Chemical Attack Ebook
The resistance of cured concrete to acid attack is largely dependent upon the quality of the concrete, although the addition of granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS) or fly ash (pulverised-fuel ash PFA ) increases the resistance to acids. Limestone-aggregate concrete is more vulnerable to acid attack than concretes with other aggregates. The resistance of cured concrete to chemical attack is defined by the design chemical class number, ranging from DC1 (low resistance) to DC 4 (high resistance). The required design chemical class (DC Class) of the concrete is calculated by combining the effects of the sulfate content of the ground, the nature of the groundwater and the anticipated working life of the construction (BRE Special Digest 1 2005). The design chemical class (DC1 to DC4) defines the qualities of the concrete required to resist chemical attack. It is determined from the ACEC class of the ground together with factors relating to the concrete, such as section size and intended...
Reducing motivations to commit criminal behaviour is not an architectural or urban design problem but physical design responses - barbed or razor wire on walls, roller shutters blanking out shopwindows at night - reduce the attractiveness of the urban environment. We have learnt to live with television surveillance of many parts of the public realm but playgrounds, bus shelters and street furniture continue to be destroyed. Graffiti besmirches many walls. These acts are all annoyances and a threat to public safety. The threat of terrorism is, however, frightening. There has been a growing concern, particularly in the United States with designing to reduce the impact of terrorism. The images of the destruction of the World Trade Center towers are so indelibly imprinted on people's minds, that It would be a pity if buildings become designed as fortresses with blank fa ades on the ground floor. The result would be that the environment for pedestrians would be dull and would discourage...
Sports activities might become the target of terrorists. The actual likelihood of a terrorist attack and the possible methods that such people might use are best known by the police, who should be consulted at an early stage. The security arrangements of the building should be tailored around their advice.
Figure 8.30a shows schematics of a viscoelastic polymer damper. An early example of application of this type of damper is the World Trade Center Towers, conceived in the 1960s, constructed in the early seventies, and destroyed by terrorists on September 11, 2001. These buildings were designed with viscoelastic dampers distributed at approximately 10,000 locations in each building. The dampers extended between the lower chords of the floor joists and gusset plates mounted on the exterior columns beneath the stiffened seats (Fig. 8.28).
Despite London being on high terrorist alert, bombers still managed to place their device just outside New Scotland Yard in central London, where it detonated shortly before 9pm, blowing out windows on the ground and first floors. The explosion was later described as sounding like the report of a cannon. Because it was late evening, the building was largely empty, and the only serious casualty was a police officer who had been on duty outside. The policeman and several other civilians with less serious injuries were taken by ambulance to Westminster and Charing Cross hospitals. The London bombing followed other terrorist attacks in Glasgow, Liverpool and elsewhere and took place in June 1884, part of a UK-wide campaign by Irish separatists. It underlines two facts. First, that terrorism isn't a new phenomenon and, second, that the main cause of injury in a terrorist attack is glass. In urban areas, it's estimated that between 80-85 of all secondary blast injuries are caused by flying...
Following the terrorist attacks of the last decade, designers and planners were suddenly faced with new questions about balancing security, freedom of movement and market realities. In the nine-story Alfred PMur-rah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, 168 people were killed, and in the World Trade Center attacks of 9 11, nearly 3,000 people were killed. Society's need for security must be balanced against our traditional values as well as our psychological and spiritual needs, including those of openness and accessibility and all their ramifications in a free society But even with revised design and engineering measures the threat of terrorism against property will not completely resolved. No building can be made 100 percent terrorist-proof. We must accept new realities in which there will always be a small risk involved with everything we do and wherever we live. Most building codes have developed over many decades, if not centuries, and this development reflects societal consensus....
