Executive Summary

The executive summary provides an overview of the business plan and should not exceed two pages. Even though it will be at the beginning of the plan, it should be written after the rest of the plan is completed. It brings together the significant points of the project and should convey enthusiasm and professionalism. Typically, investors will not spend more than a few minutes to review a business plan to determine whether they should read it in detail or go on to another plan. It is therefore...

The Successful Business Plan

A business plan is basically a written document that describes the business, its objectives, its strategies, its market, and its financial forecasts. Explain the type of company and services to be provided. If this is an existing business, give its history. If it is a new business, describe the product and or service and note some of the qualifications to start this business. Also explain why this business is needed and what its chance for success is. Describe any unique features that will...

Financial Plan

This section of your business plan is critical. The credibility of your projections is essential to establishing the likelihood of success or failure for your business. Investors and lenders will use the information in this section to evaluate the financial prospects of your business. Be sure to check how many years of financial projections your lender requires three years is the norm. State the business' financial requirements and how these funds will derive from project revenues, costs, and...

Automated Specificationwriting Systems

Over the past decade, several firms have developed various versions of automated specification-writing systems, and many now offer these services on-line to architects, interior designers, engineers, and others. One such firm is Building Systems Design's (BSD) SpecLink, which is an electronic specification system that uses master-guide specifications in CSI three-part format and has a database of over 780 master-specification sections and over 120,000 data links that automatically include...

One Point Parallel Perspective

The law of perspective is that parallel lines that lie in the same plane will appear to converge to a single point somewhere on the horizon (at the eye level), called the vanishing point (VP). This point is usually positioned within the view and gives objects an impression of depth. To draw a one-point perspective, simply draw a horizon line (HL) and draw a vanishing point anywhere on it. The horizon line may be located above, below, or at any other location on the drawing. Vertical and...

Isometric Drawing and Isometric Projection

The term isometric is derived from the Greek for equal measure, reflecting that the scale along each axis of the projection is the same, which is not true of some other forms of graphical projection. One of the advantages of isometric perspective in engineering drawings is that 60-degree angles are easy to construct using only a compass and straightedge. The isometric drawing is most commonly used in its true form giving equal measure and foreshortened views of three sides of the object. An...

Introductionthe Alphabet Of Lines

The alphabet of lines is the universal language of the technician, architect, and engineer. In reality, lines are the basis of all construction drawings. To read and understand blueprints, you need to understand the use of lines. By combining lines of different thicknesses, types, and lengths, it is possible to graphically describe objects in sufficient detail to allow a person with a basic understanding of blueprint reading to accurately visualize their size and shape. As will be explained,...

General

The purpose of building codes is to govern the construction of public buildings, commercial buildings, and places of residence and to regulate construction and thereby provide occupants with a safe and healthy environment. Building codes are an imperative part of the design and construction process. They define minimum standards for safety and comfort that must be met in new construction and major renovations. Prior to having obtained a building permit to construct a commercial property, the...

International Code Council

The International Code Council (ICC) was established in 1994 as a nonprofit organization dedicated to developing a single set of comprehensive and coordinated national model construction codes. The founders of the ICC are Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), and Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. (SBCCI). Although regional code development has been effective and responsive to our country's...

Structural Drawings

The structural drawings provide the reader with a view of the structural members of the building and how they will support and transmit its loads to the ground. Structural drawings (often referred to as struc-turals) are sequentially numbered beginning with an S, as in S-1, S-2, S-3, etc. They are normally located after the architectural drawings in a set of working drawings. For new construction, structural-engineering drawings will be needed for foundation and footing details, the structural...

Extension Lines

Extension lines are used in dimensioning to show the size of an object. Extension lines are thin, dark, solid lines that extend from an object at the exact locations between which dimensions are to be placed. A space of approximately 1 16 inch is usually allowed between the object and the beginning of the extension line (Figure 3.6). Plan to avoid crossing other extension lines and or dimension lines. Extension lines are fine lines that relate the dimension lines to their features. They do not...

