Bonding plaster

Bonding plaster plaster used for undercoats in circumstances where the base has little key or adhesion. bonding primer see bonding agent. bond line see bond plane. bond plane, bond line the surface of adhesion or bonding in a joint. bondstone see bonder. bond strength 1 the strength of the adhesive bond created by glue between two glued or bonded elements, or between a coating and its substrate. 2 in reinforced concrete, the strength of the bond between reinforcing bars and the surrounding...

Egyptian column

As lotus and papyrus, or with the heads of deities such as Osiris and Hathor. 73 see types of Egyptian capital illustration. 73 Egyptian column stone columns in ancient Egyptian architecture, often carved as in the form of stems of plants or deities. 73 see types of Egyptian column illustration. 73 Egyptian cross 1 see ankh. 117 2 see tau cross. 117 Egyptian crown see white crown. 74 see red crown. 74 see combined crown. 74 Egyptian green a green variety of Egyptian blue pigment. Egyptian hall...

Decorative brickwork 111

2 enrichment applied decoration for parts and surfaces of buildings and objects. 3 see decorative work. decorative brickwork see below for list. carved brickwork. chequered brickwork. decorative masonry. diaper. 19 gauged brickwork. herringbone brickwork. 17 lacing course. moulded brickwork. patterned brickwork. polychrome brickwork. rubbed brickwork, see gauged brickwork. decorative inlay inlay. decorative masonry, decorative brickwork masonry which makes use of different coloured, glazed...

Content and layout

Subject areas covered by terminology can be roughly identified as follows Building materials and methods timber, metals, stone, plastics, ceramics, concrete, adhesives etc. Components and finishes windows, doors, roofing, hardware Tools, trades and crafts, industrial production and fabrication Building construction and other technical aspects, building services, plumbing, acoustics Structural and civil engineering Interior design, furnishing and decoration Traffic engineering roads, bridges,...

Arrowhead

Arrowhead 1 in the dimensioning and annotation of drawings etc., a notation for indicating where a dimension begins and terminates. 2 a similar triangular marking for drawing attention to recent revisions made to a drawing. 130 arrow-headed bastion a bastion shaped in plan like an arrow, with a narrow way or gorge leading to the main rampart also called an arrow. 104 arrow loop 1 a narrow vertical opening in the external wall of a castle or fortification for archers to fire arrows at potential...

Brushing adhesive

2 the application of paints, coatings, adhesives etc. manually, with a brush. brushing adhesive types of adhesive which can be applied in liquid form with a brush. brushwood in landscaping, dried branches which have fallen or been pruned from trees. Brutalism, 1 New Brutalism a modern architectural style in Europe from the 1950s and 1960s, characterized by lack of decoration, expression of structure, and use of modern materials such as glass, steel and board-marked concrete. 2 see futurism....

Fire alarm 149

Fire alarm 1 a device which emits a sound on detection of the presence or outbreak of fire in a building to draw attention to a possible fire hazard. 2 the sound made by this device. fire alarm indicator an electronic control panel which indicates the location of fire alarms which have been triggered by a fire. fire alarm system a fire safety system which will sound an alarm or alarms in the presence of a building fire, triggered by a fire-detection system. fire area in planning for fire...

Chimney shaft

Chimney shaft a large, usually industrial, freestanding chimney, containing a large flue. chimney stack 1 the structure or constructional surround for a chimney or flue. 56 2 the part of a chimney exposed above the upper surface of a roof. chimney-sweeping the manual cleaning of soot from the inside surfaces of flues by the insertion of long brushes. Chimu culture the culture of the Indians of north-west Peru c.1300-1400 after the Mochica and predating the Inca civilization. china 1 see bone...

Bitumen felt roofing

Fibrous mat of polyester or glass fibres saturated with bitumen or a bitumen-polymer used for roofing, tanking etc. bitumen felt roofing 1 see built-up roofing. 49 2 see roll-jointed roofing. 49 4 bitumen shingles, see strip slates. 49 bitumen impregnated softboard a low density fibreboard impregnated with 10-30 bitumen as water resistance. bitumen macadam, bitmac a temporary or base surfacing for roads, coarser than asphalt, consisting of graded aggregate coated with bitumen to provide...

