ing a wire or string to the tree to prevent the tree from moving or tipping in wind. This practice is common on small caliper trees, though it is not always necessary or desirable. Trees can be damaged by rubbing on stakes, the trees can become dependant on stakes or they can grow around the wire attachments if left too long. Also, they can be a hazard to pedestrians. Wires should be wrapped or placed in a protective medium where they are attached to the tree to protect the tree bark from damage. See also tree guying.

tree surgeon One who is trained in treating damaged or diseased trees (usually an arborist).

tree surgery Cutting or boring tree branches, trunks, or roots.

tree wrap A 3 to 6 in wide strip, usually in a roll, of burlap or strong paper used to wrap the trunks of newly planted trees to protect against borers, or sunscald. See southwest sunscald. Tree wrapping can cause as much damage as it prevents. It can harbor sucking insects, encourage fungus by keeping the trunk wet, and hide activities of boring insects.

trellis 1. An open framework, latticework, or design of wood or steel in a vertical wall or horizontal overhead. 2. A support of connected members for vines.

trench A linear hole, channel, depression, long thin excavation, or a cut with steep sides dug in the ground. They are useful in irrigation, planting, or outdoor lighting. They are dug for irrigation and outdoor lighting systems for installing wiring or pipes underground. In planting they are used to plant seeds or plants. Trenches for tree planting in confined spaces with paving all around (restricting root growth) can be useful to prevent windfall or stunting of growth. Trenches are dug between trees and backfilled with rooting medium (usu ally a soil) allowing roots to extend and intertwine with other trees.

trench box or trench shield A heavily constructed device with walls on each side used in deep trenches to protect workers in the bottom of the trench from cave-ins. It can be moved along as work proceeds in the trench.

trencher 1. One who digs trenches. 2. A machine with a bucket conveyor, rotating cutting wheel, or a large rotating chain that can cut the earth as its cutting tool rotates and is lowered into the ground. It piles the earth to each side of the cut or in the direction of the cut it makes while propelling itself backward or forward to leave a trench.

trenching Digging narrow linear holes in the ground usually for a piping system.

trenching shovel A narrow shovel useful in trenching because it does not take as much effort to force through soil as wider shovels, and it disturbs less soil in trenching. This type of shovel is often preferred in digging trenches for underground sprinkler systems.

tri-, triplo- A Latin or Greek prefix sometimes used in botanical terms meaning three.

triangular spacing A reference in sprinkler layout design in which head-to-head coverage is obtained by heads being laid out in a pattern that is triangular if imaginary lines were drawn between heads in plan view.

tributary In landscape concerns, a stream contributing water to another stream or water body.

trichotomous A botanical term that refers to a plant part forking into threes.

trifoliate or trifoliolate or trifoliately compound In botanical terms, three leaves or

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