Drainage and Utility Plans

Utility drawings show locations of the water, gas, sanitary sewer, and electric utilities that will service the building (Figure 6.7). The location of existing underground utilities is important so that they can be protected during excavation and construction. Drainage plans detail how surface water will be collected, channeled, and dispersed on- or offsite. Drainage and utility plans illustrate in plan view the size and type of pipes, their length, and their connections or terminations. The...

Heating Ventilation And Airconditioning Symbols

The main function of HVAC drawings is to show the location of the heating, cooling, and air-conditioning units as well as the piping and ducting diagrams. Graphical symbols on HVAC drawings are similar in pattern to those used for plumbing. In Figures 8.12A and B we see examples of typical HVAC symbols in current use in the United States and Europe. It should be noted that on some HVAC drawings one sees two types of symbols. The main duct may consist of a rectangle to represent the actual size...

Door Schedules

Door schedules typically indicate the model or mark, quantity, size, thickness, type, material, function, frame material, fire rating, and remarks. Examples of typical door schedules are shown in Figures 9.2A, B, and C. Sometimes tabulated door and window schedules are accompanied by graphic schedules in pictorial form with elevations of the door or window types to facilitate identification (Figures 9.3A and B). Door schedules may include information regarding glazing and louvers if...

Framing Plan

The framing plan will indicate the material used for framing the building and may include wood or metal studs, concrete-masonry units, or structural steel. Framing drawings include the basic skeletal structure of the building and are drawn to scale. Floor-joist locations, walls, and roof trusses are part of the overall detail of these plans. Generally, locations of each stud are not included, since the process is standard. However in some cases there are instructions for particular...

Details

Architectural details are essentially enlarged drawings of specific construction assemblies and are normally provided by the architect or structural engineer. Their main purpose is to offer greater clarification and understanding where required to implement a project. Contractors frequently request additional construction details during the execution stage. When an area of construction is drawn to a larger scale in Figure 6.23A Examples of millwork drawings and details. Figure 6.23A Examples of...

Electrical Drawings

The final group of working drawings is usually the electrical drawings. Architects usually hire electrical consultants to design the electrical services in buildings (unless they have electrical engineers within the firm). The electrical drawings show the various electrical and communication systems of the building, and they provide the client, the builder, and the permit department with the complete power layout for the project. The electrical cover sheet indicates all electrical specs, notes,...

Classification by Construction Type

Construction type indicates the fire resistance of certain building elements such as fire and party walls, stair and elevator enclosures, exterior and interior bearing and nonbearing walls, columns, shaft enclo- sures, smoke barriers, floors, ceilings, and roofs. Fire ratings are based on the number of hours a building element will resist fire before it is adversely affected by the flame, heat, or hot gases. All buildings are classified into one of five or six types of construction. Type I...

General Overview

Standard building specifications are written documents that go with the construction drawings and describe the materials as well as the installation methods. They also prescribe the quality standards of construction expected on the project. In the United States, the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) has established a widely recognized format of organization for technical specifications. CSI is a nationwide organization composed of architects, engineers, manufacturers' representatives,...

Business Forms Taxes Licenses Permits And Insurance

As a business owner you are obliged to understand and comply with government laws and regulations that apply to your business and are designed to protect you, your customer, and any employees. Having taken the decision to start a new business, you may now need to obtain a number of licenses and permits from federal, state, and local governments. Since licensing and permit requirements for small businesses can vary from one jurisdiction to another, it is important that you contact your state and...

Insurance

Insurance is an important prerequisite of any business. The premiums are usually expensive, especially business liability, but you cannot operate with peace of mind without full coverage. There are many types of insurance for businesses, but they are usually packaged as general business insurance or business owner's policy. If you plan to offer your employees health insurance, talk to your agent about the upfront fee. Record the premium payment you will need to make before opening your...

Licenses and Permits

These refer to the various federal, state, and local licenses and permits you may need to acquire prior to opening for business. A basic business-operation license is a license granting the company the authority to do business in that city or county and should be issued from the city in which your business will operate or from the local county (if the business will be operated outside of any city's limits). Most cities or counties require you to obtain a business license, even if you operate a...

