golf course A tract of land laid out with at least nine holes for playing a game of golf; consists of greens, fairways, and hazards.

gooseneck In pipe work, any section with a U shape.

gopher See pocket gophers or ground squirrels.

gouge A chisel with a curved blade.

GOVT Abbreviation for government.

gpd Abbreviation for gallons per day.

gph Abbreviation for gallons per hour.

gpm Abbreviation for gallons per minute.

gps Abbreviation for gallons per second.

GR Abbreviation for grade.

grade 1. The amount of slope of an area of ground surface. It is usually expressed in a percentage derived by the rise in elevation being divided by the length. 2. The action of smoothing, raking, or shaping the surface of the ground. 3. Grading 4. The elevation of a point on the ground. 5. The lay of the land, its form and shape.

grade beam A foundation that carries the weight of the outside wall and extends a short distance beneath the soil to distribute the load.

graded aggregate Aggregate sorted for size.

grade line A staked line with indications marked for elevations referring to common datum.

grade ring A concrete ring made to various thicknesses for use under a manhole and placed by itself or with others to achieve the needed elevation for the manhole cover.

grader or towed grader A large, usually six-wheeled, machine (unless towed) used in earthwork for leveling, spreading, side casting, or for light stripping operations.

grades In connection with drainage or the shaping of earth, an amount of slope.

grade stake A stake marking a specified elevation for earthwork operations.

gradient The amount of inclination or rate of slope of land surface, paved surface, pipe, etc. between two points, expressed as a constant percentage of grade. It is arrived at by dividing the vertical distance between elevations by the horizontal distance between them.

grading 1. In land work (excavation), removing (cutting) earth, filling, or usually a combination of both on a site. 2. Moving soil to form a shape or obtain a smoothness. 3. The classification of plant material according to quality or size.

graffiti An inscription, word, figure, marking, or design that is marked, etched, scratched, drawn, or painted on any building, structure, fixture, vehicle, trailer, or other property, whether permanent or temporary, which has the affect of defacing the property.

grafting In gardening, a method of propagating certain varieties of plants by removing twigs from one plant and cutting them into branches or onto root stock of another plant.

grafting wax A substance used for placement on fitted parts of a new graft.

grain 1. A grass-like plant with a hard seed. 2. In landscape ecology, the texture of land when viewed from the air. Land with small patches makes a fine-textured landscape, and land with large patches makes a coarse-textured landscape.

gram (g) The metric weight measurement of 1 or 0.035 oz.

grandstand A raised area or structure allowing spectators to observe activities at ball fields, race courses, stadiums, gatherings in parks, etc.

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