Greenfield

Gravel board or gravel plank A board (usually treated for resistance to decay or a decay-resistant board) attached at the bottom of a wood fence to prevent the rest of the fence planking from contacting the ground where the planks would decay faster. graveling-in The process or action of spreading gravel on built-up roofing. gravel stop A raised edge on a gravel roof to prevent gravel from falling from the roof. gravity wall A heavy concrete wall prevented from overturning mainly by its own...

Grout

Grotto A cave or a recessed area made to resemble a cave. When artificially created, they often include waterfalls or fountains with decorations or representations of sea shells or sea creatures, etc. ground 1. Any solid portion of the earth including soil, rock, or minerals. 2. A reference to the surface of the earth as in placed on the ground. 3. A conductor that facilitates electric current being connected to the earth (ground) through the conductor(s) and used as a common return for an...

Drop hammer

Drop hammer A heavy weight used for driving a pile into the ground. drop manhole A manhole provided for inspection and maintenance of sewers where the incoming sewer pipe is considerably higher than the outgoing sewer pipe. drop siding Cladding for walls in horizontal pieces that overlap when one is placed (dropped) upon another. It is usually made of vinyl, aluminum, or wood. drop tee A pipe tee having lugs in its side, allowing it to be attached to a support. drought A prolonged period when...

Deformation

Decorative fountain A water feature indoors or outdoors that uses water as an aesthetic interest for its sound, humidity, reflections of surroundings in its surface, or interest of flow. decumbent 1. A plant growing flat and close to the ground with the summit, apex, or extremity tending to rise. 2. Any plant with a form that is flat or prostrate on the ground. decurrent In botanical terms, extending downward from the point of insertion. decussate In plant identification and botanical...

Depauperate

Density bonus The allocation of development rights allowing a parcel to accommodate additional square footage or additional residential units in excess of the maximum for which the parcel is zoned, in exchange for some provision such as the preservation of an amenity at the same site or at another location. Such amenities could be public open spaces, plazas, landscaping, etc. density factor In irrigation auditing, the vegetation density factor. Newly planted and sparsely planted landscapes...

Surface skimmer

Most often apparent around trees in heavy pedestrian traffic, or where soils are highly compacted around them due to construction or other activities. They are prone to be damaged or cause girdling. They are caused by the difficulty of roots attempting to penetrate highly compacted soil or by the lack of water percolating to soils beneath. surfaced size A reference to a piece of lumber's size that was rough sawn to a particular size and after being planed or surfaced for a smoother or more...

Compression fitting

Lumber comprised of more than one piece of lumber attached firmly together by fasteners, or glue, or both. 2. Wood particles pressed and glued together to form a wood sheet or board. composite plant A plant of the dicotyledonous family called compositae. composite roofing See built-up roofing. compost Decomposed or decomposing organic material (or mostly organic material) used as an amendment to soils in fertilizing land and improving the texture of soils. It may also be used...

Soil sterilant

The higher the number is above 7, the higher the alkalinity of the soil. The lower the number below 7, the more acid the soil is. soil pipe A pipe carrying the discharge of toilets or other sanitary sewage. soil polymers Materials that absorb water hundreds of times their weight and that are used around plant material roots to provide water over a longer period of time. They are often called superabsorbents. They are most helpful in potting soils. soil profile The...

Topsoil stripping

Gin used especially when they are sharp, like saw teeth, but do not point forward. toothed plate or bulldog plate A toothed metal plate used to connect timbers. toothed ring A metal ring with toothed edges used to connect timber. top back of curb The line or point on the line of the upper portion of a curb on the side away from the pavement of a road. top dress In landscape work, applying something to the surface of the ground or to a lawn such as a mulch or manure. top dressing 1. Application...

Food chain

Emitters, or other devices that could become clogged with debris (rocks, sand, etc.) left in piping systems during construction fitting (especially when work has been done in a trench). flush-cut joint or flush joint A joint in masonry work where the joint of mortar is made flush with the brick or masonry unit face. This is not often used out-of-doors, especially in temperate climates, as moisture tends to eventually enter the joints and cause damage when freezing. flush-head rivet A rivet that...