Miscellaneous Issues to Consider

In the construction industry, equipment and machinery are often essential to your business. Without the proper equipment, it would be difficult to get jobs done efficiently and on time. The goal is typically to complete a project in accordance with plans and specifications, on time, within budget, and at the lowest possible cost. When starting a construction business, it is crucial to have the appropriate equipment to execute the types of construction projects anticipated. As in all businesses,...

Advertising and Promotion

Many new businesses start operating with a grand opening announcement, giving press releases to local papers and relevant business publications. It may also be prudent to print out a few hundred circulars to distribute to potential clients. Alternatively, grand-opening circulars can be placed in the newspaper to be distributed to subscribers. In any case, the dollar cost of any planned advertising and marketing initiative to announce the launch of the new business should be recorded and should...

Name and Legal Structure

At this point, a decision must be made on the proposed name and legal structure of the new business. There are advantages and disadvantages of each type of business structure. The structure chosen will depend on the needs of your business and will have a fundamental effect on how you do business. You basically have four choices when selecting a legal structure sole proprietorship, partnership, limited-liability company (LLC), and corporation or S-corporation. An individual proprietorship is a...

Preparing A Business Strategy And Plan

Planning is the key to success in any business. The importance of planning cannot be overemphasized. It may take two or three weeks to complete a good plan. Most of that time is spent in research and reevaluating your ideas and assumptions. Taking an objective look at the business plan will identify areas of weakness and strength, pinpoint needs that might otherwise be overlooked, and spot opportunities early. It provides a road map to make sure you are going where you want to go to achieve...

Center Lines

Center lines consist of thin (light), broken lines of alternating long and short dashes. They are used to identify the centers of symmetrical objects such as a column, wall, or window. Center lines are also used to indicate the center of a whole circle or part of a circle and to show that an object is symmetrical about a line (Figures 3.5A and B). The symbol is typically drawn as such (C L). Center lines are symmetrical on the axis of circular features and are also used to locate centers of...

Landscaping and Irrigation Plan

Landscaping is usually the final stage of a site's development. Landscaping plans show the location of various species of plantings, ground cover, lawns, benches, garden areas, and fences. The plantings are noted with an abbreviation, typically three letters, along with the quantity of the particular species (Figure 6.9). The designation corresponds to a planting schedule that furnishes a complete list of the plantings by common name, Latin or species name, and quantity and size of each...

Architectural Graphic Symbols

Description Various Washing Symbols

Reading blueprints requires a good understanding of line types. For example, on a plot plan some of the information shown will include property lines, rights-of-way, easements, topographic features, and a north arrow. Line types are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 3. Figure 8.4A and B show various door, window, and wall symbols used in general construction. Figure 8.4A Examples of different common door and window symbols shown in plan form. Figure 8.4A Examples of different common door...

Orthographic Multiview Drawings And Projections

For many years architects and engineers have utilized a system known as orthographic projection to accurately represent three-dimensional objects graphically on paper. In recent years the term multiview Figure 5.1A An example of a simple drawing of objects that essentially requires only two views to read. Figure 5.1B An example of a simple drawing of objects that essentially requires only two views to read. Figure 5.1B An example of a simple drawing of objects that essentially requires only two...

Computeraided Drafting Cad And Computeraided Design And Drafting Cadd

Furniture Drawings Hatch Symbol

Moving from manual drafting to computer-aided design and drafting was an important step in terms of the potential of today's technology. CAD originally meant computer-aided drafting because of its original use as a replacement for traditional drafting. Now it usually refers to computer-aided design to reflect the fact that modern CAD tools do more than just drafting (Figures 2.5A, B, and C). Related acronyms are CADD, which stands for computer-aided design and drafting CAID, for computer-aided...

First Angle Projection

First-angle projection is the ISO standard and is used mostly in Europe and Asia. If we imagine projecting a 3D object into a transparent plastic cube, the main object surfaces are projected onto the cube's walls so that the top view is placed under the front view and the right view is placed at the left of the front view, a two-dimensional representation of the object is formed by unfolding the box and viewing all of the interior walls as is shown in Figure 5.7A. Figure 5.3 An illustration of...

