

S

Abbreviation on drawings for south. 2. Abbreviation sometimes used for seamless. 3. Abbreviation for second. 4. A type of mortar used in exterior applications amounting to 1 part Portland cement by volume, 1 part hydrated lime by volume, and water in the amount of 2 4 to 3 times the sum of the volumes of cement and lime. It is useful for normal compressive and high lateral loads. It is the most common type used in reinforced masonry. Type M is stronger than type N. saber saw A power-driven...

Bosk

Ing construction and maintenance, or highway construction and maintenance. bosk, bosque The heads of trees or large plants intertwined into a mass, thicket, grove, etc. boss 1. A botanical term meaning a tight, rounded cluster, usually referring to stamens. 2. In an employment setting, one who directs another's work. 3. With regard to pipe systems, a protuberance on a fitting or pipe for strength, for fastening it to objects, to assist in alignment, etc. bossing Soft sheet metal shaped to a...

A

The more common abbreviation for acre is ac. 2. Abbreviation for ampere(s). 3. Abbreviation for area. In landscape applications, area is often expressed in square feet, square yards, or square meters. 4. In botanical terms, a prefix meaning not different from away from without. A1 horizon A soil layer that is a subhorizon of the A horizon, distinguishable by its darker color from the rest of the A horizon due to a higher content of organic matter. A2 horizon A...

Bog

Block insulation A rigid or semi-rigid slab of material used for thermal protection. block plane A small, wood, planing device useful in cleaning up miters and end grains. blood meal An organic fertilizer made of dried animal blood (usually cattle) with an acid reaction and an NPK ratio of approximately 15-1.3-0.7 Nitrogen ranges from 12 to 15 , with 15 most common. bloom 1. An open or showy flower. 2. The flower of any plant. 3. A whitish, or bluish-white powdery, glaucous, usually waxy...

Hydrozone

Easy location of the leak for repair. (Compare with operational test.) hydrozone A portion of a landscaped area having plants with similar water needs that are watered by one irrigation valve, or a set of valves with the same irrigation schedule. hygroscopic Absorbing moisture from the air plants taking up and holding moisture from the air. They sometimes swell, shrink, or change in position with the humidity. hygroscopic water 1. Water bound tightly by soil solids at potential values lower...

Soil fabric

Softwood cutting A cutting from soft, succulent new spring growth. softwood lumber Wood cut from coniferous soil The upper layer of the earth consisting of unconsolidated natural surface material above bedrock formed by weathering that can be dug or plowed. It is the natural medium in which plant roots survive. It is naturally a result of the interactions between geologic effects (weathered mantle existing on the earth's terrestrial surface), vegetation, and climate. It is comprised of mineral...

Potager

Post emergent An herbicide that will kill weeds after they have germinated. post hole A narrow hole in the ground dug to accept a fence column (post), or support post for a structure. post hole digger A tool for digging narrow holes in the ground to accept posts. They have two long handles with curved jaws on their ends moving on a pivot point. The handles can be held together while the open jaws are thrust into the ground. The handles are then pulled apart to squeeze the dislodged soil and...

Sod

Itoring the weather or the soil moisture. They adjust station run time(s) or the frequency when there are changes detected in the soil moisture or the weather. Some will monitor wind, rain, or temperature. Another feature of some of these controllers is that they can monitor flow in pipes, determining if there is a break in the line. The features of these controllers are not all the same, but they include some method of automatically adjusting their schedules through the seasons of the year in...

Perspective drawing

Pergola A garden structure with an open wooden-framed roof, often latticed and covered by climbing plants while shading a walk, sitting area, or passageway. perianth The outside envelope of a flower that protects its reproductive parts during development. In most dicotyledons, it is composed of two separate whorls, one being the calyx of sepals, and the other being the corolla of petals. In monocotyledons the sepals and petals are often indistinguishable and the segments of the perianth are...

Fertilizer

Feathering This often means to slightly change. Two edges not flush often need feathering. Shutting a valve off slowly, or turning it on slowly can be feathering. fecal Relating to, pertaining to, or constituting feces. fecundity The potential reproductive capacity of a plant, taking into consideration the number of viable seeds produced. feeder roots These plant roots are mostly within about 12 to 18 inches of the soil surface and absorb most of the nutrients and water for a plant. They are...

