Chapter Seven Creative Cities for the World

For the general notion see, for instance, Landry and Bianchini (1995) (the first version of The Creative City). Thanks to Professor Kian Woon Kwok for the karaoke comparison. Landry (2000) includes case studies of Emscher Park and Helsinki. See 13,0,5107518.story?page=2&coll=la-home-headlines. See www.libanmall .com/main/beirut.htm.

From ?pressid=4392.





EMAAR is a major Dubai developer responsible for initiatives such as the

Burj al-Arab and increasingly operating globally. The government has a 32

per cent stake in the company and thus effective control.

From Mother Jones at


Ivan Watson, NPR (National Public Radio), 8 March 2006. The Living Planet Report at

Frith, M. 'In the middle of the desert: A monument to ecological folly', The Independent, 3 December 2005.

From .aspx?ID=165&MID=115. See ?referrerid=39159&t=339039. Personal conversation with Sir Peter Hall, 1999.

Lecture by Kian Woon Kwok, 'The age of the city', Osaka, 11 December 2005.




For example, British Airways' magazine for June 2006.




All quotations in this paragraph are from Singapore_public_gay_parties.



From .html.

Private conversations with city representatives of the Urbact culture network, May 2006.

Cited at Oriol Bohigas, 'Designing urban regeneration', lecture given at London School of Economics, 30 November 2002.

Campbell, R. 'Barcelona', Boston Globe, 2002; and visit Quoted in Schuster (1995). Schuster (1995).


See, for example, the 2005 report, available at www.cushmanwakefield.



Glasgow commentators claim that the city's high ranking was in part due to the 'halo effect' generated by its European City of Culture tenure in 1990 and that as that receded so did its international status, the city falling from 10th to 22th place on the Cushman & Wakefield European City Monitor.


Conversation with Alfonso Martinez Cearra, director of Metropoli-30.


Alfonso Cearra, director of Metropoli-30, in conversation (2005). Alfonso Cearra in conversation (2005).

See, for example, KPMG surveys at home.htm.

See Montreal's Frenchness in the 'island' of Quebec was threatened by an ocean of Englishness and feels its cultural creativity stems from maintaining its identity. Lerner (2003). I was privileged to spend four days with Lerner, in Adelaide in 2003, observing his sharp, lateral thinking at close quarters. Lerner (2003).

Lerner (2003). See also id/10 and Lerner (2003).

For more information on Curitiba, go to

Thanks to Leif Edvinsson for pointing Ragusa out. See www.entovation.


See or Krabbendam (2006).

Eric Duivenvoorden and Floris de Graad; see MakewayENG.rtf.


See engels_routebeschrijving_kopie.php.


Gehl and Gemzoe (2000).

Oberlander (1996).

Punter (2004).

As defined by the UK Department of Media, Culture and Sports.

For a history of the 'creative city' idea see Landry (2005b).

Landry and Bianchini (1995).

Robinson (1999).

Florida (2002).

Landry et al (1996).

Record of the conference published in Yencken (1988).

Landry (2000).

See Jacobs (1961).

Drawing on Richard Brecknock Lewisham study on intercultural master-planning. See Comedia's Intercultural City project at See See 20and%20the%20city.pdf. Hall (1998).

For a lengthy description of indicators of vitality see Franco Bianchini and Charles Landry's 'Working Paper 3: Indicators of a creative city: A methodology for assessing urban viability and vitality' (1994), downloadable from the Comedia website, For a briefer elaboration see Landry (2000), pp221-229.

For greater detail on indicators of openness see Comedia Intercultural City final report at

78 Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (2003). See also for further suggestions.

79 Visit

80 Morck and Yeung (2001).

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