campanile A free-standing bell tower.

campanulate In botanical terms, a bell-shaped or cup-shaped flower with a broad base.

campanulated Having a bell shape.

Canadian Standards Association An organization that tests and publishes standards for the construction industry in Canada.

canaliculate A botanical term indicating that a plant part has parallel grooves or channels.

candela See candle.

candelabra A pattern (form) of an espaliered plant that resembles a candelabra with branches generally forking horizontally and turning upward.

candelabra espalier

candle or cd In lighting design, a luminous intensity. The description or standard for this intensity is one-sixteenth the luminous intensity of 1 sq cm of a black body surface at the solidification temperature of platinum. A light source of 1 candle (candela) emits 12.57 lumens.

candlepower Luminous intensity of a source producing light expressed in candelas.

cane The woody stem of a plant that only lives for two or three years (e.g., raspberries).

cane bolt A cane-shaped metal bolt that is attached to a door or gate. It can be turned and pushed down so that the bottom portion of its shaft slides into a hole in a pavement to prevent the door from moving. These are often used in barns, stables, and warehouses.

canescent This refers to a fine, close gray or pale pubescence on a plant or a plant part. (Compare with argenteous, cinerous.)

canker A localized, diseased area mostly on woody plants where tissue has died due to the effects of fungi or bacteria, visible as lesions on trunks, branches, and other plant parts. These areas shrink, die, and crack, exposing tissue underneath. As they interfere with water uptake, the foliage often dies as do ends of twigs. Preventing cankers is best achieved by adequate water, fertilizer, and avoidance of injury. Prune cankers out while being careful not to spread the disease with pruning equipment.

cankerworm Larvae of various insects, but especially of small moths, that defoliate trees and shrubs. They are often noticeable when lowering themselves by small threads.

canopy A covered shelter for protection from sun, rain, snow, tree-litter, etc., that generally projects over a sidewalk, driveway, entry, window, or similar area. It may be wholly supported by columns, poles, or braces extending from the ground.

cantilever 1. Anything in design extended beyond its support. 2. In framing and decking, a structural member that extends horizontally beyond its last vertical support.

cantilever wall A reinforced concrete retaining wall with a footing extending underneath the slope to be retained, thus resisting overturning by the weight on this cantilever footing.

canvas A closely woven material made of hemp, flax, or cotton.

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