Orthographic Multiview Drawings And Projections

For many years architects and engineers have utilized a system known as orthographic projection to accurately represent three-dimensional objects graphically on paper. In recent years the term multiview Figure 5.1A An example of a simple drawing of objects that essentially requires only two views to read. Figure 5.1B An example of a simple drawing of objects that essentially requires only two views to read. Figure 5.1B An example of a simple drawing of objects that essentially requires only two...

Computeraided Drafting Cad And Computeraided Design And Drafting Cadd

Moving from manual drafting to computer-aided design and drafting was an important step in terms of the potential of today's technology. CAD originally meant computer-aided drafting because of its original use as a replacement for traditional drafting. Now it usually refers to computer-aided design to reflect the fact that modern CAD tools do more than just drafting (Figures 2.5A, B, and C). Related acronyms are CADD, which stands for computer-aided design and drafting CAID, for computer-aided...

First Angle Projection

First-angle projection is the ISO standard and is used mostly in Europe and Asia. If we imagine projecting a 3D object into a transparent plastic cube, the main object surfaces are projected onto the cube's walls so that the top view is placed under the front view and the right view is placed at the left of the front view, a two-dimensional representation of the object is formed by unfolding the box and viewing all of the interior walls as is shown in Figure 5.7A. Figure 5.3 An illustration of...

Two Point Perspective

One Point Perspective Object

Sometimes called angular perspective drawing in this method only the vertical lines are drawn vertically. The horizontal, depth, and length receding lines are drawn to the vanishing points located on the horizon line. The front view is no longer true in shape but is now drawn in an isometric configuration. Again, the location of the horizon line and the vanishing points on the line will provide many different looks of the object. In two-point perspective the sides of the object vanish to one of...

Basic Drafting Standards And Standardssetting Organizations

In the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have adopted drafting standards that are voluntarily accepted and widely used throughout the world. These standards incorporate and complement other architectural engineering standards developed and accepted by professional organizations such as the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and others. Some large...

Machinist Drawings

Machine Drawing Assembly

Machinists generally use precision machine tools such as lathes, boring machines, milling machines, and cylindrical or surface grinders to shape materials such as steel, brass, iron, bronze, aluminum, titanium, and plastics and to manufacture components to meet customers' specifications. A machining detail drawing provides all the information needed to manufacture a specific part and is used to machine the casting into a finished component. Typically only one part is detailed in each drawing....

Three Point Perspective

Perspective Point Normal

Three-point perspective is a development of two-point perspective and is usually used for buildings seen from above or below. Like two-point perspective it has two vanishing points somewhere on the horizon and a third somewhere above or below the horizon line toward which the verticals converge (Figure 5.30). This means that the object is either tilted to the picture plane or the spectator's central axis of vision is inclined upward or downward and the picture plane is tilted. Three-point...

Symbols Radio System

Symbol Mechanical Thickness Radios

RADIO CHANNEL SELECTOR FACILITIES, MTD 4'-6 1372mm A.f.F. UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED, SPEAKER PROGRAM SELECTOR SWITCH & VOLUME CONTROL MTD. 4-6 1372mm A.F.F. UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. SPEAKER OUTLET, MTD. 7'-6 2286mm A.F.F. UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. RADIO CONDUIT RUN, MINIMUM 3 4 19mm CONDUIT. NOTE ALSO SEE VA BARRIER FREE DESIGN GUIDE PG-18-13. Symbols for typical television and radio systems. Figure 8.11A Examples of common plumbing fittings and symbols. Figure 8.11A Examples of common plumbing...

Binding Filister Truss Hex Cheese

Thread Nomenclature

Figure 7.19B Different types of screws and screw heads. Figure 7.19C Different types of screws and screw heads. Figure 7.19C Different types of screws and screw heads. Figure 7.20 A typical screw thread with the terminology and nomenclature associated with its use in today's industry. Figure 7.20 A typical screw thread with the terminology and nomenclature associated with its use in today's industry. Almost all threaded fasteners tighten when the head or nut is rotated clockwise. That is, as a...

Pictorial Drawings

Section Kitchen

Pictorial drawings are not often used for construction purposes. However, on some working drawings pictorial views are used to reveal information that orthographic views alone would be incapable of showing other situations may require a pictorial drawing essentially to supplement a major view. Pictorial projection, unlike multiview projection, is designed to allow the viewer to see all three primary dimensions of the object in the projection. Pictorial architectural drawings and renderings are...