Orchidaceae

Orchideus, orchidea, orchideum orchioides orchoides orchid-like orchidflorus, orchidflora, orchidflorum flowers looking like those of orchids oreganus, oreganao, oreganum oregonus, oregona, oregonum from Oregon oreophilus, oreophila, oreophilum of orientalis, orientale of the Orient, Eastern origanifolius, origanifolia, origanifolium origanoides looking like marjoram ( Origanum) ornatus, ornata, ornatum showy, ornate, adorned ornithocephalus, ornithocephala, ornithocephalum shaped like a bird's...

Nominal size

Taken from the atmosphere at the time of lightening strikes by its electrical energy and changed to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. It dissolves and comes to the earth as rain in a diluted form. (2) Certain legume-type plants through cooperation with bacteria (rhizobia) are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds. (3) There is a metabolic assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen gas into ammonia or nitrogen compounds by soil organisms such as Azotobacter chroococcum and...

Valve in head

Valve in head A sprinkler head in which the valve is actuated by the controller for turning the head off and on and is built into the sprinkler head. Most are currently electrically operated, but some are still hydraulically actuated. These types of heads are usually large and capable of spraying long distances. They are commonly used on golf courses and in large lawn areas of parks. valve key A long, slender, metal rod with a handle forming a T shape and an end that is placed down on a valve...

Greenfield

Gravel board or gravel plank A board (usually treated for resistance to decay or a decay-resistant board) attached at the bottom of a wood fence to prevent the rest of the fence planking from contacting the ground where the planks would decay faster. graveling-in The process or action of spreading gravel on built-up roofing. gravel stop A raised edge on a gravel roof to prevent gravel from falling from the roof. gravity wall A heavy concrete wall prevented from overturning mainly by its own...

Erosion control fabric

And human features in an area proposed for a planning project. environmentally friendly Said of a process or product that is beneficial to, or not destructive of, the environment. enzymes Substances (organic catalysts) produced by living cells that may bring about or speed up chemical reactions. EPA The Environmental Protection Agency of the United States. EPDM Abbreviation for ethylene propylene diene monomer, a synthetic rubber liner often used to line water features, roofs, or roof planters...

Surface skimmer

Most often apparent around trees in heavy pedestrian traffic, or where soils are highly compacted around them due to construction or other activities. They are prone to be damaged or cause girdling. They are caused by the difficulty of roots attempting to penetrate highly compacted soil or by the lack of water percolating to soils beneath. surfaced size A reference to a piece of lumber's size that was rough sawn to a particular size and after being planed or surfaced for a smoother or more...

Compression fitting

Lumber comprised of more than one piece of lumber attached firmly together by fasteners, or glue, or both. 2. Wood particles pressed and glued together to form a wood sheet or board. composite plant A plant of the dicotyledonous family called compositae. composite roofing See built-up roofing. compost Decomposed or decomposing organic material (or mostly organic material) used as an amendment to soils in fertilizing land and improving the texture of soils. It may also be used...

Topsoil stripping

Gin used especially when they are sharp, like saw teeth, but do not point forward. toothed plate or bulldog plate A toothed metal plate used to connect timbers. toothed ring A metal ring with toothed edges used to connect timber. top back of curb The line or point on the line of the upper portion of a curb on the side away from the pavement of a road. top dress In landscape work, applying something to the surface of the ground or to a lawn such as a mulch or manure. top dressing 1. Application...

Finish carpentry

Finish carpentry The application of wood trim to structures, as well as the installation of doors, windows, etc. finish grade or finished grade 1. The final grade, slope, shape, and elevation of all surfaces (lawn, walks, patio, etc.) at the completion of an outdoor project. This may be the surface of sod, soil, mulch, pavement, a wood deck, etc. 2. The smooth completed grading of soil prior to seeding, planting, sodding, etc. finishing Smoothing, brushing, troweling, treating, etc. to give a...

Gamophyllous

Gamophyllous A botanical term identifying a plant with connate leaves, petals, etc. gamosepalous With the sepals connate, at gap grading A measurement of particle sizes in earthen material where intermediate-size particles are completely lacking. See also continuous grading. garage A building, or a portion thereof, used or designed to be used for the parking and storage of vehicles. garden 1. An ornamental outdoor landscape. This type of garden is almost always near a building or in a city and...

