Yet being away from the spotlight can have its advantages. Indeed, as Peter Hall points out,75 many historically innovative cities, such as Los Angeles (at least initially), Memphis and Glasgow, nurtured their talents and experiments away from the central hub. The first contemporary art galleries in the sense we understand them today were in Lodz in Poland and later Hannover in Germany, rather than in Warsaw or Berlin. Smaller cities can try out things a central city may find unimportant. Furthermore, the core city will find it difficult to operate in every sphere. The difficulty for the smaller, upstart city is inserting itself into international circuits and meeting the aspirations for their creatives once initial success has been achieved.
The point is that every city can be more creative than it currently is and the task for the city wanting to be creative is to identify, nurture, harness, promote, attract and sustain talent and to mobilize ideas, resources and organizations.
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