Water

In a building, about the only place where water belongs is inside refrigerators and plumbing systems. Anywhere else, and the building's life is in mortal danger. The most immediate strategy, obvious to all engaged in architectural design and construction, is to thwart and divert the approaching liquid at every outer surface of the building. This includes watertight roofing and flashing, networks of gutters and downspouts from eave to finished grade, watertight foundation walls, and...

D1a Pure Water Plumbing

Pure water plumbing is a specialized assembly of piping, fittings, pumps, tanks, and other componentry that satisfies a demand for absolutely pure water, usually for a medical or industrial application. However, there are numerous kinds of'pure water'. One may be 100 percent free of minerals and particulates, while another may have a complete absence of organic matter. Although pure water plumbing systems can vary greatly, their design is typically a function of inlet quality versus required...

D2a Medical Gases

Also known as medgases, these are used in hospitals, dentists' offices, medical clinics, and numerous industrial and scientific applications that do not involve combustion or heat production. Their piping is type IPS threaded brass pipe or type TB or K copper tubing, and each is sized according to the gas's required outlet volume (liters min or cfm). Each supply main must have a pressure relief valve set at 1.50 normal line pressure that extends outdoors at least 12 ft above grade, all valves...

E7 Manholes

In the old days, when most buildings were designed for specific occupancies and they contained no computers and much less wiring, the only manholes anyone knew of were the ones out in the middle of the street. But now that many commercial occupancies seem to change almost annually and each requires an ever-changing, ever-increasing amount of electric power, these round access holes and the chambers below often can be found at nearly every interior bend and intersection of large subterranean...

B4 Fans

In air-media climate control systems, fans are what move the airflow. They may be axial or centrifugal, as described below. Both may move supply or exhaust air, and their motor drives may be direct or by belt or chain. Axial fans. In these units the airstream moves parallel to the axis of fan rotation. Axial fans are economical and take up little extra space, but the duct that contains them is usually larger and they are less efficient because part the airflow is deflected outward. They are...

Table 47 Required Vent Sizes And Lengths

Wdste fixture minimum diameter of required vent, in. stack unit 1 11 2 2 21 2 3 4 5 6 8 dia, in. flow Maximum length of vent, ft 1 2 30 11 2 8 50 150 11 2 10 30 100 2 12 30 75 200 2 20 26 50 150 2 42 30 100 200 3 10 30 100 200 600 3 30 60 200 500 3 60 50 80 400 4 100 35 100 260 1,000 4 200 30 90 250 900 4 500 20 70 180 700 5 200 35 80 350 1,000 5 500 30 70 300 900 5 1,100 20 50 200 700 6 300 25 50 200 400 1,300 6 620 15 30 125 300 1,100 6 960 24 100 250 1,000 8 600 50 150 500 1,300 8 1,400 40...

DI Auditoriums

This listening environment includes courtrooms, lecture halls, meeting rooms, congressional and legislative halls, drill halls, high school auditoriums, auction halls, and other medium-to-large assembly areas in which the audience does little more than listen to the speakers. Most corporate offices, hospitals, governmental organizations, and educational centers have one such assembly area in each large building. The floors of these spaces usually incline down to a raised stage that isn't framed...

E5 Water Reclamation

Aldo Leopold said that water does not flow from upstream to downstream but in a circle a Round River meaning that whatever you use will come back to you. This is why well-septic systems are ecologically better than meter-sewage systems as each is a Round Riverthat returns the used water to nearly where it was drawn, transforming the cubic acre the incoming and outgoing systems share into a giant filter that keeps the water perpetually pure. Thus a well-septic system doesn't consume water at...

B Cooling load 6 [ 8u c

6 diameter of round duct at face of discharge fan, in. H design heating load of building, 2,560,000 Btu hr C design cooling load of building, 1,414,000 Btu hr vmax maximum velocity of airflow in ducting, 5,000 fpm Th temperature of heating load airflow, 140 F. Ti ambient indoor temperature of occupancy during winter heating season, usually 68 F. u . . s 196 x 2,560,000 l0 5 .

