mulch, but the bacteria in the soil breaking it down then use most of the nitrogen in the soil preventing plants from gathering what they need. If used, it should be highly decomposed and nitrogen must be added to compensate for losses to bacteria. Watch for nitrogen deficiencies in plants with symptoms such as yellowing leaves, stunted growth, or no growth.

sawflies A variety of flies whose larvae feed on plants. Adult females saw plant tissue open and lay eggs within it.

sawhorse or sawbuck A four-legged narrow stand about waist height used for placement of material while working on it for sawing, gluing, etc. These are normally used in pairs.

saxicolous or saxicoline In botanical terms, living on or among rocks.

scab 1. A fungal disease that makes disfiguring lesions. It is common to crabapples and apples. 2. A short piece of lumber nailed onto two abutting pieces to splice them together.

scabrid A botanical term meaning roughened.

scabrous In botanical terms, rough, abrasive, or harsh to the touch. The roughness may be from the surface itself or from small stiff hairs.

scaffold A temporary, elevated platform for standing upon while working, which supports workers and materials and is advantageous in providing access to work above the area reachable from the ground.

scaffold branch 1. A branch that grows horizontally from a main stem or trunk. 2. The large limbs of a tree that intitiate its basic shape and form its structure.

scale 1. The ratio of difference in units measured (usually in a drawing or model) and the actual measurement of something that exists or is designed for building. In drawings, it is a short measurement of a representation of an item for construction that is, or will be in actuality, a larger dimension. Expressions of scale usually are written in such forms as follows: 1" = 200', or 1 in = 200 ft, or 1:10,000. 2. A ruler or device with units of measurement marked upon it for the purpose of measuring items, or spaces in scale to an existing or proposed item or space. 3. Spatial proportion. A broad-scale example of spatial scale would be a region, whereas a fine-scale example would be for a building site. 4. In botanical terms, a small leaf-like body that is usually dry and not green, but a rather chaffy or woody bract. 5. Small insects much like aphids, or mealybugs that form hard or soft waxy shells and feed on plants.

scalping Removing particles larger than a size being screened.

scalp rock Waste rock.

scandent In botanical terms, a climbing growth habitat or a plant part that ascends.

scape In botanical terms, this refers to a peduncle rising from the ground, naked (without ordinary foliage). The leafless stem of a single flower. Examples are daylilies, irises, etc.

scarcement A setback or recess in an earthen embankment, etc.

scarf joint Matching two board faces of fitted shapes for joining them and forming one continuous piece. This joint may be secured by glue, bolts, screws, or welding.

scarifier A machine, a tractor attachment, or a part of a grader with long teeth that can be lowered to rip a soil surface, or pavement.

scarify 1. To run a scarifier over ground. 2. To roughen a surface by sanding, etc. to improve

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