Chapter Five The Complicated and the Complex

Thanks to Colin Jackson for pointing out Eric Young's speech at 'Policy learning and distributed governance: Lessons from Canada and the UK', 5 June 2003, quoting Brenda Zimmerman. Huntington (1998).

personal communication from Joy Roberts of the Musagetes Foundation. Jane Jacobs (4 May 1916-25 April 2006) was an American-born Canadian writer and activist. She is best known for The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), a powerful critique of the urban renewal policies of the 1950s in the United States (information from http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Jane_Jacobs).

This section draws on research undertaken for the Commission of Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) in 2004. Thirty high-level built-environment professionals in public and private practice were interviewed to discuss how risk was affecting their professional life. See CABE (2005).

See Landry (2005a).

Flyvbjerg, Bruzelius and Rothengatter (2003). Beck (1992); Giddens (1991); Luhmann (1993).

This section on the 'trajectory of risk consciousness' draws on Furedi (1997).

Fukuyama (1995).

Furedi (1997).

Landry (2005a).


This section was initially written for Future London, part of the London Development Agency. It is based on a survey of 38 leading professionals in the built environment sector. Thanks to Honor Chapman and Greg Clark for making this possible. See Based on conversations with Francois Matarasso. This list emerged based on discussions with Franco Bianchini. John Augustus Roebling (with his son, Washington): engineer/builder of the Brooklyn Bridge; Joseph Strauss: the structural engineer who built the Golden Gate Bridge; William le Barron Jenney: structural engineer and the father of the modern skyscraper; Fazlur Rahman Khan: structural engineer and developer of the 'tube-framing' concept for skyscrapers which heralded the rebirth of tall buildings in the 1960s and 1970s. See Harris (1998).

All quotes from personal interviews for the Future London survey. Quotation from

Mindset, mindflow and mindshift were discussed more fully in The Creative City (Landry, 2000).

Thanks to Yaneer Bar Yam for his description of reductionism. Quotes from professions survey. Collins (2001).

27 Quotes from professions survey.

28 See The CNU was founded in 1993 in the US by a group of architects. It has since expanded to over 2300 members internationally. They say that they stand for 'the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy'. About 200 New Urbanist developments are under construction or completed in the US.

29 Quotes from professions survey.

30 Goleman (1995).

31 Goleman et al (2002).

32 For evidence that currently more traditional designs are favoured over the more modern, see CABE survey undertaken by MORI at polls/2002/cabe2.shtml.

33 This section draws on Landry (2006b).

34 Consider the German etymology: Denkmal (monument) reminds us of thinking about or reflecting upon as its root comes from denken (thinking).

35 This paragraph draws on Brecknock (2006) and Ogbu (1995).

36 This section comes from a meeting with the Musagetes Foundation.

37 This section draws on an extensive two-year international study Comedia has undertaken (Wood et al, 2006). The research involved city-based case studies in four UK settings as well as in Australia, New Zealand, Norway and the US. Thematic studies subjecting 12 areas of public and urban policy to analysis through an intercultural lens. Studies were undertaken of 33 individual intercultural innovators in 8 cities. A more extensive version is to be published as The Intercultural City by Earthscan, London in 2007. See www.inter for an extensive list of publications.

38 Statistics from,,1395548,00.html.

39 Alibhai-Brown (2001).

42 This segment draws on Bloomfield and Bianchini (2004).

43 Sandercock (1998, 2004).

44 Rogers and Steinfatt (1999).

45 Antal and Friedman (2003).

47 Bloomfield and Bianchini (2004).

48 See

49 For further details see 'The intercultural city: Making the most of diversity' at the website.

51 Edgar, D. 'My fight with the Front', The Guardian, 14 September 2005.

52 Cognition being how we perceive, think and remember, and the awareness of how knowledge is acquired.

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