System Components

Climate control systems have numerous components-in-common which are described in detail in the following sections. Typical IAQ parameters for these systems are Temperature 67-78 year-round. A room's temperature should not vary more than 5 F between 4 in. and 67 in. above its floor. Humidity 40-60 percent all year round. Airflow 10-50 fpm. CO2 should not exceed 800 parts per million. Static air pressure positive for spaces that generate clean air, negative for spaces that generate dirty or foul...

Table 34 Sheet Metal Weights Thicknesses

UNIT WEIGHT, PSF, AT EACH GAUGE THICKNESS bly's various panels are fairly similar in area, it is best to make all the panels the same thickness. Do not consider curved surfaces unless they are at least twice as large as the largest flat surface. From examination of Fig. 3-47, the surface with the largest least dimension is panel A, whose least dimension is 84 in. If the ducting is galvanized sheet steel, from Table 3-4 the minimum gauge thickness for sheet steel whose least dimension is 84 in....

G2 Water Power

A mass of water at an elevation above a given occupancy is one of the simplest and steadiest forms of potential energy. The central element of this conversion is a waterwheel or turbine, but several other components are just as important. Each is described below. Dam. This is a barrier at least several feet high that is built across a stream to raise the height of its water level and direct its flow to a penstock, or outflow conduit, near the dam's upstream side. Its best plan shape is a...

Fig 433 Pumpdown factor bar graph

A seven-floor vacuum cleaning system in a hotel near San Juan, Puerto Rico, has 372 outlets. If 35 cfm of vacuum air at 3.0 in. Hg is required at each 11 2 in. outlet, the length of run from receiver to remote outlet is 392 ft, maximum pressure differential between the outlets and receiver is 12.0 in. Hg, all lines are schedule 40 steel pipe, and typical system operation involves two chambermaids cleaning the rooms on each floor from early morning until all rooms are cleaned, size the supply...

Waste Plumbing

Also known as DWV (drain-waste-vent) systems, waste plumbing carries waste liquids and solids from fixtures to sewers or septic systems in a manner that prevents depositing, clogging, and fouling of residues. Each such system has three networks sanitary drains that descend from the water-seal traps required just below each fixture, septic or sewage drains that carry the wasteflow, and air vents that enable any gases in the waste-flow to escape outdoors through openings in the top of the...

Natural Energy

When it is uneconomical or unecological to obtain electricity from a public utility, the desired electrons may be generated onsite by wind, water, sunshine, or other locally available power. Such systems may be the result of the latest technical research, a fashioning of Third-World-style village technology, or simply a homemade contraption. However, harnessing natural energy is not as easy as turning on a switch and settling into the old routines. First, all end-use applications should be...

Fig 338 Duct path sizing schedule

Roof to junction A where it branches into two feeder ducts A and B, of which the segment to pt. B is the longer then duct segment B 4 C extends down from the roof to the first floor where it splits into branch ducts at each floor level and into a final branch at pt. C on the first floor then duct segment C 4 D extends horizontally above the first floor's finished ceiling where it branches at junction D, then duct segments D 4 E, E4 F, F4 G, and G 4 1 extend and branch similarly to remote outlet...

C3 Controls

Illumination controls are proof that there is no conflict between luxury and economy in architecture. These systems can automatically maintain desired lighting levels by varying artificial illumination as daylighting varies and occupancies change for hundreds of luminaires, zones, control points, and dimming panels throughout a building. In addition to offering the ultimate in lighting flexibility and improving occupant productivity, such 'illumistats' create an economic domino effect that...

E1c Grease Separators

Also known as separators, grease traps, grease collectors, interceptors, manual grease interceptors, automatic grease removers, and sludge pits, these tank-like units collect and retain greases, food solids, detergents, chemicals, and other plumbing wastes before they flow out of the building. Each tank may be of reinforced concrete, stainless steel, or fiberglass, and it usually has a deep-seal trap, double venting, acid-resistant finish on the inside, bitumen or equal coating on the outside,...