Once basic physiological needs are at least partially met, people are motivated to seek a sense of safety and security. Physiologically, safety and security needs are highly related to the need for survival. How best to segregate pedestrian and moving vehicles is a recurrent issue in urban design. Dealing with crime and now terrorism has become a constraint on what we can do to celebrate cities. Providing for people's psychological sense of security involves them having appropriate levels of privacy and their being in control over their social environments. People
The simplest form of modelling is to idealise the arch barrel to a two-dimensional plane frame made up of at least 12 line elements. The work can be carried out using any suitable frame-analysis or finite element program. Depending on the level of sophistication required to solve the problem, this may suffice however, where the structure is more complex, a more robust analysis may be justified. In which case, the initial simple analysis can be used to identify regions of interest. There are many FE analysis packages currently available including ABAQUS, ANSYS, DIANA and LUSAS. Each is constantly evolving and has advantages and limitations. As outlined in the section on masonry properties, the analyst is faced with the dilemma between using a smear model which averages the unit mortar composite and the expense of modelling the unit and mortar separately and the uncertainty of replication of the unit mortar interface. The other FE packages listed require the designation of interface...
Older solid walls may have no DPC at ground level. Even those walls where this is provided may have incorrectly positioned DPCs this can result in a range of defects. Parapet walls are particularly vulnerable. Where a DPC has not been provided immediately under a weatherproof coping, or has not been provided for the full width of the wall, then rain can penetrate the wall. The parapet wall may become saturated where the coping projection is inadequate or anti-capillary grooves or throatings have not been provided. It is suggested that a minimum projection of the coping of 40 mm is required with 25 mm clearance between the wall and the anti-capillary groove. The risk of chemical attack of the brickwork increases when it is saturated.
Green Guerillas started in 1973 in a Lower East Side garden in Manhattan. From there it has become a resource for different garden groups throughout the city. It provides support to the garden groups by helping with organization, planning, and outreach and in saving community space from further development. This group is an integral part to making a community garden a success. Specifically in the Bronx, Green Guerillas are involved with Trees for Life and Unity Project with La Familia Verde Coalition. This project was established to plant forty trees as a living memorial to the victims of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
Islamists, Osama bin Laden's network al-Qaida is noteworthy because it recruits from many nationalities, speaks to a universal Muslim nationalism, and innovates by using the infrastructures of global capitalism to launch its terrorist attacks. At a moment when the postcolonial national state has lost innumerable sovereign powers to US-driven, neoliberal global restructuring, Islamism has seized the popular imagination by seizing from incumbent authorities the most important ideological resource possessed by the postcolonial state that is, the power to define the meaning of anti-imperialist, populist nationalism for subjects living in most Muslim-majority states (Lubeck 2000). Due to the decline of rival alternative visions, Islamism has emerged as the most powerful anti-systemic political force opposing Western-led globalization especially since the collapse of the Soviet model (1989). Like its predecessor, Third Worldist, anti-imperialist Marxism, Islamist movements practice open...
Now the Pentagon has been repaired and the debris cleared from Ground Zero - a site worth too much money to leave vacant. A new high-rise structure more elegant than the Twin Towers will reassert New York's status as a world city, and will no doubt be engineered to withstand terrorist attacks. The Twin Towers were designed to survive the impact of an aircraft, as it happens, but a 737 not a 757 with full tanks. The financial services industry, too, had arrangements for contingency, and re-connected within hours to its information super-highways using back-up sites. Was 9-11 a watershed, then, or not Noam Chomsky observes that it was the first time since 1812 that the national territory of the United States has been attacked 2 and Susan Buck-Morss writes that September 11th 'ruptured irrevocably' the context in which public intellectuals speak (Buck-Morss, 2002 2). Yet she points out that history does not have clean breaks, that after the end of the Cold War and through the electronic...
