Rose chafer

the surrounding grade after planting. The soil should taper away from the plant, facilitating drainage of surface water into the surrounding grade. Mulching practices that pile mulches against a root collar and stem should be avoided or mulch must be large, loose pieces, allowing air to the crown and not harboring moisture there (avoids disease).

root crown See root collar.

root cuttings Portions of fleshy roots cut from some perennials that are able to produce another plant from the cut-off portion.

rooter A heavy-duty tractor attachment intended to assist in removing roots of trees.

root hair The small thread-like roots of plants responsible for most of a plant's absorption of nutrients and water. They are tube-like extensions of the epidermal cells of roots.

rooting hormone A chemical that stimulates root growth and development. It is especially useful on cuttings, and is available in a powder or liquid form.

rooting zone The volume of soil encompassed by the entire root system of a plant.

root-knot nematode See nematode.

root pruning With regard to plants in containers or plants being prepared for field digging, a cutting of the outer roots. This fosters the development of a branched root system and in a field, it keeps roots within the dig zone, reducing shock when transplanted. The roots of plants that have been in containers too long begin to circle the container, and they need to be cut off after being pulled from the container before planting. This discourages the roots from continuing to circle and girdle, but instead encourages the roots to leave the planting pit and spread out.

root rot A disease caused by water molds, which are encouraged and spread by standing water. Many times plants are overwatered when some negative symptom is observed. The only symptom that calls for more water is wilting. Too much water, which brings on water mold, is the most common cause of plant death. It is usually easily detected by digging in the root zone and smelling the soil and roots. Water molds occur in anaerobic conditions, causing the affected area to smell much like a sanitary sewer. When a dead plant is pulled completely out from the soil, the stench many times is unmistakable and obvious. Sometimes it is necessary to hold soil from the root ball in your hand and put it to your nose to detect the smell. The most frequent cause of water molds is the use of a different soil than the existing soil in the backfill, or amendments to the soil backfill. This may cause a soil interface difficulty with water transfer.

rootstock The portion of a grafted or budded plant that furnishes roots and sometimes some branches for the plant. See budding.

root weavil An insect that feeds on roots in its larval state and as an adult eats leaves of plants such as roses, rhododendrons, and azaleas.

rootworms Larvae of beetles that feed on roots.

root zone The area of a plant beneath the soil that performs absorption, aeration, and storage for plants.

rope A strong, thick line made up of twisted or braided strands of fiber such as hemp or wire.

rope caulk A preformed bead of caulking compound often containing twine reinforcement.

rosarian One who cultivates and raises roses.

rose chafer or rose bug A beetle of North America (Macrodactylus subspinosus) whose lar

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