Cercinate vernation

ing, which agitates the materials and mixes them thoroughly. See concrete mixer.

cement mortar See mortar.

CEM. MORT. Abbreviation sometimes used for cement mortar.

center bit A bit used for boring holes. It has a center piece on the end of the bit with threads or a sharp point to hold the bit in place once it starts to drill. It may also have projections at the outside edge of the bit to mark its circumference as it is applied to material to begin boring.

centering The materials used under an arch to support it while it is being built.

center island A parking island located between bays of parking and usually running the length of the parking bay.

centerline A line measured or marked on-site or drawn, representing the center of an object such as a road, pipeline, structural member, etc. It is usually indicated on drawings with a dashed line having a long dash and one dot or short dash. It may be labeled with a symbol of a small "c" and a capital letter "L" superimposed over the "c."

center punch Hand tool consisting of a short piece of metal rod with a point at one end, usually being case-hardened and useful in marking where a hole is to be drilled. When struck with a hammer from the opposite end of the point the mark made will usually indent enough for a drill bit to stay in place to begin drilling.

center-to-center Usually in reference to a distance between the middle point or line of two items of the same type (i.e., plants, joists, posts, paths, etc.).

centi A prefix indicating 100.

centigrade or Celsius or C A scale for measurement of temperature where 0° is the freezing point of water and 100° is the temperature at the boiling point of water. To convert centigrade (Celsius) to Fahrenheit, multiply the centigrade temperature by 9, divide by 5, and then add 32 to the result.

centimeter (cm) The metric measurement of 1100 m (0.01 m), or in (0.39 in).

centipede A long, segmented, many-legged insect. The garden variety is about i-4 inch long, but other varieties are over an inch long.

central A spine of a cactus where the spines originate from an aerole's center instead of its periphery as they do in a radial.

central leader 1. The main, central stem of a tree from which branches grow. 2. The upper portion of a tree's or shrub's center stem or leader, which is dominant in growth and often extends above other branches and foliage.

central-mixed concrete Concrete mixed completely off-site or a significant distance away and transported to the point of placement.

centrifugal pump A pump having pumping action created by fluid passing through a highspeed, rotating impeller that builds pressure by centrifugal force caused by fluid being forced outward as it exits the center of the impeller with velocity and pressure. Water is directed by its casing. It produces a smooth, steady flow and is useful in pumping water and sewage with some solids such as gravel, sand, leaves. Types of centrifugal pumps include the closed-coupled valute pump, the valute with flexible coupling pump, the horizontal split case pump, and the vertical turbine pump.

cephalium In botanical terms, a woolly cap, usually at the apex of cacti.

cercinate vernation The simultaneous unwinding and growing of fern leaves.

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