C7 Irrigation

Any planted environment lawn, shrubs, or trees requires water. If rainfall is inadequate during the growing season, below-grade plumbing with sprinkler heads protruding above the soil may be installed. Such systems give a brighter healthier look to athletic fields, broad lawns around residences and country clubs, golf club greens and fairways, and crops that might otherwise wilt and die during hot weather. THE ROOT ZONE SHOULD BE KEPT MOIST TOO LITTLE 4 STUNTED PLANT GROWTH x l U < TOO MUCH 4...

D2 Rigid Multi Outlet Assemblies

These are long thin rigid shapes of uniform cross-section into which small wires or strips are fitted. They are variously known as lighting tracks, plug molds, wiremolds, type FC cables, and surface raceways. Their lengths are easily cut and mounted against walls or ceilings, and an array of elbows, tees, crosses, couplings, and extensions allow flexibility of installation. Various receptacles, fixture stems, and extension cords may be Fig. 5-18. A few multi-outlet assemblies. Fig. 5-18. A few...

Temperature

Owing to changes in temperature, no part of a building is ever still. Such expansion and contraction not only creates problems in long exterior walls and large roofs, it can also cause trouble in large interior spaces if vacancies, blackouts, or acts of terrorism shut down a building's climate control system during very hot or cold weather. To avoid damage to a building due to thermal movement, expansion joints are installed in any dimension exceeding about 100 ft. Although each such joint is...

E3 Auxiliary Heat Gain

This is the heat added to interiors by occupants, lighting, appliances, and other internal heat sources. In warm weather these gains are usually maximum around the warmest time of day (mid-afternoon), and thus are added to conduction-infiltration cooling loads. During cold weather they are usually minimal during the coldest time of day (before sunrise) thus only the gains occurring at this time are added to heating loads. Although auxiliary heat gain can comprise a significant portion of a...

C14 Dehumidification

Dehumidifiers remove water from warm humid air to make it feel cooler, eliminate hazards such as slippery floors, and minimize mildew growth on interior fabrics, rotting of wood, and rusting of metals. Such systems are economical in supermarkets, food preparation areas, schools, libraries, swimming pools, and other occupancies that may generate unwanted moisture or require its removal. There are two kinds of dehumidifiers chillers and absorbers. Chillers use mechanical refrigeration to cool...

Fig 351 Section through airwater HVAC system fancoil unit

Coil units' highest required temperature plus 15-20 . The water heater is sized to handle the design heating load x 1.2 plus any water heat needed to raise the temperature of the primary air. Fan-coil Units. These box-like units are located in each occupied space, usually under windows. In each, supply air mixed with room air passes through a small radiator containing either hot or cold water depending on the room's air temperature. Unit size depends on the total heating or cooling load of the...

E4 Pickup Heating Load

When interior spaces are unheated for an extended time during cold weather, heat drains out of the solid masses within the spaces furniture, interior construction, and other indoor objects as the enveloping indoor air temperature becomes lower then when the heat turns back on, a portion of the Btus in the warming air flow back into the solids. In an occasionally heated building, this effective heat loss can considerably influence the heating system's size. Thus pickup heating load is usually a...

E8c Total Energy Auditing

As the length of heating and cooling seasons varies greatly in different regions of the country, an easy way to perform a building's energy auditing calculations is on a monthly basis. If local monthly degree-day data for heating and cooling seasons is not available, this information may be obtained from the U.S. Department. of Commerce publication, Comparative Climatic Data then energy auditing involves filling in the schedule below. This schedule may be enlarged on a photocopier. In many...

F1a Reservoirs

Whether the fire water supply is gravity-feed from the roof or upfeed from the basement, it should contain a 30 minute water supply for use until firefighters arrive, have a float control switch that activates a refill pump when the water draws low, and have a drain tap. In either system a few toilets are usually connected to the stored water to keep it fresh. Although roof reservoirs are heavy, they are more dependable because they operate if the electric power fails, which often happens...