Mechanical and electrical systems have made tremendous strides during the last century Changes have been even more evident during the past two decades due to the use of computer-based design aids, which have radically transformed the design and operation of the comfort systems for buildings. Moreover, there have been major advances in intelligent management systems for buildings and energy conservation imperatives have also had a major impact. Also, the principles of life-cycle economics are regularly used in design selections and trade offs. Added to this, the terrorist attacks that have hit the homeland in recent years have also impacted design perceptions and strategies. While the standard of care for the mechanical electrical engineering profession has changed to a lesser degree than one might have expected as a result of these attacks, the change is
Globalizing influence occurring throughout the world. There are several reasons for this terrorism in Algiers, and the Gulf War in both Iraq and Yemen, which have all been external factors hindering the emergence of these cities as global players. None of these cities has engaged in the kind of large-scale urban development witnessed elsewhere in the region. One city in particular
Heller (1990) detects movements in attitudes away from concerns about 'Big Brother'. He argues that, although we have been resistant to depersonalisation, our priorities have changed. For instance, we are happier with automatic bank teller machines than with 'standing in line' waiting for a human cashier. Social and political forces have been changing our attitudes. He cites 'the rise in crime and terrorism worldwide', for instance, and of course since Heller wrote in 1990, we have seen great growth in home and telephone banking, insurance and so on. What has this to do with maintenance It has to do with service putting the client, the user, at the centre of customer care.
Planners can find federal government standards for security requirements for their buildings on line, providing a good resource on the subject. In the United States, several design firms like Gensler have taken the initiative in convening a series of regional dialogues regarding strategic planning and ways to balance security with openness. These seminars covered a number of topics including topics such as facility audits, circulation diagrams, and strategies for integrating security procedures and equipment in a Class A environment. In the United Kingdom, firms like Foster and Partners assembled a multidisciplinary team to investigate rapid evacuation concepts and the emergency response of buildings. Also, as mentioned earlier, in the wake of the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks,the American Institute of Architects (AIA) published an excellent booklet, Building Security by Design A Primer for Architects, Design Professionals, and their Client, which summarizes security issues and...
This was a very disturbing decade in Algerian history, dominated by the rise of terrorism and political instability. As a result, there were no noticeable urban renewal projects within Algiers apart from localized small-scale development. However, by the end of this decade, Algiers was given a new status to improve its image and to guide its urban and economic growth effectively.
Acrylated rubber paints are suitable for internal and external applications exposed to chemical attack or wet and humid atmospheric conditions. Acrylated rubber paints are tending to replace chlorinated rubber coatings which rely on carbon tetrachloride solvent, now considered environmentally damaging. Acrylated rubber paints may be applied to metal or masonry by either brushing or spraying. Usually a film of dry thickness 100 microns is applied compared to 25-30 microns for most standard paint products.
A range of localized problems in low-rise buildings can occur as a result of pockets of soil failure, direct failure in the foundations (including subsoil walls) or by a failure in combination of soil and foundations. The causes of such failures may be chemical attack due to chemical incompatibility between the soil and foundation (e.g. attack of concrete foundations by soil sulphates in solution), or even within the building fabric itself.
The World Trade Center site development New York Ny Usa an architectural product or an allofapiece urban design 2002
It left a portion of the slurry wall exposed, as a symbol of strength, and included a memorial museum and cultural spaces, the 1776 feet (541 metres) with its spire tall 'Freedom Tower' (in form echoing the Statue of Liberty) as an element marking the spot of the terrorist act on the New York skyline and a variety of activity spaces below. A refined master plan was presented to the public in September 2003 (see Figure 8.51). It included commercial office space, retail development, its integration with the transportation network and public spaces and a new park. The new proposal replaced 1.34 million square metres of space in six buildings with 1 million in five, plus another million square metres of retail space and the same amount of space for a convention centre plus a September 11 Museum. The memorial forms the centre of the composition. An open competition was held for it drawing 5201 entries from professionals and lay-people. They ranged from
Or, as Buck-Morss writes, citing Walter Benjamin, 'If the war is brought to the homeland, let us be the ones who wage it - not with terrorist violence whereby the ends justify the means, but with divine violence as Walter Benjamin, a Jew and a Marxist, conceived it collective political action that is lethal not to human beings, but to the mythic power that reigns over them' (Buck-Morss, 2002 8). The interruption of the rituals which enshrine high culture in its position of privilege which Benjamin sees in the mechanical reproduction of images through the lens is one application of this thought. It supposes, too, a collapse of the separation between producer and receiver, echoed in the fusion of making and dwelling in informal or self-build architecture, which can be extended to the formation of identities and the structuring of categories in verbal language. I do not try to put the applications in any order (which would be to reproduce the model of hierarchy),...