Introduced species

Introduced species Any species not presently (or previous to some arbitrary date) found native to a particular site or area. introrse In botanical terms, turned or facing inward or toward the axis of the flower or growth. (Compare with extrorse.) intuitive design Quick and ready insight or knowledge about design without rational or burdensome thought. invasive A term used to describe plants that vigorously spread, propagate, have rapid unchecked growth, or invade a surrounding landscape area....

Finish carpentry

Finish carpentry The application of wood trim to structures, as well as the installation of doors, windows, etc. finish grade or finished grade 1. The final grade, slope, shape, and elevation of all surfaces (lawn, walks, patio, etc.) at the completion of an outdoor project. This may be the surface of sod, soil, mulch, pavement, a wood deck, etc. 2. The smooth completed grading of soil prior to seeding, planting, sodding, etc. finishing Smoothing, brushing, troweling, treating, etc. to give a...

Saliens

Saliens An artificial fountain with water shooting up through a constricted tube. saline soil A soil containing enough soluble salt to impair plant health. salinity The amount of salt in a substance. In landscape work, this usually refers to the salt content of soil or water. Excess salt can be toxic to plants, but more often symptoms are leaf scorch, stunted growth, yellow leaves, or withered leaf margins. Salt also interferes with germination of seeds, and can build up in the soil from...

Dolabriform

Dolabriform A botanical term, pick-shaped and attached toward the middle, or at some point along the length rather than at an end. dollar spot on lawns A fungus (Sclerotinia homeocarpa) encouraged by spring's warm, wet, weather and fall's wet weather with cool nights. Lawns low on fertilizer (esp. nitrogen), or poorly drained areas are most susceptible. This disease is recognized by small, round, brown spots later becoming straw colored. A white cobwebby fungus growth seen most easily in early...

Sod cutter

Roll or sheet of grass (or other herbaceous plants), soil, and its roots cut from the ground in a thin piece for transplanting. It is produced by cutting an inch or two below the ground-surface and piling the slabs or rolls on pallets. It is important to get the sod laid down in place and watered before it undergoes dessication. sod cutter Any of various motorized machines used to cut and provide sod pieces in slabs or rolls of various sizes. sodic soil A soil with a significant amount of...

Orchard

With sandpaper, used for flattening or smoothing surfaces by sanding. orchard A group of fruit or nut trees also used in reference to any tree harvested for its food value (i.e., sugar maple trees, etc.). order 1. A ranking in the plant classification system (taxonomy) that is a subcategory of a class, and ranks above a family, which is a subcategory of it. See also taxon. 2. The broadest category in soil classification. ordinance A law or regulation adopted by a local governmental or...

Gamophyllous

Gamophyllous A botanical term identifying a plant with connate leaves, petals, etc. gamosepalous With the sepals connate, at gap grading A measurement of particle sizes in earthen material where intermediate-size particles are completely lacking. See also continuous grading. garage A building, or a portion thereof, used or designed to be used for the parking and storage of vehicles. garden 1. An ornamental outdoor landscape. This type of garden is almost always near a building or in a city and...

NGR stain

NGR stain or non-grain-raising stain A liquid wood stain free of water with a base of alcohol or another solvent. NIC Abbreviation for not included in the contract. niche 1. The area and materials needed by an organism for survival considering its habits and environment. 2. A recess in a wall, usually masonry, that is often semicircular in plan view and sometimes contains an urn or sculpture. nickel A silver-colored metal alloy used with steel to assist in making it more resistant to corrosion...

Reducing pipe fitting

An original use and then made available for reuse (often in an irrigation system). reclamation The reuse or reclaiming of resources, usually in reference to natural resources. This term is often used for revegetation of an area that has been disturbed or denuded of vegetation. record drawings The drawings prepared by a contractor before, during, and after completion of a project, showing the project as it was actually constructed with any changes from the original design drawings. record sheet...