F2c System Design

Fig. 4-47 on the next page shows a design flow chart for fire sprinkler systems that streamlines a normally exasperating process. The method described is known as pipe schedule design, as opposed to hydraulic design, which is a scientifically meticulous and more detailed but more laborious method. In nearly all cases pipe schedule design is adequate. If the pendant spray heads for the fire sprinkler system in the above 96 x 140 ft furniture factory are located just below an open ceiling of...

C1 Hydrostatic Head

The force of water in the earth below an area's local water table can turn a building's basement into an empty boat and pop it out of the ground a phenomenon well-known to swimming pool contractors. Where moist subsoil conditions could rise above a basement's floor level during any part of the year, the basement should have foundation drains laid no more than 16 ft apart beneath its floors as well as around them, and each drain should slope down at least 1 16 in to an outfall well away from the...

Diatomaceous earth filters approx dimensions ft Fig 426 Swimming pool volume versus filter dimensions

Size the pool's backwash sump pump and sump tank. Common sump pump capacities used for backwashing swimming pool filters are 12.5 and 15 gal. The slower pump takes longerto cleanse the filter bed but requires a smaller sump tank. Vs * 0.133 AfCs Vs required volume of sump tank, cf Af effective bed area of filtration system, from Step 7, 83 sf Cs capacity of sump pump used for backwashing filter system, usually 12.5 or 15 gpm. Here assume 12.5 gpm. Vs * 0.133 x 83 x 12.5 138 sf 4 one...

C3 Flood Force

The damage that can be caused by even a small stream that has risen to flood stage is staggering. This is primarily because the erosive power of water relates to the fifth power of its speed. Thus if a stream's speed doubles, its erosive force is 25 32 times greater and if its speed quadruples, its erosive force is more than a thousand times greater. For example, take a peaceful woodland creek averaging 12 ft wide and 1 ft deep that flows at a barely perceptible one-half mile an hour. If very...

B3 Registers

Also known as grilles, supply and return air registers for heating and cooling systems should be as far apart as possible in each space (ideally in opposite walls, opposite corners, with one near the ceiling and one near the floor) and grilles should be located where occupants or furnishings will not block them. Supply grilles should direct incoming air across wall and floor surfaces without creating drafts, and their vanes should spread the air evenly into the space. A register's total outer...

C8 Swimming pools

A swimming pool is a complicated occupancy. One's purpose may range from athletics to zoology, its shape may range from rectangular to a bizarre array of arcs, its function may be public or private, it may be used day and night or only to look at, and each may have related occupancies such as decking, sexually separate dressing and showering facilities, snack bars, kitchens, meeting areas, lifeguard offices, medical facilities, parking, and never enough area for storage. But no matter how...

B1 Sensors

A good guide for providing sensors in today's climate control systems is if you can't measure it, you can't manage it. Thus today's computerized climate control systems often have extensive networks of slave sensors that detect a single indoor air quality temperature, humidity, CO2, etc. then emit an electronic impulse that informs master sensors how to operate the system's motors, dampers, and other controls. The most common mastersensor is the thermostat. One often has HI and LO tempera- Much...

Fig 349 Highvelocity air ducting layout

The developers of the 8-story office building near Cleveland, Ohio, that was designed in Example 1 of the previous section have decided that, due to excess space and added weight requirements, the building's HVAC system should have smaller and lighter high-velocity ducting. Using the same site and building data presented in the previous section, size the system Initial considerations. The following logistical guidelines are important for designing efficient high-velocity...

G1 Wind Power

There are many ways to use a gust of wind to make a light bulb glow. In fact, a 1980 issue of Wind Power Digest analyzed nearly 50 different wind generators in thatyear alone. Little wonder, because wind power is a never-ending nonpolluting source of energy all over the world. On the minus side, the finest-made wind propeller can be at most only 59 percent efficient because when the wind strikes the propeller blades, at least 41 percent of the energy is deflected outward as the blades are...

