Surface root

sunscald See sunburn.

super-, supra- Latin prefixes often used in botanical terms meaning above, upon, more than, or opposite.

superabsorbent A polymer used to increase the water-holding capacity of soil. They come in natural starch-based polymers and synthetic formulations. The starch-based polymers absorb greater quantities of water, but are more easily broken down by soil organisms and lose their effectiveness. The synthetic polymers do not absorb as much water, but they are not as susceptible to attack by soil organisms. They are used most effectively in sandy soils of low waterholding capacity and dry regions.

superintendent The general contractor's representative responsible for field supervision, coordination, and project completion.

superior oil See horticultural oil.

superior ovary In botanical terms, having all petals and sepals below the ovary, or an ovary attached to the summit or center of the receptacle and free from all other flower parts.

superphosphate This is rock phosphate treated with sulfuric acid to make it more soluble (about 90%) with a nutrient rating of about 0-14-20-0. It also provides the essential nutrients of sulfur and calcium (calcium phosphate usually in excess of 50%).

supplementary conditions A portion of the contract documents supplementing and sometimes modifying provisions of the general conditions.

supplier A person or firm that supplies equipment, plants, components, fixtures, materials, or parts for construction work.

supply bond A bond guaranteeing that materials delivered comply with contract documents.

supply main The pipes through which the water flows from the source to the user laterals.

surcharged earth Any or all earth placed at a higher elevation than the top elevation of a retaining wall.

surcharged wall A retaining wall holding back surcharged earth.

surety A person or organization who contracts to insure the potential debt, performance, or default of another. An insurance company.

surety bond A binding document with one party agreeing to answer to another party for any unpaid debt, default, or the failure to perform of a third party.

surface bleeding With regard to lumber, a substance in the wood coming through the finished surface and causing discoloration or oozing. It may be moisture, a preservative, wood resin, etc.

surface course The exposed surface of pavements intended to withstand wear, or provide aesthetic appeal.

surface flow (SF) Flow of the water over the surface of the earth.

surface mulch In landscape work, loose material (i.e., bark, rock, pine needles) spread on a landscape surface for aesthetics, moisture retention, weed control, etc.

surface pump A water pump sitting on dry land and not submerged in water.

surface root 1. The plant roots within about 12 to 18 in of the soil surface, which gather most of the nutrients and water for a plant. They are also called feeder roots. 2. The roots at the surface (usually tree roots), being visible above the ground, usually due to compaction. These are

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