Plans

A plan is actually a part of the architectural drawing that represents a view of the project from above. The floor plan is the most common type of plan view. A floor plan is a two-dimensional view of a space, such as a room or building. It is a view of the space from above, as if the space were cut through horizontally at the windowsill level with the upper half removed. You are looking down at the floor. In general, a floor plan's main function is to identify and delineate the use of space. It...

Plumbing Symbols

One must differentiate between industrial and residential or commercial piping. Industrial piping is generally designed to carry liquids and gases used in manufacturing processes. In heavy construction steel pipes have welded or threaded fittings and connections. Piping used in commercial and residential applications is generally termed plumbing and is designed to carry fresh water, liquid and solid wastes, and gas. These pipes can be made of plastic, copper, galvanized steel, or cast iron. In...

Power Plan

The power plan is a drawing of the floor plan showing all required outlets, locating panels, receptacles, and the circuitry of power-utilizing equipment and special systems. The designer or architect will often draw a power plan and dimension these locations. This is important to the engineer, especially if the connection must be at a specific location or height or if it is floor-mounted or mounted within a fixture. Figure 6.21 shows two examples of electrical layouts, one for a residence and...

Sections

Sections are usually used to clarify the building design and construction process. Transverse and longitudinal sections are usually drawn at the same scale as the floor plan and show views of cross sections cut by vertical planes. A floor plan or foundation plan, cut by a horizontal plane, is a section as well as a plan view, but it is seldom called a section. They offer a view through a part of the structure not found on other drawings. To show as much construction information as possible, it...

Shop Drawings

Very often the consultant will request shop drawings for certain components during the construction process. These are normally prepared by the contractor, subcontractor, manufacturer, or fabricator, depending on the element being manufactured. Shop drawings are typically required for prefabricated components such as windows, precast components, elevators, structural steel, trusses, or millwork. The drawings represent the manufacturer's or contractor's interpretation of the consultant's drawing...

Site Improvement Drawings

Large or complex projects often require separate drawings to clarify proposed site improvements including curbing, walks, retaining walls, paving, fences, steps, benches, and flagpoles. Paving and curbing plans indicate the various types of brick, concrete, and bituminous paving and curbing to be used and the limits of each. This information allows for calculation and measurement of paving and curbing. The legend symbols inform you where one material ends and another begins. No assumptions...

Site Plan

Example Easement Legal Description

A site or plot plan is a scale drawing of a property that shows its size and configuration including the size and location of man-made features such as buildings, driveways, and walkways on the property. Plot plans show both what currently exists and what improvements are proposed (Figure 6.4). The main function of a basic site or plot plan is to determine the placement of the structure as it sits in reference to the boundaries of the construction site. Site plans clearly establish the...

Small Project Specifications

*v,200l Aim'rican Inslilulcof Archilccls 5 1 0 1 07131 self-adhering sheet waterproofing 5 1 01 07241 EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SMI 07317 WOOD SHINGLES AND SHAKES 5 1 1 07320 ROOF TELES 5 1 01 07111 METAL ROOF PANELS 5 1 01 07112 METAL WALL PANELS 5 1 01 07160 SIDING 5 1 01 07511 BUILT-UP ASPHALT ROOFING 5 1 01 07531 EPDM MEMBRANE ROOFING 5 1 01 07552 SBS-MODIFIED BITUMINOUS MEMBRANE ROOFING 5 1 01 07620 SHEET METAL FLASHING AND TRIM 5 1 01 07710 MANUFACTURED ROOF SPECIALTIES 5 1 01 07811...

Standard Writing Organizations And Institutions

There are numerous organizations involved in writing and maintaining standards. The vast majority are developed by trade associations, government agencies, or standards-writing organizations. Likewise, there is a long-standing relationship between construction codes and standards that address design, installation, testing, and materials related to the building industry. The pivotal role standards play in the building regulatory process is that they represent an extension of the code...

Startup Costs And Capitalization

Start-up expenses can basically be segregated into 1. investigatory, and 2. pre-opening costs. These costs can be incurred over a period of several weeks or several years, depending upon the type of industry under consideration and the length of the search process. Start-up costs would normally include any amounts paid or incurred in connection with 1. investigating the creation or acquisition of an active trade or business, or 2. the actual creation of a new trade or business. However,...

