CB ratio

cation A positively charged ion which during electrolysis is attracted toward the cathode. Sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium are the most common cations in waters and soils.

cation exchange capacity The measure of the positively charged ions in a soil matrix.

catkin In botanical terms, an ament, or something closely crowded with bracts. They look like drooping caterpillars.

cat's-eye A knot in a piece of lumber smaller than K in (0.6 cm).

cattle manure See cow manure.

catwalk A narrow pathway affording access to areas otherwise difficult to reach. They may be used in areas such as highly sensitive environmental sites, areas above excavations, or access to lights or signs high off the ground.

caudate In botanical terms, having a tail or tail-like appendage.

caudex 1. The woody or persistent base of a perennial plant. 2. The stem of a palm tree or a tree fern.

caulescent A plant with an obvious leafy stem.

cauliflorous In botanical terms, a production of flowers or fruit directly out of old wood portions of a plant.

cauline A botanical term meaning on the stem or pertaining to the stem. Cauline leaves are attached to the stem above the ground in contrast to basal leaves, which originate at ground level.

caulk Material used to fill joints or cracks in or between construction materials.

caulking gun A tool used for applying caulk, usually allowing the caulk to be extruded under pressure by pumping a small handle with one hand. These guns are also available with extrusion being supplied by forced air (pneumatically).

cavitation With regard to piping systems or pumps, the forming and collapse of air (vapor) bubbles through pressure changes in the water system or pump. This occurs when the pressure on a liquid falls momentarily below the vapor pressure for that liquid, causing a change from liquid to vapor, and then a pressure increase causes another change and the gas becomes a liquid again. This phenomenon can also occur in suction lines of pumps. See also vapor pressure.

cavity wall A masonry wall of two withes having a separation of air between them. The walls are usually connected by metal ties extended between the two withes.

cavity wall tie A corrosion-resistant piece extending between two masonry walls tying them together as in a cavity wall or hollow wall.

CB Abbreviation for catch basin.

C & BTR With regard to lumber, this is a grade of "C and better."

C/B ratio This abbreviation refers to the saturation coefficient for brick, which is the ratio of the percent absorption of a brick submerged in cold water for 24 hours to the absorption of a brick submersed in boiling water over a 5-hour period. The 24-hour cold water test is divided by the 5-hour boiling test. This is a strength value, which assists in measuring the durability of masonry units, which can also be measured by conducting freeze/thaw tests. This is of prime importance in landscape work as brick in the landscape is exposed on one or both sides to weather in nearly all cases. It is more important in areas of annual temperatures below freezing.

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