Cubic feet

cross bridging Diagonal braces from the top of one joist to the bottom of the adjacent joist and vice versa, usually in pairs, placed to assist in preventing the twisting of joists.

cross connection A connection between a potable water source and a water source that is contaminated (not suitable for drinking).

cross grain Wood in which the cut is made not parallel with the grain lengths.

cross peen hammer A hammer with the opposite side of the hammer head having a wedge shape.

cross section A section through an object, building, device, site, etc., showing its shapes and attributes when cut through as in a crosswise cut.

cross slope A slope in one direction (usually across a pavement or field) that facilitates surface water runoff.

cross valve A valve on a pipe that connects two parallel pipes.

crosswalk 1. That part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the road measured from the curbs, or from the edges or the traversable roadway. 2. Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines, paving types, or other markings on the surface.

crown 1. The point on plants where the roots and the top of the plant's structure (stem) join. See also root collar (root crown). 2. The basal portion of herbaceous plants at soil level where new shoots are produced. 3. The entire spatial area (head) of a tree, including its branches and leaves. 4. The high point of a road, path, patio, etc. when viewed in cross section. These are usu ally created to provide drainage of water from the surface. 5. The inside top of a pipe.

crozier A plant structure with a coiled end as in the unfurling of a fern's frond.

cruciform A botanical term meaning cross-shaped.

crushed gravel or crushed stone or crushed rock 1. Rock that has been mechanically crushed, having at least one face fractured. 2. Rock that is sifted and crushed to a particular size gradation having some pass without crushing, but any oversized portions being crushed in the process.

crustaceous In plant identification and description, hard, brittle, and breakable.

cryptogamous In botanical terms, reproducing by spores without producing seeds or flowers.

crypt A complex of chambers or passages underground.

CSI Abbreviation for Construction Specifications Institute.

CSK On drawings, an abbreviation for countersink.

CSSA Abbreviation for Cactus and Succulant Society of America.

CtoC Abbreviation sometimes used for center-to-center.

cts Abbreviation for copper tube size.

CU, cu 1. Abbreviation for coefficient of uniformity. 2. Abbreviation for cubic. 3. Abbreviation for copper.

cubic feet or c.f. or cu. ft. or ft3 An English and U.S. measurement of volume equal to 1728 cubic inches, or 0.0370 cubic yards or 0.028 cubic meters, or when this is a volume of water it has a weight of 62.43 pounds.

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