Two Point Perspective

Two Point Perspective Interior House

Sometimes called angular perspective drawing in this method only the vertical lines are drawn vertically. The horizontal, depth, and length receding lines are drawn to the vanishing points located on the horizon line. The front view is no longer true in shape but is now drawn in an isometric configuration. Again, the location of the horizon line and the vanishing points on the line will provide many different looks of the object. In two-point perspective the sides of the object vanish to one of...

Basic Drafting Standards And Standardssetting Organizations

In the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have adopted drafting standards that are voluntarily accepted and widely used throughout the world. These standards incorporate and complement other architectural engineering standards developed and accepted by professional organizations such as the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and others. Some large...

Machinist Drawings

Machine Drawing Assembly

Machinists generally use precision machine tools such as lathes, boring machines, milling machines, and cylindrical or surface grinders to shape materials such as steel, brass, iron, bronze, aluminum, titanium, and plastics and to manufacture components to meet customers' specifications. A machining detail drawing provides all the information needed to manufacture a specific part and is used to machine the casting into a finished component. Typically only one part is detailed in each drawing....

Three Point Perspective

Perspective Point Normal

Three-point perspective is a development of two-point perspective and is usually used for buildings seen from above or below. Like two-point perspective it has two vanishing points somewhere on the horizon and a third somewhere above or below the horizon line toward which the verticals converge (Figure 5.30). This means that the object is either tilted to the picture plane or the spectator's central axis of vision is inclined upward or downward and the picture plane is tilted. Three-point...

Symbols Radio System

Symbol Mechanical Thickness Radios

RADIO CHANNEL SELECTOR FACILITIES, MTD 4'-6 1372mm A.f.F. UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED, SPEAKER PROGRAM SELECTOR SWITCH & VOLUME CONTROL MTD. 4-6 1372mm A.F.F. UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. SPEAKER OUTLET, MTD. 7'-6 2286mm A.F.F. UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. RADIO CONDUIT RUN, MINIMUM 3 4 19mm CONDUIT. NOTE ALSO SEE VA BARRIER FREE DESIGN GUIDE PG-18-13. Symbols for typical television and radio systems. Figure 8.11A Examples of common plumbing fittings and symbols. Figure 8.11A Examples of common plumbing...

Binding Filister Truss Hex Cheese

Thread Nomenclature

Figure 7.19B Different types of screws and screw heads. Figure 7.19C Different types of screws and screw heads. Figure 7.19C Different types of screws and screw heads. Figure 7.20 A typical screw thread with the terminology and nomenclature associated with its use in today's industry. Figure 7.20 A typical screw thread with the terminology and nomenclature associated with its use in today's industry. Almost all threaded fasteners tighten when the head or nut is rotated clockwise. That is, as a...

Pictorial Drawings

Section Kitchen

Pictorial drawings are not often used for construction purposes. However, on some working drawings pictorial views are used to reveal information that orthographic views alone would be incapable of showing other situations may require a pictorial drawing essentially to supplement a major view. Pictorial projection, unlike multiview projection, is designed to allow the viewer to see all three primary dimensions of the object in the projection. Pictorial architectural drawings and renderings are...

Plans

A plan is actually a part of the architectural drawing that represents a view of the project from above. The floor plan is the most common type of plan view. A floor plan is a two-dimensional view of a space, such as a room or building. It is a view of the space from above, as if the space were cut through horizontally at the windowsill level with the upper half removed. You are looking down at the floor. In general, a floor plan's main function is to identify and delineate the use of space. It...

Power Plan

The power plan is a drawing of the floor plan showing all required outlets, locating panels, receptacles, and the circuitry of power-utilizing equipment and special systems. The designer or architect will often draw a power plan and dimension these locations. This is important to the engineer, especially if the connection must be at a specific location or height or if it is floor-mounted or mounted within a fixture. Figure 6.21 shows two examples of electrical layouts, one for a residence and...

Projection Symbols

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends the incorporation of projection symbols on drawings that are produced in one country for use in many countries (Figure 5.11). The projection symbols are intended to promote the accurate exchange of technical information through drawings. Figure 5.10 Three-view drawings are typically required for more complex shapes. The combination of front, top, and right side views reflects the method normally used by drafters to describe...

