Smyth Wood 1995

Building on the author's extensive experience in the development and implementation of PPM programmes, it was decided to carry out further research with the encouragement and assistance of Hedley Smyth, then a colleague at Oxford Brookes University, who brought a wealth of experience in the marketing of construction services. Our programme of research intended to investigate the different responses to procurement and maintenance across building types with different ownership, user and...

Property conditions

Not only is much of the construction industry in poor shape to provide good maintenance services, the buildings to be maintained are often in poor condition. In the UK and elsewhere, it has been a common practice for many building types, for instance churches, educational and health care institutions and other publicly owned buildings, to carry out periodic reviews of building conditions, perhaps a 'quinquennial inspection'. Typically, these would be undertaken by an architect or surveyor and...

Conclusion

Defects are expensive they take precious time and resources to diagnose and to correct and they waste time and resources to create in the first place. 1 billion was spent in rectifying defects in UK buildings in 1997. Most defects could be avoided but this requires a good understanding of construction detailing and of what designers and clients are endeavouring to achieve. Problems occur if objectives are not shared and conflicts become difficult to resolve. Good communication is key. Guidance...

Zen and kaizen

Japanese practices promoted and popularised process improvement. The quality movement brought the concept of continuous improvement (kaizen), to which the business guru Tom Peters added customer focus. In their seminal work In Search of Excellence (1982), Peters & Waterman compared the products of the American motor industry with that of the Japanese. They concluded that 'lack of care and attention is a detrimental aspect of the finish given by so many companies to the work they undertake'....

Defects

If a building is to be run with minimal maintenance, let alone be maintenance free, it will be helpful if it starts its life without defects. Defects occur in buildings for a range of reasons. They represent a waste of resources, time and money, a difference of expectation of what was required, whether it be a small or large defect. The Oxford English Dictionary (1989) defines a defect as 'the fact of being wanting or falling short lack or absence of something essential to completeness...

Condition surveys and elemental repairs and replacements

The need for condition surveys was identified by BS 8210 1986 as a prerequisite for planned maintenance. Discussing the rationale of investing in building condition surveys, Then (1995) states that 'A condition survey is a form of building inspection. However, unlike routine inspections and planned inspections, which are geared towards the issue of work instructions, condition surveys usually take on a longer-term view'. It enables a strategic overview of the building stock and facilitates...

Forecasting the future

This is difficult and has provided useful projects for a variety of management consultants, centres, institutes and units, sometimes badged as 'think tanks'. Schumacher (1972) postulated a possible 'machine to foretell the future'. He distinguished (p. 220) between 'acts' and 'events' (the latter being things that 'simply happen' outside a planner's control), and between 'certainty' and 'uncertainty' in the making of forecasts, predictions and plans. The US Secretary of State for Defence,...

Background to the study

Work addressing the poorly regarded (and consequently poorly rewarded) activity of building maintenance over the last 10-15 years has focused significantly on two areas lifecycle costing (LCC) and planned preventive maintenance (PPM). PPM was discussed in some detail in Chapter 2 LCC is discussed further in Chapter 11. Feedback is an important component in informing repair and replacement decisions in both LCC and PPM. Skinner (1983) is a strong proponent of the benefits of feedback 'directed...

Sustainable future

The increasing attention given to sustainability since Our Common Future (WCED, 1989) has been referred to in previous chapters. An earlier example of professional attention to the design of buildings that would accommodate the needs of the future is the 'Long Life, Low Energy, Loose Fit' (LL LE LF) approach espoused over a quarter of a century ago by Alex Gordon (1974). He was then President of the Royal Institute of British Architects and wrote at an interesting time in the development of...

Planned maintenance and the command economy

Against a background of large programmes of housebuilding, new schools and hospitals, with a substantial involvement of 'the state', it is not surprising that maintenance should be approached in a similar, large-scale, depersonalised kind of a way. In the same way that shortages of labour after wars gave rise to interest and investment in building in ways that used less labour, and also less skilled and unskilled labour, so has there been interest in facilitating effective maintenance with use...

