is often veined. In grasses, it is long and narrow. 2. The cutting portion of a knife. 3. The flat portion of a trowel used for tooling or smoothing a surface. 4. A main rafter member of a roof. 5. A broad, slightly cupped, metal plate on the front of a tractor that pushes earthen material and can also be used to rip unconsolidated rock.

Blain test A test used for determining the fineness of cement.

blanch To make white or take the color out by excluding light.

blanching The practice of tying leaves over the head or leaves of a plant to produce a lighter color or milder flavor (as with cauliflower).

Blaney-Criddle method An air temperature method to estimate crop evapotranspiration.

blanket insulation A fibrous glass material with or without facings used as thermal insulation or sound insulation.

blasting The use of explosives, generally for fracturing and breaking bedrock.

bldg. Abbreviation for building.

bleaching A term used to reference the process of applying a liquid to something to cause it to lose color or become whiter. It is most often used in construction with reference to wood and is brought on naturally without the use of chemicals or water through extended exposure to sunlight. Water often aids naturally to the bleaching of wood and is evident where sprinkler heads overshoot onto siding, fences, or decks. If a bleach is to be applied to wood treated with a preservative, it should not be applied until at least 60 days after the preservative, and even then the bleach may not be as effective as desired due to discoloration.

bleed In plants, the loss of sap, usually at wound.

bleede A small drain valve used to allow fluid to drain from radiators, pipes, or tanks.

bleeder pipe A pipe (usually made of clay) that carries water from a drainage tile to a storm sewer.

bleeding 1. The flow of water within, and/or the emergence of water on the surface of, newly placed concrete or mortar caused by the settlement of solid materials or sometimes brought about by overworking the material. 2. The appearance of a color pigment from the subsurface through the finished paint coat. 3. The loss of any or all electrical current in an underground wire due to damage to its coating.

bleed valve On an automatic valve that is normally closed, a small device on the valve which if turned enough will allow a bit of water to escape, which triggers the valve to open, allowing water to flow through the valve into the downstream piping. Its name comes from the small amount of water that escapes (bleeds) through the bleed valve to outside the water system while it is in operation. This is useful on an automatic sprinkler valve as it allows one to open the valve and operate sprinklers without use of the automatic controller. This option is useful when testing the valve for operation because of a lack of response from sprinkler controller operation, or when needing to turn on sprinklers without accessing the sprinkler controller.

blemish A minor appearance defect not affecting durability, function, or strength in a material such as wood, concrete, stucco, marble, steel, etc.

blight 1. An indiscriminate term for many diseases of plants, but usually associated with a fungal disease causing plants to wilt or wither. 2. A plant disease causing the general and rapid destruction of living tissue (stems, flowers, leaves, etc.).

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