Specific gravity

span The distance between two supports.

spandix See spadix.

spangham Mosses common to bogs, which, after harvesting and drying, are used in planting soils because of their moisture-retaining capacity and nutrients. See peat moss.

Spanish tile A curved, red-clay roofing tile laid in courses, with adjacent tiles having their convex side laid alternately up and down.

spathe In botanical terms, a flower-like or leaflike bract partly surrounding the inflorescence that is usually colored and noticeably appealing. They usually enclose a spadix.

spathulate See spatulate.

spatial element In landscape ecology, each of the relatively homogeneous units in a mosaic at any scale.

spatulate In botanical terms, shaped like a spatula, or druggist's spoon.

spatulate leaf shape

spawl See spall.

special conditions A section of contract documents that clarifies the general conditions of work, or a project's specific conditions.

specialty contractor A contractor performing a particular trade such as sprinkler irrigation, deck building, installation of water features, flooring, windows, electrical work, etc. Landscape construction is often a specialty contractor's trade in reference to a building being constructed with its site to be improved.

species A group of plants closely resembling each other and breeding freely. In a plant's botanical name, the first word used is the genus, the second word is species, and the third word, if any, is the variety. If there is a fourth word, it is a strain.

species factor (Ks) or crop coefficient (Kc)

In irrigation auditing, a plant's transpiration rate. A factor from 0.80 to 0.90 is generally high. Medium factors generally range from 0.50 to 0.70 depending on plant type. Low factors again depend on plant type and generally range from 0.10 to 0.60.

species richness The number of species in a given area. In most cases, the more species found or available, the more it is thought to be rich. But compatibility and environmental sur-vivability are issues for the actuality of species richness.

specifications A written description of materials, systems, work processes, equipment use, etc. to be adhered to in order to enhance quality of construction on a project as part of the contract documents.

specific capacity The discharge rate pumped from a well divided by the drawdown in the well water surface. It is a measure of the productivity or capacity of a well.

specific epithet In botanical terms, the name of a plant in binomial nomenclature.

specific gravity A ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. For fluids, the reference material is usu

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