Building Maintenance References

American Customer Satisfaction Survey, 1995-1997. http www.acsi.asq.org Armstrong, M. (1994) How to Be an Even Better Manager, 4th edn., Kogan Page, London. Atkinson, A.R. (1998) The Role of Human Error in the Management of Construction Defects. Proceedings of COBRA '98 RICS Construction and Building Research Conference, Oxford Brookes University, RICS, London, Vol. 1, pp. 1-11. Audit Commission (1986) Improving Council House Maintenance. HMSO, London. Audit Commission (2001) Housing Inspection...

What is life

The life of the building is often little considered at the briefing stage or glib assumptions are made. For instance, it was common in the postwar years to assume a design life of 60 years for public sector housing, that being the period set for repayment of finance from the Public Works Loan Board. However, many tower blocks and high-density housing designed in the 1960s failed to make it even halfway because of social and structural problems. Would it be appropriate to plan that after 60...

Just in time

'The first thing to be said about JIT is that it is most definitely not a software package it is a philosophy a philosophy of common sense. The essence of this philosophy can be stated using two expressions which respectively sum up the positive and negative aspects of JIT the ''habit of improvement and the ''elimination of wasteful practices an ongoing crusade by both workers and managers.' (Dear, 1988) 'Advocates of JIT claim it is a revolutionary concept that all will have to adopt in order...

The autonomous building

One approach to limiting resource utilisation in the creation and care of a building may be to expect it to in essence live off its own site and the resources therein and thereon an 'autonomous' building. By contrast with the 'automated building' considered in Chapter 7, the autonomous building may be considered to be a 'greener' and therefore more acceptable concept although that suggests a number of questions, some of which are addressed here. A definition of building autonomy is provided by...

Acknowledgements

Firstly, I thank my colleagues and anonymous industrial collaborators at the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction and throughout continental Europe, North America, Africa, South-East Asia and Australasia for enhancing the scope and scale of my studies through friendly and convivial advice and guidance and 'students' young and not so young, who have questioned everything. I am deeply indebted to my wife, Erica, for her encouragement to bring together...

Adversarial nature of contracts

It would be virtually impossible in the UK to commission the implementation of a PPM programme without a formal contract. Although technically a contract only requires an offer, its acceptance and a 'consideration', it is common to prepare and sign documentation many pages long. Such contract documentation sets out clearly and for the avoidance of doubt the works to be carried out and the obligations of the parties to the contract. It is normally recommended that standard forms of contract be...

References

Baillieu, A. & Black, S. (2002) The top 50 clients. RIBA Journal 109 (9), 24-30. Bennett, J. & Jayes, S. (1995) Trusting the Team The Best Practice Guide to Partnering in Construction. Centre for Strategic Studies in Construction, University of Reading. Building Research Establishment (1982) Quality in Traditional Housing. HMSO, London. Building Research Establishment (1982-90) Defect Action Sheets. HMSO, London. (Published 1991 as Housing Defects Reference Manual. E. & F. N. Spon,...

Service and service culture

The construction industry is not noted for its attention to customer needs. Arguably, if it were, it would give more attention to completion of projects on time, within budget and without defects. For a long time there was no client representation on the Joint Contracts Tribunal, the organisation responsible for the drawing up and revision of the standard form of building contract used in the UK and much of the former British Empire. The architect was ascribed a 'quasi-arbitrarial' role in...

Intelligence and the intelligent building

'Intelligent buildings are structures equipped with computer controls that respond to complex stimuli to increase the buildings' efficiency and profitability' Sullivan, 1994 . This is one of many attempts at definition focusing on automation a delegate at the 1998 BRE EIBG conference used the term 'gizmology'. Other definitions suggested at that conference included the following. An intelligent building maximises the efficiency of occupants and allows effective management of resources with...