C2d Energy Efficiency

Lighting consumes about 8 percent of the energy used in residences and 27 percent used in commercial buildings nationwide, and much of this energy is rejected as heat. For example, I lamps emit about 88 percent of their energy as heat, Q lamps 85 percent, F lamps 79 percent, MV lamps 73 percent, MH lamps 67 percent, and HS lamps 59 percent. Thus an easy way to economize on energy is to use cooler and more efficient lamps. This reduces energy losses far more than one may think. For example,...

O p

FEEDER DUCT B + * FEEDER DUCT A Fig. 3-37. Plan of low-velocity air ducting system. tell whether a low-velocity or high-velocity HVAC system would be more economical overall. Since low-velocity systems are usually impractical in buildings that are more than 120 ft tall and this eight-story building is certainly lower than that, the designer may well say, Let's go with a low-V system first and see what happens. Consideration 2. The system's air handling unit should be located where its sound...

C6 Solar Water Heating

An ecological and often economical method of heating water for architectural use is to expose it to the sun. In many regions of the world this is a common way of producing hot water for small buildings, and was even popular in many southern regions of this country as late as the 1930s. Since there are a great variety of solar water heating devices worldwide, the following is a conceptual account of available components. The surface that exposes the water to the sun is typically a planar network...

C13 Humidification

Most likely the first humidifier used in American architecture was a pan of water on a Franklin stove. Even in colonial days it was known that wintry air often felt cold because it was dry that one way to warm it up a little was to boil a little water vapor into it. This principle works as well in winter weather today, whether the steam arrives from a dedicated vessel hardly the size of a teapot that is activated by a manual on-off switch or a unitary boiler in a vast HVAC system operated by...

C8 Air Cooling

Generally known as air conditioning, air conditioners, or AC units, air cooling systems are compact units usually installed in windows, exterior walls, or on flat roofs. The incoming air may be cooled in an air-to-air heat exchanger or by refrigerating coils, then in smaller models the cooled air flows directly indoors through the machine's supply air grilles while in larger units the air may pass through a small network of ducts into several spaces. The best units have environmental controls,...

E6 Thermal Massing

For many, the concept of thermal massing evolves from the architecture of the pueblos in the Southwest, whose thick south-facing adobe walls absorb sunrays during the day and radiate the stored Btus into interior spaces at night to reduce these buildings' heating loads. However, the efficacy of this method of utilizing solar energy depends on several local climatic factors that exist in few other areas. They are High ratio of sunshine-to-cloudiness. In the Four Corners region of the Southwest,...

E5 Solar Heat Gain

Solar heat gain is the amount of the sun's energy that enters indoors through glazing in the southerly surfaces of a building envelope during cold weather. Although this heating load is conceptually simple, it has numerous variables. First, the sun's energy fluctuates according to sun-spots and other hyperactivity occurring on its surface. Second, the amount of solar energy that enters the earth's atmosphere varies from about 445 Btu sf-hr on Dec. 21 when the sun is closest to the earth to...

C5 Water Heat Reclamation

Wherever wasted heat occurs in or near a building, its energy can be recaptured by exposing the escaping Btus to a thin container of circulating water that absorbs the heat, then carries it to a more useful location in the building. A few heat sources that lend themselves well to these exchanges are flue gases, warm graywater, light fixtures, electric motors, refrigerators, and internal combustion engines. Removing such heat can also improve the source's performance e.g. lights operate more...

Service

Electrical service components include the entrance, meter, master switch, circuit breakers, transformers, panel boards, onsite generators, service heads to enclosures, conductor grounding, and related components. In small buildings most of these units are mounted on a small wall Guide (Chicago Metallic Corp., Chicago, IL). j Fig. 5-30. Underground service entries. Fig. 5-30. Underground service entries. panel with an access aisle in front, just inside where the electric service conduit...