Emarginate

Elephant trunk A hopper with a long tube for assisting in placing the concrete in deep shafts or forms. elevated planter A planter with an elevation higher than the grade beneath it. The planting soil is contained and held aloft by poles, cables, or other points of attachment. elevation 1. The measured amount above or below sea level of an object or area. It is usually expressed in feet or meters. 2. The measured amount above or below a given base point on a drawing or site. This base point is...

Pretreatment

Pressure-compensating emitter or flexible diaphragm emitter In drip irrigation, an emitter that is able to keep the emission of water fairly constant with variations in pressure within pipe supply lengths. This is accomplished by deformation of an elastomeric disc, diaphragm, or water passage. The drawback to these devices is that elastomeric materials have a tendency to absorb water, lose their elasticity, or creep under prolonged stress, which will change the performance of the emitter over...

Negative environmental impact

Negative environmental impact Consequences in a realm involving interrelated or interdependent living things and their surroundings having influences of a detrimental nature, or being influenced in a detrimental way. It is most often used in the context of an anthropomorphic (human) cause of detrimental environmental changes, and focuses on the effects of those changes. However, what is viewed as a negative impact upon one element or organism may be a positive impact to another. See...

Greenhouse

Greenhouse or conservatory A building or structure constructed chiefly of plastic, glass, glass-like or translucent material, cloth, or lath, which is devoted to the protection or cultivation of flowers, vegetables, ground covers, or other tender plants. In these structures where the climate is modified or completely controlled, the climate is improved for the growing of plants. They may have artificial means (natural gas heater or electrically powered humidifier, etc.) of controlling...

Lagging

Shank may extend the entire length or for only a portion of its length. lagging 1. Thermal insulation of pipes, tanks, ducts, etc. 2. In excavation, the use of boards placed side by side along an excavated bank of earth. laitance The fines (fine particles) and water in excess on a concrete surface that is usually the result of too much working of the surface. This material is weak and will usually crack off in the future. See also spalling. lake sand Rounded instead of sharp sand particles....

Polycarpic

Polycarpic Descriptive of a plant that fruits and flowers multiple times in a life cycle. polyethylene A low-cost, flexible plastic. In landscape work, it is most often useful in two forms. It is made into a somewhat bendable pipe, sheets, or rolls of plastic. As a pipe, it is useful because it generally does not break when frozen with water inside. As a sheet membrane, it is useful because it is waterproof. It has been used to line ponds, assist in roofing, and as a weed barrier. The...

Controlledrelease fertilizers

Contour interval The vertical distance between contour elevations. contour line A line on the earth's surface connecting points of equal elevation on the surface of the ground. On a plan they are drawn to a definite scale and every part of the line is expressed as the same elevation above or below a given datum. Contours with a curve pointing uphill indicate a swale, while those pointing downhill indicate a ridge or rise. They can only intersect on paper in the extremely rare case of...

Drop cloth

A machine used for boring holes in the ground. drinking fountain A device that supplies water in such a manner that one may drink from a flow of water without the use of a container to catch it in. Most provide water for consumption by a slow-moving, usually arching water jet and a basin into which the spillage falls. The water emission device is metal, and the basin may be stone, metal, masonry, etc. drip edge A protrusion at the lower end of a roof or top surface of any...

Emboss

Emboss A raised or indented design or message. embryo In botanical terms, a young seed plant still within a seed and capable of becoming a mature plant. emergent plant 1. An herbaceous plant standing erect, rooted in shallow water but having most of the plant growing above the water's surface. 2. A rooted plant that grows on land that is periodically or permanently flooded, and, when flooded, has portions of the plant (stems and leaves) extending above the water surface. emery A granular form...

Parenchyma

One owner or a piece of land divided from another piece. parenchyma 1. The tissue of plants consisting of thin-walled cells capable of division, and being used in photosynthesis, or for storage. This tissue comprises much of leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. 2. An abnormal growth distinguished from supportive tissue. parent materials The portion of soils weathered from stone or bedrock, including the stone or bedrock itself. parging A Portland cement plaster applied over masonry. park Any...