NGR stain

NGR stain or non-grain-raising stain A liquid wood stain free of water with a base of alcohol or another solvent. NIC Abbreviation for not included in the contract. niche 1. The area and materials needed by an organism for survival considering its habits and environment. 2. A recess in a wall, usually masonry, that is often semicircular in plan view and sometimes contains an urn or sculpture. nickel A silver-colored metal alloy used with steel to assist in making it more resistant to corrosion...

Reducing pipe fitting

An original use and then made available for reuse (often in an irrigation system). reclamation The reuse or reclaiming of resources, usually in reference to natural resources. This term is often used for revegetation of an area that has been disturbed or denuded of vegetation. record drawings The drawings prepared by a contractor before, during, and after completion of a project, showing the project as it was actually constructed with any changes from the original design drawings. record sheet...

Emarginate

Elephant trunk A hopper with a long tube for assisting in placing the concrete in deep shafts or forms. elevated planter A planter with an elevation higher than the grade beneath it. The planting soil is contained and held aloft by poles, cables, or other points of attachment. elevation 1. The measured amount above or below sea level of an object or area. It is usually expressed in feet or meters. 2. The measured amount above or below a given base point on a drawing or site. This base point is...

Pretreatment

Pressure-compensating emitter or flexible diaphragm emitter In drip irrigation, an emitter that is able to keep the emission of water fairly constant with variations in pressure within pipe supply lengths. This is accomplished by deformation of an elastomeric disc, diaphragm, or water passage. The drawback to these devices is that elastomeric materials have a tendency to absorb water, lose their elasticity, or creep under prolonged stress, which will change the performance of the emitter over...

Negative environmental impact

Negative environmental impact Consequences in a realm involving interrelated or interdependent living things and their surroundings having influences of a detrimental nature, or being influenced in a detrimental way. It is most often used in the context of an anthropomorphic (human) cause of detrimental environmental changes, and focuses on the effects of those changes. However, what is viewed as a negative impact upon one element or organism may be a positive impact to another. See...

Greenhouse

Greenhouse or conservatory A building or structure constructed chiefly of plastic, glass, glass-like or translucent material, cloth, or lath, which is devoted to the protection or cultivation of flowers, vegetables, ground covers, or other tender plants. In these structures where the climate is modified or completely controlled, the climate is improved for the growing of plants. They may have artificial means (natural gas heater or electrically powered humidifier, etc.) of controlling...

Polycarpic

Polycarpic Descriptive of a plant that fruits and flowers multiple times in a life cycle. polyethylene A low-cost, flexible plastic. In landscape work, it is most often useful in two forms. It is made into a somewhat bendable pipe, sheets, or rolls of plastic. As a pipe, it is useful because it generally does not break when frozen with water inside. As a sheet membrane, it is useful because it is waterproof. It has been used to line ponds, assist in roofing, and as a weed barrier. The...

Controlledrelease fertilizers

Contour interval The vertical distance between contour elevations. contour line A line on the earth's surface connecting points of equal elevation on the surface of the ground. On a plan they are drawn to a definite scale and every part of the line is expressed as the same elevation above or below a given datum. Contours with a curve pointing uphill indicate a swale, while those pointing downhill indicate a ridge or rise. They can only intersect on paper in the extremely rare case of...

Drop cloth

A machine used for boring holes in the ground. drinking fountain A device that supplies water in such a manner that one may drink from a flow of water without the use of a container to catch it in. Most provide water for consumption by a slow-moving, usually arching water jet and a basin into which the spillage falls. The water emission device is metal, and the basin may be stone, metal, masonry, etc. drip edge A protrusion at the lower end of a roof or top surface of any...

Emboss

Emboss A raised or indented design or message. embryo In botanical terms, a young seed plant still within a seed and capable of becoming a mature plant. emergent plant 1. An herbaceous plant standing erect, rooted in shallow water but having most of the plant growing above the water's surface. 2. A rooted plant that grows on land that is periodically or permanently flooded, and, when flooded, has portions of the plant (stems and leaves) extending above the water surface. emery A granular form...

