An overarching goal of being creative is to generate urban resilience and build overall urban capacity. It is not about being fanciful. Resilience is the capacity to absorb change, ruptures and shocks and to be supple enough to adjust. Resilience is strong adaptability. It means a city has the right attributes of inventiveness and openness to bounce back if its industrial base has been eroded or a new competitor, say India or China, has taken its markets. This requires the city to evolve a spirit of expectation, of being alert to change and of not assuming given advantages are timeless. This helps the city avoid being downcast, a psychological frame of mind not attuned to understanding and then grappling with change. Urban shocks can leave cities depressed just as they can individuals. Lifting a city out of this state is difficult as it needs to nurture itself back its self-confidence. One area to develop resilience is the learning infrastructure, which should be fashioned to combine the teaching of focused disciplines, such as engineering or crime prevention, with the ability to see the core of disciplines and then across and beyond them. The capacity of a company to think from a conceptual and not a product point of view opens out possibilities. For instance, Camper shoes developed the hotel Casa Camper in Barcelona because, as they note, they are into comfort, not shoes. The comfort platform gives Camper a far wider range of possibilities to invent products well beyond shoes (clearly having a brand name helps). The most innovative companies then align their skills with others without wishing to control the complete chain. The same should apply to cities when assessing their production possibilities. Like Camper, they may ask themselves, 'What is the essence of what we know?' rather than focusing on the particular application they have, which could be mining or textiles. For instance, mining could be seen less as a mineral extraction sector and more as an opportunity to develop software for accessing hard to reach places.
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