ALT alt

Abbreviation for alternate. 2. Abbreviation for altitude. alternate In botanical terms, any plant parts (leaves, buds, branches, etc.) arranged singly at the stem nodes (not on opposite sides). They alternate which side of the branch they emerge from. alternate bid An optional bid to the base bid that deducts or adds services or materials and usually increases or decreases the base bid accordingly. alternate host Either of two plants that a fungus or insect finds necessary to...

Landscape construction

Some life forms are decreased, sometimes others are increased. land development Any improvement to a land. In most government jurisdictions, it applies only to buildings, roads, utilities, walks, parks, etc. in creating an urban or suburban area. land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) A numerical system for assessing the quality of farmland. It is generally used to select tracts for agricultural protection or to determine lowest quality farmland to allow development. This information is...

Edible landscaping

They are most often found on undersides of leaves but also appear on petioles, cacti, etc. The most common cause is abundant, warm soil water and a cool, moist atmosphere. These conditions cause the roots to absorb water at a rate faster than transpiration, which creates a loss of water on the plant's surfaces. Water accumulates in the leaf or plant tissue in excess of its storage capability, some cells enlarge and block the stomatal openings, which usually vent...

Plant schedule

Planted molding or applied molding A molding fastened to a work instead of cut into the solid material. planter 1. An area of ground for plants on a project. 2. A container for plants. planting 1. In landscaping, the act of placing plant material, roots, bulbs, rhizomes, or seed in soil or other growing medium anticipating or intending future survival or growth of a plant. (See appendix for construction details.) 2. In masonry work, the placement of the bottom courses of masonry units as a...

B

Baccate A botanical term used in plant identification that means berrylike and pulpy. bacillus popillae Now known by the name of paenibacillus popillae. A biological (bacteria) control for the grub worms of Japanese beetles. back charge A monetary charge for damage, noncompliance with contracted construction design, or faulty construction by an owner, contractor, or subcontractor against any entity supplying or constructing a project. backer strip An asphalt-coated, water-repellent piece...

Spun concrete

Spun concrete Concrete compacted by spinning, as with the manufacture of pipes. spur 1. Some fruits such as apples and cherries that bear their fruit on specialized short twigs. 2. Projections from a flower (usually tubular) such as found in columbine (Aquilegia) flowers. They arise from sepals or petals. 3. An offshoot or projection away from the main body. sq. ft. Abbreviation for square foot (feet). sq. in. Abbreviation for square inch(es). sq. km. Square kilometer(s) 1,000,000 square...

Adt Full Form Botany

Abbreviation for addendum. 2. Abbreviation for addition. addendum A change or revision to drawings, specifications, or other information on a project out for bid, which has an effect on bids. It occurs before receipt of bids, and is usually stated in letter form that ethically should be delivered to all bidders (in fairness) with the drawings or papers indicating the change so as to allow understanding in comparison of bids. These changes become a part of construction documents for...

Hydrostatic test

Hydrograph method A way of forecasting stream flow by using a hydrograph to depict the changes in runoff of a drainage basin throughout a rainstorm. hydrologic cycle The ongoing circulation of water between ocean, atmosphere, and land. hydrologic equation The proportion of the amount of surface runoff on a piece of ground to the precipitation amount minus evapotranspiration loss, plus or minus changes in groundwater or soil water. hydrologic response The properties, distribution, and...

Fertilizer analysis

(N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). They are usually listed on containers of fertilizer in the foregoing order as a percentage of each (i.e., 5-10-8 or 5 nitrogen, 10 phosphorus, 8 potassium). See also secondary nutrients, complete fertilizer, and micronutrients. fertilizer analysis The breakdown usually labeled on fertilizer products showing the minimum percentages of nutrients included. fertilizer burn This is a burning or wilting of leaves caused by salts commonly found in fertilizers...