Technical Drawing

Construction Tools Names

Also known as drafting, technical drawing is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for architectural and engineering needs. A practitioner of the discipline is known as a drafter. Today the mechanics of the drafting task have considerably changed through the use of CADD computer systems, but regardless of whether a drawing is drawn manually or with computer assistance, it must be reproducible. Basic drafting procedure consists of placing a piece of paper (or other...

The Construction Drawings

The transition from approved preliminary design concept drawings to full-blown construction documents is very significant because it signifies the completion of one phase that of making design decisions and the beginning of a new phase the production of construction documents, which is essential to the implementation of the project. Construction drawings are sometimes referred to as working drawings or production drawings. These drawings provide all the required information, both graphic and...

The Problem Of Liability

Architects and engineers, like other professionals, are expected to exercise reasonable care and skill in carrying out their work. Although this does not imply 100 percent perfection at all times, the level of performance should be consistent with that ordinarily provided by other qualified practitioners under similar circumstances. Law relating to professional responsibility and liability has become very active in recent years, and the zone of risk and exposure has expanded dramatically in...

Third Angle Projection

Iso Standard Drawing Projection

In third-angle projection the left view is placed on the left and the top view is placed on the top (Figure 5.7 B and C). This type of projection is primarily used in the United States and Canada. It should be noted that not all views are necessarily used, and determination of which surface constitutes the front, back, top, and bottom varies depending on the projection used. In third-angle projection, the object lies below and behind the viewing planes. The planes are transparent, and each view...

Three View Drawings

Regularly shaped flat objects that require only simple machining operations may often be adequately described with notes on a one-view drawing. However, when the shape of the object changes, portions are cut away, or complex machining or fabrication processes must be shown, the single view would normally be inadequate to describe the object accurately. The combination of front, top, and right side views represents the method most commonly used by drafters to describe simple objects (Figure...

Title Blocks

Typical Wall Section Detail Autocad

It is standard practice to include a title block on each page of a set of blueprints. It is typically located in the bottom right-hand corner of the drawing frame. Many firms, however, are using customized sheets that extend the title block from the lower right to the upper right-hand side of the sheet (Figure 2.13). The title block should show the name of the project and the drawing and sheet numbers as well as the drawing title (e.g., site plan). The drawing number is especially important,...

Topography

The other important function of the site plan is to highlight the special surface conditions, or topography, of the lot. This will indicate to the builder the slope or flatness of the site. The topography of a particular lot may be indicated on the site plan (Figure 6.6). For some projects the topography needs to be shown separately for clarity, and a grading plan has to be used. Topographical information includes changes in the site's elevation, such as slopes, hills, valleys, and other...

Types Of Blueprints

Providing accurate construction drawings up front helps ensure that construction projects will proceed in an orderly manner, reducing costly and time-consuming rework by contractors and subcontractors down the line. Construction drawings are generally categorized according to their intended purpose. Types commonly used in construction may be divided into five main categories based on the function they intend to serve 5. Specialized and miscellaneous drawings Preliminary-Design and Concept...

Types of Occupancy

Occupancy, as stated, refers to the type of use of the building or interior space, such as a residence, office, store, or school. An occupancy classification must be assigned to any building or space, and deter mining the occupancy classification is an essential part of the code process. The concept behind occupancy classification is that certain building uses are more hazardous than others. For example, a large theater with hundreds of people is more dangerous than a single-family residence....

Building Codes Today

One of the most confusing aspects of American codes and standards is that, unlike Europe, Canada, and many other parts of the world, there is a complete absence of uniformity between federal agencies, states, counties, and municipalities, although in recent years there have been major efforts to unify codes on the national level. When dealing with counties and municipalities we are confronted with other issues. For example, cities such as Houston have large oil refineries that create certain...

Construction or Working Drawings

The term construction drawing is generic in that it includes all the drawings needed by the various tradespeople to complete a building project. These drawings are prepared by the architect, engineer, and other specialists depending on the complexity of the project. Construction drawings are technical directions in graphic form, showing the size, quantity, location, and relationships of the building's components. In construction drawings as much information as possible is presented graphically,...