Coticed cross

Coticed cross see cross cotised. ii8 cottage a small country dwelling for permanent habitation or in use as a holiday home, often of stone construction. cottage industry, handicraft the manufacture of artifacts by hand, usually within the home environment. cottage orne a style in English and French domestic architecture from the late 1700s and early 1800s, characterized by the use of vernacular motifs in a romantic fashion. cotter pin a removable split wire fixing inserted into a hole in a...

Adz

To which priests only were allowed access the Greek form of the word is aduton or adyton. see adytum in classical peristyle temple illustration. 85 adz see adze. adze, adz an axe-like hand tool for the rough shaping and smoothing of wood it has a sharp curved steel blade whose cutting edge is perpendicular to the handle. adze eye hammer a hammer whose head is fixed to the shaft by means of a sleeve at the base of the head. aedicula Latin form of aedicule. ii2 aedicule, aedicula (Lat.) in...

Civil engineer

Inhabitants of a building or area in the event of attack by air bombings, radiation or poisonous gases also called an air-raid shelter or bomb shelter. 61 civil engineer a qualified professional who designs public utilities, roads, bridges and sewers, and supervises their construction and maintenance. civil engineering the construction of roads, waterways, bridges, excavations, earthworks and other structures, rather than buildings also civil engineering works. civitas 'nation, state' (Lat.) a...

Cork ceiling tile

Cork ceiling tile a ceiling tile made from reconstituted expanded granulated cork often used for its acoustic properties. cork floor tile a hardwearing and warm flooring product consisting of rectangular sheets of cork carpet laid as tiles. cork linoleum a hardwearing flooring product in sheet or tile form consisting of ground cork and polymerized linseed oil on a hessian backing. 44 cork matting see cork carpet. 44 cork oak Quercus suber a Mediterranean hardwood whose outer bark, cork, is used...

Archaeology

Moorish arch, see horseshoe arch. 24 pointed equilateral arch, see equilateral arch. 24 raking arch, see rampant arch. 24 rough brick arch, rough arch. 22, 23 round arch, see circular arch. 24 round horseshoe arch, see horseshoe arch. 24 round trifoliated arch. 23, 110 Saracenic pointed arch, see pointed Saracenic segmental arch, segmented arch. 22, 24 semi-arch. semicircular arch. 22, 24 skew arch. squinch arch, see squinch. 26 stilted arch. stilted pointed arch, see pointed Saracenic arch....

Antithrust action

Anti-thrust action a latch mechanism in a mechanical lock whose latch bolt cannot be retracted manually. anti-vacuum valve, vacuum breaker a valve in a system of pipework which can be opened to admit air as compensation for loss of pressure. anti-vandal glass a class of special laminated glasses which are relatively resistant to vandalism. anti-vibration cork a resilient cork product used as a damper under heavy vibrating plant etc. Antrodia serialis see white spongy rot. Antwerp blue, Haarlem...

B

B0 a standard international paper size of 1000 mm x 1414 mm (39 x 55), used for posters and card successive smaller sizes B1-B10 are derived by halving the area of the next size up see A0, C0. Table 6 baby blue a shade of pale greyish blue which takes its name from the colour of the clothes of infant boys. Babylonian period a period in Mesopotamian art from the time of the Kassite invasion in c.1800 BC culminating with the onset of Persian rule in 539 BC. Bacchus, staff of see thursus. 120 back...

Construction cost

Prefabricated construction, see prefabrication. rammed earth construction, see pise. trabeated construction, see post and beam construction. 27, 28 truss plate construction. trussed construction. upper floor construction, see intermediate floor construction. 59 vaulted construction, see arched and vaulted construction illustration. 22 window construction. construction cost see building cost. construction drawing a drawing showing how parts of a building are to be constructed on site, usually...