Parenchyma

One owner or a piece of land divided from another piece. parenchyma 1. The tissue of plants consisting of thin-walled cells capable of division, and being used in photosynthesis, or for storage. This tissue comprises much of leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. 2. An abnormal growth distinguished from supportive tissue. parent materials The portion of soils weathered from stone or bedrock, including the stone or bedrock itself. parging A Portland cement plaster applied over masonry. park Any...

ALT alt

Abbreviation for alternate. 2. Abbreviation for altitude. alternate In botanical terms, any plant parts (leaves, buds, branches, etc.) arranged singly at the stem nodes (not on opposite sides). They alternate which side of the branch they emerge from. alternate bid An optional bid to the base bid that deducts or adds services or materials and usually increases or decreases the base bid accordingly. alternate host Either of two plants that a fungus or insect finds necessary to...

Landscape construction

Some life forms are decreased, sometimes others are increased. land development Any improvement to a land. In most government jurisdictions, it applies only to buildings, roads, utilities, walks, parks, etc. in creating an urban or suburban area. land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) A numerical system for assessing the quality of farmland. It is generally used to select tracts for agricultural protection or to determine lowest quality farmland to allow development. This information is...

Edible landscaping

They are most often found on undersides of leaves but also appear on petioles, cacti, etc. The most common cause is abundant, warm soil water and a cool, moist atmosphere. These conditions cause the roots to absorb water at a rate faster than transpiration, which creates a loss of water on the plant's surfaces. Water accumulates in the leaf or plant tissue in excess of its storage capability, some cells enlarge and block the stomatal openings, which usually vent...

Plant schedule

Planted molding or applied molding A molding fastened to a work instead of cut into the solid material. planter 1. An area of ground for plants on a project. 2. A container for plants. planting 1. In landscaping, the act of placing plant material, roots, bulbs, rhizomes, or seed in soil or other growing medium anticipating or intending future survival or growth of a plant. (See appendix for construction details.) 2. In masonry work, the placement of the bottom courses of masonry units as a...

B

Baccate A botanical term used in plant identification that means berrylike and pulpy. bacillus popillae Now known by the name of paenibacillus popillae. A biological (bacteria) control for the grub worms of Japanese beetles. back charge A monetary charge for damage, noncompliance with contracted construction design, or faulty construction by an owner, contractor, or subcontractor against any entity supplying or constructing a project. backer strip An asphalt-coated, water-repellent piece...

Spun concrete

Spun concrete Concrete compacted by spinning, as with the manufacture of pipes. spur 1. Some fruits such as apples and cherries that bear their fruit on specialized short twigs. 2. Projections from a flower (usually tubular) such as found in columbine (Aquilegia) flowers. They arise from sepals or petals. 3. An offshoot or projection away from the main body. sq. ft. Abbreviation for square foot (feet). sq. in. Abbreviation for square inch(es). sq. km. Square kilometer(s) 1,000,000 square...

Adt Full Form Botany

Abbreviation for addendum. 2. Abbreviation for addition. addendum A change or revision to drawings, specifications, or other information on a project out for bid, which has an effect on bids. It occurs before receipt of bids, and is usually stated in letter form that ethically should be delivered to all bidders (in fairness) with the drawings or papers indicating the change so as to allow understanding in comparison of bids. These changes become a part of construction documents for...

Hydrostatic test

Hydrograph method A way of forecasting stream flow by using a hydrograph to depict the changes in runoff of a drainage basin throughout a rainstorm. hydrologic cycle The ongoing circulation of water between ocean, atmosphere, and land. hydrologic equation The proportion of the amount of surface runoff on a piece of ground to the precipitation amount minus evapotranspiration loss, plus or minus changes in groundwater or soil water. hydrologic response The properties, distribution, and...

Fertilizer analysis

(N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). They are usually listed on containers of fertilizer in the foregoing order as a percentage of each (i.e., 5-10-8 or 5 nitrogen, 10 phosphorus, 8 potassium). See also secondary nutrients, complete fertilizer, and micronutrients. fertilizer analysis The breakdown usually labeled on fertilizer products showing the minimum percentages of nutrients included. fertilizer burn This is a burning or wilting of leaves caused by salts commonly found in fertilizers...