Oiticica, Clark, Pape and their followers were not, however, architects, and however much they took from architecture and informed a critique of its development, they operated in a different, and in many ways freer, world they did not have clients to satisfy, regulations with which to comply or teams of builders with whom to negotiate. In Sao Paulo, Arquitetura Nova took the prevailing ideas of liberation as a starting point and looked to apply them in the tougher and more compromised environment of architecture, and popular housing in particular. Even they struggled with the limits of professional architectural practice, however, and, as we shall see, their activities dissolved variously into painting, theatre or terrorism. They built little, and their existence (like their contemporaries Archigram in the uk and Superstudio in Italy) was based less on architecture than a cultivated notoriety. In this - their existence as a kind of radical think tank rather than a viable architectural...
Figure 8.3 Stephen Harty, Individual Acts of Terrorism Are Entirely Pointless But They Feel Fantastic at the Time, 1992. Photograph, Hugo Glendenning. One leg of the chair ends in a light bulb. Sitting down destroys the light and the chair topples over. Figure 8.3 Stephen Harty, Individual Acts of Terrorism Are Entirely Pointless But They Feel Fantastic at the Time, 1992. Photograph, Hugo Glendenning. One leg of the chair ends in a light bulb. Sitting down destroys the light and the chair topples over.
The ability to exclude is a new hallmark for the new public space in the United States. Fear created by a rising tide of immigrants and random violence ranging from the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, to the snipers in the suburbs of Washington, D.C., in 2002 has transformed public areas with an explosion of public space privatization. Gated communities are proliferating, as are other elite forms of residential development like the resort developments, luxury retirement communities, and high-security subdivisions with which they overlap. Their rapid spread over the last several years results from a number of socio-demographic trends, especially the expansion of the size of the upper-middle-class with rising disposable income, combined with a rising tide of immigration and the threats of terrorism in public places.
The terrorist attacks of September 11 and Oklahoma City continue to impact code development, and a change to the International Building Code (IBC) related to the World Trade Center collapse was recently approved. The IBC now requires that buildings 420 feet and higher have a minimum 3-hour structural fire-resistance rating. The previous requirement was limited to 2 hours. This change provides increased fire resistance for the structural system, leading to enhanced tenability of the structure, and gives firefighters additional protection while fighting a fire.
TPS has provided insight into how effective counter-terrorist requirements can be incorporated into airport terminal design by introducing contemporary thinking on the gap in provisions currently made in design and security. TPS (part of Carillion pic) shed light on how practical means of protecting airport terminals, staff and passengers from terrorist attack can be employed without necessarily turning terminals into either fortresses or bunkers. Sometimes security is considered as a secondary issue rather than a central driver in airport terminal design, Aibara explained. The session emphasised that in order to protect public areas and buildings against terrorist attack security issues must be in the forefront of any decisions made when constructing new airports or terminals. The TPS seminar, part of a conference stream focusing specifically on aviation and airport security, attracted airport operators, airport equipment suppliers, designers, security managers, commercial aviation...
Let us return to engineering design, and to an analysis of its gradual development towards a model more like architectural design, as we identified it in the opening section of this introduction. In the 20th century the institutionalization of a rich variety of engineering design traditions and practices emerged. During the second half of the last century design practices gradually developed that focus on the material product of design and on the broader social system in which these products are supposed to perform their function. For example, with the advent of ergonomics, and the wide dissemination of computers, engineers became systematically involved in problems related to man-machine interactions and in designing human interfaces for their products. But the broadening of the boundaries of the systems that engineers had to deal with did not stop with the inclusion of human agents. Also, with regard to the life-cycle of designed objects, the boundary between products and users has...
Members of Fat are not cultural terrorists. To explode myths and address core issues Fat works . . . from the inside out. Utilizing the tactic of leaching - intervention and recoding within existing structures such as the media, advertising spaces, prestigious exclusive art events, urban transport systems - we aim to explore, challenge, and possibly explode current notions of what is perceived to be art and to oppose traditional conceptions of authenticity.