Court cairn 101

See Egyptian pyramid complex illustration. 70 see Greek residential building illustration. 87 3 an enclosed area with a flat, hard surface for playing ball games such as tennis, basketball etc. court cairn a prehistoric chambered tomb with a small forecourt before the actual burial chamber, of Irish origin. court-house see law courts. courting chair see love seat. courtyard, 1 court an open area of land surrounded or enclosed by buildings or built form, often private or semi-public. see...

Box out

Box out, blockout (Am.), core, former, pocket a formwork mould for creating an opening in concrete, or the opening so formed. box pew in church architecture, a waist-high pew with doors at either end to protect against draughts, thus forming compartments. see box pew in Scandinavian hall church illustration. 102 box pile in foundation engineering, a pile which is a square hollow tube of welded or rolled steel a square pipe pile. 29 box spreader a machine with a hopper which spreads concrete to...

A

A0 a standard international paper size of 841 mm x 1189 mm (33 x 463 4), whose measurements are derived from its area (1 m2) and the ratio of the lengths of its sides (1 2) smaller derivative sizes A1-A10 are half the area of the subsequent size with the same ratio of side lengths (A1 is 841 mm x 594 mm etc.) see B0, C0. 130, liable 6 Aaron's rod architectural ornament depicting a rod with foliage, almonds and sometimes a serpent twined around it from biblical episodes in which Aaron placed his...

Cross humetty

Cross humetty see cross couped. 118 cross indented, indented cross a cross whose limbs are terminated with a series of sawtooth cuttings. 118 crossing 1 the area where the transepts, chancel and nave in a church or cathedral intersect, often surmounted by a tower. see Carolingian abbey church illustration. 98 see Romanesque church illustration. 99 see Gothic cathedral illustration. 100 2 a meeting and crossing of roads and railways, other roads etc. at the same level. see road junction...

Establishment 139

Alcohol, which evaporates on drying of the substance. establishment, plant an organization, commercial enterprise of industrial complex providing a public service such as power generation or water purification. estate an extensive area of land including dwellings and other associated buildings. estate clerk of works a qualified professional employed on a large public property to ensure it is maintained. estates management see property management. ester one of a number of organic chemical...

Acknowledgements

Particular acknowledgements and thanks are given to all those who contributed time and support for the project over the last 15 years, especially our architect colleagues Timo Vormala, Kristian Gullichsen and Erkki Kairamo who sadly passed away in 1994 and their staff thanks also to Timo Hirvonen and Vesa Huttunen for their invaluable input, and to the very many who have helped us out in some way, in particular Chris Bearman, Mikko Bonsdorff, Mikael Davies, Ville Hara, Vuokko Hosia, Timo...

Breadth

Breadth the width of an object. break-glass unit a manual fire indicating device with an alarm switch set behind a glass panel, which must be broken in order to set off the alarm. breaking joint in masonry bonding, the overlapping of bricks in alternate courses so as to avoid continuous vertical joints. breaking strength see ultimate strength. breakwater a masonry or concrete structure constructed at the mouth of a harbour or similar place to protect the coastline from the erosive wave action...

Balsa wood

Balsa wood Ochroma spp. a group of South American tropical hardwoods with soft and extremely light timber used for modelmaking, floating construction and lightweight insulating coreboards. balteus, 'belt' Lat. 1 a wide horizontal gangway step in a Roman theatre or amphitheatre, providing a circulation route for spectators forms the praecinctio or diazoma. 90 2 the carved swelling in the bolster side of an Ionic capital, which appears to hold it together. 80 baluster 1 one of a series of...

Composition render

Proportioned amounts of cement, lime and sand, with good resistance to cracking, used for bricklaying and rendering. composition render composition mortar used as exterior-grade plaster or render usually called compo render, properly known as cement lime render. composition shingles see strip slates. compost organic matter, rich in nutrients, used as fertilizer and created by the biodegrading of household and garden waste also the structure for its production. compost bin see composter....