electrical wire. They are used to prevent electrical wiring from being damaged, or to facilitate rewiring or maintenance of wires where they can be pulled through these tubes or pipes. This is useful especially after construction to allow maintenance without removal or boring through walls, floors, pavement, or ceilings. In sprinkler irrigation work when automatic timers are placed in buildings, their valve wires are usually placed in conduits until they reach the ground. 4. In landscape ecology, a spacial form in or on the earth used for movement of elements (plants, animals, water, soil, air, etc.).

cone A woody seed bearing structure grown on some evergreen trees (those that are coniferous), especially those with needle-like leaves. In botanical terms, a mass of scales in a circular arrangement making a rounded structure with reproductive purposes as found on cycads or pines. An example is a pinecone.

cone of depression or drawdown cone A

roughly conical concavity (or depression) in the groundwater surface around a pumping well.

confining bed A body of impermeable material in an adjacent geologic strata of one or more aquifers.

conglomerate A description of pebbles, gravel, etc. embedded and bonded together in a natural cementing material.

conical A term meaning cone-shaped with a broad base, narrowing toward the top. It is often used in plant descriptions, especially when describing the shape of the entire plant (i.e., some coniferous evergreen trees).

conifer Mostly evergreen trees and shrubs with true cones or arillate fruit. Most have needles, but some have quite narrow leaves. Some conifers are pine, fir, spruce, yew, cedar, etc.

coniferous Cone-bearing trees with true cones comprising mostly evergreen trees such as spruce, hemlock, pine, or fir. See conifer.

connate In botanical terms, being united or fused together.

connective A botanical term describing the tissue that connects the two pollen sacs of an anther in an inflorescence.

connectivity In landscape ecology, the measure of the degree to which a matrix, a corridor, or a network is connected. The fewer the gaps or aberrations, the greater the connectivity.

consent of surety A written permission from a bonding company for change orders to bonded work whether for a time extension or change in contract amount.

conservation Preservation from harm or protection from loss or consumption. It is often descriptive of efforts to save natural resources such as soil, vegetation, water, animals, coal, etc.

conservation easement A legally recorded, voluntary agreement that limits land to specific uses associated with conservation issues. Easements may apply to all or part of a property. They are usually permanent, but term easements may also be utilized, imposing restrictions for a specific number of years. Land protected by conservation easements usually remains on the tax rolls while it is privately owned and managed. Landowners donating permanent conservation easements are generally entitled to tax benefits. See also Agriculture Conservation Easement.)

conservatory See greenhouse.

consolidation 1. The process of soil becoming compressed with less pores or smaller pores due to pressure. Compaction can be increased by

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