Casebearer

carbonaceous Containing organic matter.

carbon-arc welding A weld caused by an arc between a carbon electrode and a metal piece.

carbon disulfide Also called carbon bisulfide, a dangerous soil fumigant. Upon exposure to the atmosphere, it evaporates into a poisonous, explosive gas that is heavier than air and damages plants.

carbon:nitrogen ratio, carbon to nitrogen ratio The ratio (proportion) of carbon to nitrogen by weight in organic matter or soil. As the carbon (undecomposed organic matter) amount (first number) increases, the nitrogen used for decomposition increases, becoming unavailable to plants as it is robbed for the decomposition process. The A horizon in a soil usually stabilizes with a ratio of about 10:1 through 12:1. Forest litter with less decomposition may be 20:1, and other organic substances may be much higher (i.e., sawdust that is not decomposed). The higher the carbon in the ratio, the more nitrogen will be stolen from the soil to break down the material. Nitrogen stolen from the soil for decomposition often has a detrimental effect on plant growth. See nitrogen deficiency.

carbon steel Steel having a various amount of alloy elements.

cardinal temperature The minimal temperature at which growth occurs.

carotene See xanthophylls.

carpel The fertile portion (megasporophyll) of an angiosperm flower, which bears the ovules. One or more carpels join to compose a pistil.

carpel indehiscent In botanical terms, remaining closed at maturity.

carpenter's level A straight metal or wood bar used to determine horizontal or vertical lines for being true by use of a bubble in glass.

carpenter's level carpenter's level carpenter's square A flat, steel, L-shaped tool with measurements (inches, centimeters) marked along its edge, used to mark perpendicular lines or check corners for being perpendicular (square) to each other.

carriage bolt A metal bolt with a flattened end threaded for accepting a nut with like threads; the other end has a wide, rounded top that is flat underneath and has no indents on its top surface for accepting a screwdriver, and no flat sides to accept a wrench for stopping it from turning when the nut is tightened. Instead, it has a square shoulder portion just under the rounded head's flat bottom that holds the bolt by being secured in a similarly sized square hole in the piece it is bolted to. Threads on the shank may extend the entire length or for only a portion of its length. It is useful to bind items together or secure items in place.

carriage bolt carriage bolt cartilaginous In plant identification and description, tough and firm, but somewhat flexible, like cartilage.

caryopsis A small indehiscent one-seeded fruit with the seed fused to its surroundings (i.e., wheat, rye, corn).

casebearer Moths and larvae that feed on leaves, flowers, seeds, etc. and have portable tubes or pouches in which they live or hibernate.

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