Site Improvement Drawings

Large or complex projects often require separate drawings to clarify proposed site improvements including curbing, walks, retaining walls, paving, fences, steps, benches, and flagpoles. Paving and curbing plans indicate the various types of brick, concrete, and bituminous paving and curbing to be used and the limits of each. This information allows for calculation and measurement of paving and curbing. The legend symbols inform you where one material ends and another begins. No assumptions...

Site Plan

What The Description Site Plan

A site or plot plan is a scale drawing of a property that shows its size and configuration including the size and location of man-made features such as buildings, driveways, and walkways on the property. Plot plans show both what currently exists and what improvements are proposed (Figure 6.4). The main function of a basic site or plot plan is to determine the placement of the structure as it sits in reference to the boundaries of the construction site. Site plans clearly establish the...

Small Project Specifications

*v,200l Aim'rican Inslilulcof Archilccls 5 1 0 1 07131 self-adhering sheet waterproofing 5 1 01 07241 EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SMI 07317 WOOD SHINGLES AND SHAKES 5 1 1 07320 ROOF TELES 5 1 01 07111 METAL ROOF PANELS 5 1 01 07112 METAL WALL PANELS 5 1 01 07160 SIDING 5 1 01 07511 BUILT-UP ASPHALT ROOFING 5 1 01 07531 EPDM MEMBRANE ROOFING 5 1 01 07552 SBS-MODIFIED BITUMINOUS MEMBRANE ROOFING 5 1 01 07620 SHEET METAL FLASHING AND TRIM 5 1 01 07710 MANUFACTURED ROOF SPECIALTIES 5 1 01 07811...

Symbols Fire Alarm System

ELECTROMAGNETIC TYPE DOOR HOLDER OUTLET. If r l FIRE ALARM TERMINAL CABINET. 2_4_6 FIRE ALARM TRANSMITTER (BASE LOOP) NUMERALS DENOTE CODE. _ _ FIRE ALARM TROUBLE TRANSMITTER (BASE LOOP) NUMERALS DENOTE CODE. B CITY FIRE ALARM MASTER STATION MTU 5'-6 1676mm AFF UNLESS NOTED, H*r1 FIRE ALARM RECORDER. faccI FIRE ALARM CENTRAL CONSOLE. Figure 8.9 List of fire-alarm-system symbols in current use. 411 16 119mm MASTER ANTENNA OUTLET BOX W BLANK COVER FOR TV...

Technical Drawing

Construction Tools Names

Also known as drafting, technical drawing is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for architectural and engineering needs. A practitioner of the discipline is known as a drafter. Today the mechanics of the drafting task have considerably changed through the use of CADD computer systems, but regardless of whether a drawing is drawn manually or with computer assistance, it must be reproducible. Basic drafting procedure consists of placing a piece of paper (or other...

The Internet The Website And Forming An Entity

The Internet has created enormous opportunities to reach previously unimaginable numbers of people. In addition to making communication possible to more people than through print advertising and other media, it also makes it available to people who might not otherwise have access. A website for a small business or any size company, has become a high priority not only is it a great marketing tool, but it allows you to develop your services and launch multiple marketing campaigns in a short...

The Problem Of Liability

Architects and engineers, like other professionals, are expected to exercise reasonable care and skill in carrying out their work. Although this does not imply 100 percent perfection at all times, the level of performance should be consistent with that ordinarily provided by other qualified practitioners under similar circumstances. Law relating to professional responsibility and liability has become very active in recent years, and the zone of risk and exposure has expanded dramatically in...

The Website

The public increasingly expects a professional to have a website, just as he or she is expected to have a business card. But first it is important to understand why a website is necessary and what can be achieved from it. At a minimum, a website can market your services to a global audience. Additionally, it is an excellent vehicle to sell the company's services over the Internet. Remember to consider what information you want prospects to gather from visiting your website. A well designed...

Third Angle Projection

Iso Standard Drawing Projection

In third-angle projection the left view is placed on the left and the top view is placed on the top (Figure 5.7 B and C). This type of projection is primarily used in the United States and Canada. It should be noted that not all views are necessarily used, and determination of which surface constitutes the front, back, top, and bottom varies depending on the projection used. In third-angle projection, the object lies below and behind the viewing planes. The planes are transparent, and each view...

