We live in an age of measurement, yet being creative is often about bending rules, doing things differently or rethinking possibilities. It has strong unpredictability. Therefore it is better to assess the characteristics and preconditions that allow places in principle to be creative. These are necessary, if not sufficient indicators. It may be a chimera to look for the sufficient conditions. The central features of creative places are their openness and their vitality, which leads to their viability. Vitality is measured by assessing a range of factors across the economic, social, cultural and environmental spheres. These include critical mass, diversity, accessibility, security, identity and distinctiveness, innovativeness, linkage and synergy, competitiveness, and organizational capacity.76 The openness indicators were reviewed in Chapter 5, including assessments of the institutional framework, the business environment, civil society and public space.77
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