Global terrorism and natural disasters have emphasized the need for architects to address emerging design challenges regarding safety, security, sustainability, and energy efficiency. As the building industry examines these performance issues and design criteria, architects are increasingly turning to laminated glass because of its many high performance benefits.
Security issues and challenges have been highlighted by the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the U.S., and promise to play a central role in future design considerations.Advanced technology is being brought to bear to resolve many of these unprecedented challenges.
Owing to changes in temperature, no part of a building is ever still. Such expansion and contraction not only creates problems in long exterior walls and large roofs, it can also cause trouble in large interior spaces if vacancies, blackouts, or acts of terrorism shut down a building's climate control system during very hot or cold weather.
Engineering bricks are dense and vitreous, with specific load bearing characteristics and low water absorption. The two classes (A and B) are defined specifically according to their minimum crushing strengths and maximum water absorption (Table 1.2), but in addition most engineering bricks have high density, good frost resistance and low soluble-salt content. Engineering bricks are used to support heavy loads, and also in positions where the effects of impact damage, water absorption or chemical attack need to be minimised. They are generally reds or blues and more expensive than other machinemade facing bricks because of their higher firing temperature.
The concrete, in which changes in the crystal structure, accelerated by high temperatures and humidity, have caused serious loss of strength, increased porosity and subsequent chemical attack. Depending upon the degree of conversion, calcium aluminate cement becomes friable and a deeper brown in colour the exact degree of conversion can only be determined by chemical analysis of a core sample. It is now recognised that such failures can be prevented by using a minimum cement content of 400 kg m3, limiting the water cement ratio to a maximum of 0.4, and by ensuring controlled curing during the 6- to 24-hour initial hardening stage. The concrete should be covered or sprayed to prevent excessive water loss, particularly where substantial increases in temperature may occur.
As mentioned in the introduction, it is important to contact those public bodies who can give an assessment of the perceived likelihood of terrorist attacks, and may already have planned out their response. The authorities that may be involved in dealing with a terrorist threat include the police local authorities national security organizations and emergency services organizations. Proposed stadia designs should be discussed with these agencies, who will have valuable specialist knowledge to contribute.
Profiled metal sheeting is cheap, easy to fix, and very commonly used. Steel sheets generally come in galvanized, plastic-coated or painted form. Aluminium sheets are lighter and inherently resistant to atmospheric attack, but have less impact resistance and will suffer electrolytic corrosion when in contact with other metals or with concrete, and chemical attack when in contact with wood that is subject to wetting in both cases separating membranes must be used at all contact points.
Hazard classes of wood and wood-based products against biological attack. Classification of hazard classes. Hazard classes of wood and wood-based products against biological attack. Guide to the application of hazard classes to solid wood. Hazard classes of wood and wood-based products against biological attack. Application to wood-based panels.
New York City, under an Environmental Protection Agency mandate to treat water from the Cro-ton Reservoir, reluctantly decided to plop a water treatment plant into Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx and onto a golf course best known for its disadvantaged youth programs. And it has to be bunkered in to protect against terrorist attacks. This doesn't sound like a precursor to visionary, green design. Remarkably, it is.
The easterners use concrete as a basic building material. (We fondly think of the easterners as Concrete Terrorists.) The easterners use concrete because the resultant buildings will last for centuries avoiding disruption of the flora and fauna on the roof. Some like concrete because the roofs can withstand a greater load. They want to build places that can withstand the weight of trees.
What, then, does the future portend for Muslims in cities Islamism will remain ubiquitous in everyday urban life because globalization, state withdrawal, and rising urban inequality create a social milieu ideally suited for the efflorescence of both moderate Islamist civil society groups and violent insurrectionary groups using terrorist tactics. Does irony not turn into the theater of the absurd when President W Bush advocates faith-based initiatives as a solution to state withdrawal from urban social services Islamism could hardly ask for a better midwife than the policy of global neoliberalism. Far more flexible and pragmatic than imagined, Islamism became normalized by its success in meeting the moral and material needs of urban Muslims.
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