Three View Drawings

Regularly shaped flat objects that require only simple machining operations may often be adequately described with notes on a one-view drawing. However, when the shape of the object changes, portions are cut away, or complex machining or fabrication processes must be shown, the single view would normally be inadequate to describe the object accurately. The combination of front, top, and right side views represents the method most commonly used by drafters to describe simple objects (Figure...

Title Blocks

Typical Wall Section Detail Autocad

It is standard practice to include a title block on each page of a set of blueprints. It is typically located in the bottom right-hand corner of the drawing frame. Many firms, however, are using customized sheets that extend the title block from the lower right to the upper right-hand side of the sheet (Figure 2.13). The title block should show the name of the project and the drawing and sheet numbers as well as the drawing title (e.g., site plan). The drawing number is especially important,...

Topography

The other important function of the site plan is to highlight the special surface conditions, or topography, of the lot. This will indicate to the builder the slope or flatness of the site. The topography of a particular lot may be indicated on the site plan (Figure 6.6). For some projects the topography needs to be shown separately for clarity, and a grading plan has to be used. Topographical information includes changes in the site's elevation, such as slopes, hills, valleys, and other...

Two View Drawings

Simple, symmetrical flat objects and cylindrical parts, such as sleeves, shafts, rods, or studs, require only two views to show the full details of construction. The two views usually include the front view and either a right side or left side view or a top or bottom view. Figure 5.7C More examples of third angle projection that is primarily used in the United States and Canada. This type of projection produces two plan views and four side views. In third angle projection the left view is put...

Types Of Blueprints

Providing accurate construction drawings up front helps ensure that construction projects will proceed in an orderly manner, reducing costly and time-consuming rework by contractors and subcontractors down the line. Construction drawings are generally categorized according to their intended purpose. Types commonly used in construction may be divided into five main categories based on the function they intend to serve 5. Specialized and miscellaneous drawings Preliminary-Design and Concept...

Types of Occupancy

Occupancy, as stated, refers to the type of use of the building or interior space, such as a residence, office, store, or school. An occupancy classification must be assigned to any building or space, and deter mining the occupancy classification is an essential part of the code process. The concept behind occupancy classification is that certain building uses are more hazardous than others. For example, a large theater with hundreds of people is more dangerous than a single-family residence....

Window Schedules

A window schedule is similar to a door schedule in that it provides an organized presentation of the pertinent window characteristics. Window schedules include quantity, type, model, manufacturer, size, rough opening, materials, glazing, and finish. There is also usually a column for remarks notes (Figure 9.5). Also, like door schedules, tabulated schedules cannot always clearly define a specific window. In this case you can add to a schedule a callout with a pictorial drawing of a window...

Building Codes Today

One of the most confusing aspects of American codes and standards is that, unlike Europe, Canada, and many other parts of the world, there is a complete absence of uniformity between federal agencies, states, counties, and municipalities, although in recent years there have been major efforts to unify codes on the national level. When dealing with counties and municipalities we are confronted with other issues. For example, cities such as Houston have large oil refineries that create certain...

Architectural Drawings

Architectural drawings contain required information on the size, material, and makeup of all main members of the structure, as well as their relative position and method of connection. In essence, they consist of all the drawings that describe the structural members of the building and their relationship to each other, including foundation plans, floor plans, framing plans, elevations, sections, millwork, details, schedules, and bills of materials. Architectural drawings are generally numbered...

Construction or Working Drawings

The term construction drawing is generic in that it includes all the drawings needed by the various tradespeople to complete a building project. These drawings are prepared by the architect, engineer, and other specialists depending on the complexity of the project. Construction drawings are technical directions in graphic form, showing the size, quantity, location, and relationships of the building's components. In construction drawings as much information as possible is presented graphically,...