Common Types Of Brick Bonds

Figure 5.17B An example of the use of isometric drawings in architecture and engineering. Comparison of Isometric and Orthographic Drawings Compare the simple rectangular block shown in the orthographic representation (third-angle projection) in Figure 5.18 and the three-dimensional isometric representation. Notice that the vertical lines of the orthographic and isometric drawings (views A and B) remain vertical. The horizontal lines of the orthographic drawing are not horizontal in the...

Line Weights And Types

Line weights are generally subject to the following conventions 1. For manual pencil drafting using drawing boards, finished work includes bold object lines (2H to B pencils), light dimension lines, center lines, section lines, and so on (3H to 5H pencils). Temporary construction lines, guidelines for lettering, and other types should be kept very light (7H or 8H). Border lines for the drawing sheet and title block should be made bold (3B to 6B). 2. For inked or computer-plotted drawings...

Types of Foundations

Two Story Building Sections

Houses and small frame buildings do not need complicated foundation systems. A simple inverted-T foundation is all that is normally needed to support the structure under normal conditions. Larger and more complex buildings impose a heavier burden on the foundation system and need to be carefully designed by structural engineers. Foundations for large commercial buildings perform the same functions as those for light-frame structures. The main difference in the foundations for a commercial...

Perspective Drawings

A good understanding of the principles of perspective is necessary to create an accurate and visually appealing piece of art. Perspective drawings are forms of pictorial drawing. Blueprint readers may not see a perspective drawing very often, but they will undoubtedly appreciate the descriptive information it offers. Perspective drawing is a system for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. It utilizes either one, two, or three points to where the receding lines will vanish....

Plumbing Drawings

Plumbing Plans For House Vic

Plumbing drawings provide all pertinent information on the design of the plumbing system for a project, including line sizes and location, fixture location, isolation valves, storage-tank capacities, hot-water-heater capacities and locations, and drain locations and routing. Plumbing systems involve two major components, water supply and drainage. Water is supplied under pressure through pipes to plumbing fixtures. Drainage works by gravity Drain pipes must slope downward. Vent pipes are...

Architects Scale

Architectural scales are normally flat or triangular in shape and come in different lengths, the 12-inch (30-cm) triangular shape being the most popular. All three sides of the triangle scale (except those with a 12-inch scale) contain two scales on each usable surface. Each of these scales uses the full Figure 4.2B A drawing showing dimension lines terminating at the extension lines with arrows at the endpoints. Figure 4.1 shows slashes at the endpoints, and Figure 3.8C shows dots at its end...

Mechanical Drawings

Gas Connection Architectural Symbol

The cover sheet for mechanical drawings should contain appropriate notes, legends (chart or table of symbols and abbreviations), and details. The mechanical plan specifies the design of or the modifications to the mechanical system, ductwork layout and dimensions, mechanical equipment location, damper locations, design air-delivery rates, diffuser locations, thermostat locations, and supplemental cooling systems if required. Mechanical plans are normally identified as M-1, M-2, M-3, etc. Some...

Reflected Ceiling Plan

Reflected Ceiling Plan Symbols

A reflected ceiling plan RCP is a drawing of a room or space looking down at the interior ceiling. The designer or architect produces this plan to graphically show the ceiling treatment, ceiling grid, and the placement of all light fixtures as well as light fixtures to be relocated or removed. The plan indicates the type of ceiling acoustical tile, gypsum board, etc and the ceiling heights. The location of all light fixtures, speakers, special lighting, ceiling outlets, and switch locations is...

Finish Schedule

A finish schedule specifies the interior finish material for each room, space, and floor in the building. The finish schedule provides information for the walls, floors, ceilings, baseboards, doors, and window trim. Finish schedules can vary in both format and complexity. A single-family home will generally consist of a limited number of finishes. Commercial buildings, on the other hand, may consist of a larger number of wall and floor finishes. The larger finish schedules are normally in a...

Door Schedule

Architectural Door Schedule Flush

Figure 9.2C Examples of various door-schedule formats. The information on a door schedule is dictated by the complexity and size of the project. The mark heading in door and window schedules usually refers to the window or door location on the blueprint. In other words, on the floor plan of each level of the house, windows and doors are drawn within the wall layout. The architect assigns a number to each window and door beginning with 1. Figure 9.3A An example of a pictorial schedule that often...