process. Humus is fully or nearly fully decomposed organic material that is stable in or on the soil.

stabilization 1. The increase of stability of a sloped earthen mass. 2. The securing, steadying, or establishment in place of, a construction item.

stable A building for the sheltering and care of horses.

staging area A space allowed for a contractor to place materials and equipment for constructing a project.

stain 1. An added color or a natural discoloration in the surface of a material. 2. A chemical colorant (pigment) for enhancing wood grain during finishing. It may be a solid stain or a semitransparent stain. 3. A pigment or dye in paint.

stair A step or several steps.

staircase A group of stairs or several groups (flights) of stairs with the associated framework, handrails, etc.

stake 1. A piece of metal, wood, etc. pounded into the ground to mark or support something. 2. A reference to a fertilizer stake made of hardened fertilizer in the shape of a stake so that it may be forced into the ground. It is much like a fertilizer stick except that it is usually larger and has a point. It decomposes, and some materials leach, acting much the same as a fertilizer tablet.

stake-and-rider fence A fence made of posts resting on the ground at an angle and fastened together where they cross near their ends; also has rails riding on these crossings extending horizontally between them.

staking See tree staking.

staking out The placing of stakes to give locations for construction work and placements.

stalk 1. The main stem of an herbaceous plant. 2. The main stem of any plant. 3. A slender support of a flower or leaf (petiole, peduncle).

stalked leaf A leaf with a petiole for attachment of the leaf. (Compare with sessile and per-foliate.)

stalked leaf attachment

stamen In botanical terms, the male organ of a flower consisting of an anther and a filament.

staminate In botanical terms, a male flower with stamens, but no pistils.

staminode In botanical terms, a modified stamen that does not produce pollen, or a structure resembling a stamen that is sometimes petallike.

staminodium A sterile stamen.

stamping Shaping metal, concrete, etc. by forcing a hard device into its surface before it has hardened.

stand A group of plants together in an area and usually touching one another or nearly so.

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