E3 Cable Trays

Also known as ladder racks, these enclosures are a rigid system of troughs, racks, or trays that are typically 3-36 in. wide and 4-12 in. high, have grilles or other openings on their undersides that allow quick dissipation of heat, and have open or easily removable tops that allow easy lay-in and upgrading of conductors anywhere along the trays. Peaked covers can be fitted over the trays where debris or corrosive vapors could settle on the cables, a variety of fittings enable the trays to run...

C4 Motor Circuits

More than 60 percent of all electricity consumed in America is used to operate motors. Even in residences the percentage is high, since refrigerators, dishwashers, clothes washers, dryers, CD players, vacuum cleaners, computers, and printers all have motors. The most important criterion for selecting an electric motor is its required horsepower (1-200 or more). Other important criteria are described on the next page. Primary sources for this section were several issues of EC& M magazine II...

Nonwater Plumbing

Plumbing systems often convey liquids and gases other than drinkable water. For example, every house with a gas stove has nonwater plumbing, hospitals often have eight separate gas plumbing systems, nonpure water plumbing is standard in waste treatment plants, and nonwater plumbing is common in oil refineries and many industrial facilities. Moreover, the technology of such plumbing is vintage 19th century, since it was used to convey fuels to the gaslights of that era. Nonwater plumbing also...

CI Openings

A building has three kinds of openings through which light passes windows, skylights, and combinations of the two. If the sky's intensity decreases by a certain ratio, the luminance of every daylighted area indoors decreases by the same ratio. North light offers the best task illumination it is even and rarely includes sunlight during working hours. For maximum daylighting, windowsills should be 6-10 in. above task planes. Ribbon windows, clerestories, transoms, and French doors also Fig. 6-23....

C4c Filters

Even drinkable water may contain particles which can damage piping and equipment or it may not be not pure enough for certain medical, scientific, or industrial applications. The usual remedy is to filter the water after it enters the building and before it passes through any plumbing component, including pumps and meters. The three basic filters are described below. Gravity beds. These are pressurized ornonpressurized cylinders that contain beds of sand, gravel, or diatomaceous earth which...

AI Psychrometry

The psychrometric chart is a cleverly constructed nomogram that describes several properties of atmospheric air. Although the arrangement of crisscrossing lines is based on semi-empirical research and its parameters are essentially arbitrary, this graph has evolved into a highly authoritarian 'air atlas' that possesses the highest credibility in our engineering culture. Like what the periodic chart does for the elements and quantum physics does for the atom, the psychrometric chart makes...

E3 Septic Tanks

Leaching Field Details

A septic tank is an underground container that receives sewage from a building and after a few days' retention discharges a clarified effluent into a leaching field. Both tank and field are best located in grassy open areas, but not under parking areas or where heavy loads could compact the soil above. A well-known wildlife artist has purchased a three bedroom farmhouse with a barn. She plans to live in the house with her family and convert the barn into a studio that will contain eight...

Halon Alternatives

In this system a gas that is usually colorless, odorless, and a nonconductor of electricity is stored at high pressure in a cool area then when activated the gas discharges through nozzles as a slightly heavier-than-air mist that smothers and cools the fire. The mist may be a streaming agent (it remains as a liquid for a while after application) or a total flooding agent (it quickly vaporizes on application). Lightweight, fairly nontoxic, creates little environmental impact, requires little or...

C7 Air Heating

An air heating system includes a furnace in which an ignited fuel warms fan-driven air to 120-145 F, which flows through ducts to registers in the occupied spaces. Higher temperatures lead to high duct airflow velocities that create resonant noise, while lower temperatures lead to low duct airflow velocities that require larger and more costly ducting. The maximum run from furnace to farthest register should * 80 ft, and the ducting is most efficient if round or nearly square. All ducts should...

