Antithrust action

anti-thrust action a latch mechanism in a mechanical lock whose latch bolt cannot be retracted manually. anti-vacuum valve, vacuum breaker; a valve in a system of pipework which can be opened to admit air as compensation for loss of pressure. anti-vandal glass a class of special laminated glasses which are relatively resistant to vandalism.

anti-vibration cork a resilient cork product used as a damper under heavy vibrating plant etc. Antrodia serialis see white spongy rot. Antwerp blue, Haarlem blue; a pale blue pigment, Prussian blue reduced with 75% inert pigment, usually alumina hydrate. Anubis in Egyptian mythology, the jackal-headed god of embalming, who guided the deceased through the court of Osiris to the Underworld; 'Anpu' in Egyptian, 'Anubis' in Greek. !74 anvil a heavy cast-iron bench on which a blacksmith or forge-worker hammers hot metals. apadana in ancient Persian architecture, a columned hall surrounded by colonnades, used as an administrational and congregational space. see apadana column illustration. ^114 apartment see flat; types included as separate entries are listed below. !61 see types of residential building illustration. !61 bedsit, one-room flat. corner apartment. !61 council flat.

maisonette, duplex apartment. open-ended unit, through apartment. !61 two-roomed flat. apartment block, block of flats, residential block; a multistorey building containing a number of separate apartments served by one or a number of stairs. !61

apartment building see apartment block. !61 apartment formwork, room formwork, tunnel formwork; proprietary formwork used for casting two concrete side walls and a horizontal slab spanning between them in one operation. apartment house, mansion block; a residential building in a well-to-do urban area, containing a number of apartments on different levels, all accessed by the same entry and stair. apatite a calcium phosphate mineral used as gemstones and as a raw material in the production of fertilizer.

Apennine culture the bronze-age culture of the Italian peninsula from c.1500 BC.

apex the highest point of a geometrical form such as a triangle or cone, or of a pitched or ridge roof. apex stone see saddle stone. apodyterion Gk; a dressing room in a classical Greek gymnasium or bath house. !91 apodyterium, pl. apodyteria; Lat.; a dressing room in a Roman bath house. !91 apophyge, apothesis; Gk; a slight curvature of the top of the shaft of a classical column where it meets the capital, and bottom where it meets the base. !80 apophysis see apophyge. !80 apostilb abb. asb; a unit of measurement of the luminance or brightness of a surface, equal to

1 lumen/m2 of uniform radiation; see also lux. apotheca Lat.; a store room on an upper floor of a

Roman dwelling, usually for the keeping of wine. apothecary a pharmaceutical chemist. apothesis see apophyge. !80 apotropaic referring to an image, decoration, succession of spaces or sculptured ornament used in a building to prevent the influence of evil spirits; see next entry. apotrope a symbolic statue, image or construction intended to provide protection against evil spirits.

apparatus see equipment. appeal see planning appeal. appearance see external appearance. apple [Malus spp.] a genus of European hardwoods with fine-textured timber valued for its decorative grain; used for veneers and furniture. apple green a shade of green which takes its name from the colour of the unripe fruit of the apple tree (Malus spp.).

appliance any mechanical device such as a shower, heater, fan etc. used for a specific task in a building or technical installation. appliance flexible connection, flexible rubber hose; in gas installations, a length of resilient rubber hose for connecting the outlet of a gas pipe or riser to an appliance. appliance governor in gas installations, a device which regulates the pressure and flow of gas to a particular appliance. application 1 in computing, a series of interrelated software routines designed to perform a specific function.

2 a formal written request for an action to be undertaken, to order official services or permits, or for employment; see below.

planning application. interim application.

application software in computing, software used for a specific useful function such as word processing or CAD. applied art any art which is both functional and satisfies an aesthetic need (industrial design, furniture, architecture, graphics etc.). applied column see engaged column. !13 applied sash glazing see secondary glazing. applique ornamentation for fabrics and leatherwork with surface-applied rather than embroidered or embossed motifs. apprentice a trainee who works under a tradesman or craftsman, filling out his training with courses at a technical college. appropriation, allocation; in economics, a sum of money set aside within a budget for a particular purpose.

approval 1 the acceptance of a design or proposal by a client or local authority; generally an announcement to the effect that certain criteria have been satisfied. 2 see neighbours' consent. Approved Document one of a number of documents approved by the Secretary of State in Britain, in which guidance and instructions for detailed design regarding structure, fire spread, site preparation, drainage, sound control, energy conservation etc., are given according to the Building Regulations; although they are not required to be followed by the letter, the relevant building regulation is deemed to be satisfied if they are.

approved school see community home. approximation a quantity or estimate given as a close or rounded value, but not an exact one. apricot, apricot yellow; a shade of yellow which takes its name from the colour of the ripened fruit of the apricot tree (Prunus armeniaca). apricot yellow see apricot. apron 1 see window apron.

2 see drop apron.

3 that part of a theatre stage in front of the curtain.

4 ramp; a strip of hard ground at an airport where an aeroplane is parked, refuelled or loaded with passengers and baggage.

5 see hearth apron. !56

apron eaves piece in sheet roofing, a T-shaped member used to support an eaves and provide a drip.

apron flashing a roofing flashing laid at the junction of the upper end of a pitched or flat roof and abutting wall or parapet; it is tucked

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