Common Types Of Brick Bonds

Engineering Drawing Examples

Figure 5.17B An example of the use of isometric drawings in architecture and engineering. Comparison of Isometric and Orthographic Drawings Compare the simple rectangular block shown in the orthographic representation (third-angle projection) in Figure 5.18 and the three-dimensional isometric representation. Notice that the vertical lines of the orthographic and isometric drawings (views A and B) remain vertical. The horizontal lines of the orthographic drawing are not horizontal in the...

Line Weights And Types

Line weights are generally subject to the following conventions 1. For manual pencil drafting using drawing boards, finished work includes bold object lines (2H to B pencils), light dimension lines, center lines, section lines, and so on (3H to 5H pencils). Temporary construction lines, guidelines for lettering, and other types should be kept very light (7H or 8H). Border lines for the drawing sheet and title block should be made bold (3B to 6B). 2. For inked or computer-plotted drawings...

Types of Foundations

Two Story Building Sections

Houses and small frame buildings do not need complicated foundation systems. A simple inverted-T foundation is all that is normally needed to support the structure under normal conditions. Larger and more complex buildings impose a heavier burden on the foundation system and need to be carefully designed by structural engineers. Foundations for large commercial buildings perform the same functions as those for light-frame structures. The main difference in the foundations for a commercial...

Perspective Drawings

A good understanding of the principles of perspective is necessary to create an accurate and visually appealing piece of art. Perspective drawings are forms of pictorial drawing. Blueprint readers may not see a perspective drawing very often, but they will undoubtedly appreciate the descriptive information it offers. Perspective drawing is a system for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. It utilizes either one, two, or three points to where the receding lines will vanish....

Plumbing Drawings

Plumbing Fixture Schedule

Plumbing drawings provide all pertinent information on the design of the plumbing system for a project, including line sizes and location, fixture location, isolation valves, storage-tank capacities, hot-water-heater capacities and locations, and drain locations and routing. Plumbing systems involve two major components, water supply and drainage. Water is supplied under pressure through pipes to plumbing fixtures. Drainage works by gravity Drain pipes must slope downward. Vent pipes are...

Architects Scale

Architectural scales are normally flat or triangular in shape and come in different lengths, the 12-inch (30-cm) triangular shape being the most popular. All three sides of the triangle scale (except those with a 12-inch scale) contain two scales on each usable surface. Each of these scales uses the full Figure 4.2B A drawing showing dimension lines terminating at the extension lines with arrows at the endpoints. Figure 4.1 shows slashes at the endpoints, and Figure 3.8C shows dots at its end...

Mechanical Drawings

Gas Connection Architectural Symbol

The cover sheet for mechanical drawings should contain appropriate notes, legends (chart or table of symbols and abbreviations), and details. The mechanical plan specifies the design of or the modifications to the mechanical system, ductwork layout and dimensions, mechanical equipment location, damper locations, design air-delivery rates, diffuser locations, thermostat locations, and supplemental cooling systems if required. Mechanical plans are normally identified as M-1, M-2, M-3, etc. Some...

Reflected Ceiling Plan

Reflected Ceiling Plan Symbols

A reflected ceiling plan RCP is a drawing of a room or space looking down at the interior ceiling. The designer or architect produces this plan to graphically show the ceiling treatment, ceiling grid, and the placement of all light fixtures as well as light fixtures to be relocated or removed. The plan indicates the type of ceiling acoustical tile, gypsum board, etc and the ceiling heights. The location of all light fixtures, speakers, special lighting, ceiling outlets, and switch locations is...

Finish Schedule

A finish schedule specifies the interior finish material for each room, space, and floor in the building. The finish schedule provides information for the walls, floors, ceilings, baseboards, doors, and window trim. Finish schedules can vary in both format and complexity. A single-family home will generally consist of a limited number of finishes. Commercial buildings, on the other hand, may consist of a larger number of wall and floor finishes. The larger finish schedules are normally in a...

Door Schedule

Architectural Door Schedule Flush

Figure 9.2C Examples of various door-schedule formats. The information on a door schedule is dictated by the complexity and size of the project. The mark heading in door and window schedules usually refers to the window or door location on the blueprint. In other words, on the floor plan of each level of the house, windows and doors are drawn within the wall layout. The architect assigns a number to each window and door beginning with 1. Figure 9.3A An example of a pictorial schedule that often...