Fig 352 VAV duct damper control strategies

Architectural Perimeter Measurements

In an air-water HVAC system, the cooling tower is usually on the roof, the fan-coil units and related pipes and ducts are on the perimeter of each floor, and the other components are in the basement. The cooling tower typically requires about 1 sf of roof area per400 sf of gross building area, is 15-40 ft high, and when full weighs 125-200 psf. The system's perimeter components and enclosing construction usually require 2-3 percent of the gross floor area, the interior bundling of piping and...

D7I Light Pipes

Light Pipe Plan

A light pipe is a large linear lamp that provides uniform low-glare light, creates no heat buildup in the illuminated area, and has no wiring or connectors near the emitted light. Thus this 'lux plumbing' is especially desirable in hazardous, wet, cold, EMI-sensitive, and noise-free environments. Its linear beams are used in canopies, coves, valances, and long areas with low-to-medium lighting loads and they may be vertical or inclined as well as horizontal. Each light pipe includes a...

C10 Air Water Heating Cooling

In these complex systems, a large air handling unit conveys fresh air at high speeds through extensive VAV (variable-air-volume) ducting to all spaces while heated and chilled water flows to the same areas then in each space an air duct and two water pipes converge in small fan-coil units that portion the required conditioning to the occupants. Thus the system's ducting is designed similarly as are high-velocity air ducting systems. As for this system's other components, some are of too great a...

A1 Terms Symbols

The architectural symbols and abbreviations used throughout this text are listed below. Familiar quantities have the usual letters (e.g. d for the depth of a beam), but most are symbolized by the letter that best typifies them in each problem. Thus one letter may denote different values in different formulas. In this book, formulas contain no fractions unless unavoidable (e.g. A B C is written as AC B or B AC), partial integers appear as decimals instead of fractions (e.g. 1 2 appears as 0.5),...

C1 Airborne Sound

This is sound travelling through the air, whether it is an original wave that has yet to encounter a boundary surface or is a secondary wave that has just emerged from solid construction. Airborne sound is often important because of the patterns its waves make as they travel through indoor spaces. Thus in a large assembly area designed for the enjoyment of speech, music, and other listening activities, the paths of numerous sound vectors radiating from the stage are often plotted in plan and...

C2d Storm Drains

Waterflow collected by storm drains may include direct rainfall, water-flow from paved surfaces that arrived from other areas, overflow from ponds and other bodies of water, snowmelt from roofs, melting snow from spring thaws,subsoil waterflow from springs and seeps, foundation drainwater, pump or ejector drainage, and clearwater waste from industrial operations. These waterflows are quantified in three ways Runoff. Surface drainage of excess rainfall or snowmelt from a roof or area of terrain....

C4b Pumps

Also called circulators, each of these mechanical devices produces a volume of fluid flow at a certain pressure. The fluid may be water, petroleum, compressed or vacuum air, medical gas, fuel gas, or any other liquid or gas. The pump may be centrifugal (generates pressure by the force of its impeller rotating at high speed), rotary (generates pressure either by an off-center rotor pressing against the walls of a cylindrical chamber or a rotating axial screw), or reciprocal (a piston or...

D2d Fuel Gases

Propane, butane, and other flammable gases are used to heat interior spaces as well as run stoves and hot water heaters in homes, low-rise apartments, and small commercial buildings. A typical installation is a large cylinder at 80-120 psi capped with a gauge, regulator, and shutoff valve located just outside the building with a line of flexible copper tubing running indoors. The cylinder should be well-ventilated and accessible by truck, the gas line should be at least 10 ft from any windows...

E1 Insulation

Since any undesired heat loss or gain through a building envelope is an economic loss, architectural materials that impede heat flow are commonly installed in building envelopes. These materials' selection is based on relative values such as C (thermal conductivity), K (thermal conductance), U (heat flow coefficient), and R (thermal resistance). The first three terms describe the speed at which heat migrates through a given material, while R, being the reciprocal of these terms, describes a...

Fixtures

A plumbing fixture typically includes an inlet where the building's water supply arrives, a receptacle that temporarily contains the water for a specific purpose, and a drain where the portion of water that is unused but rendered impure plus any matter added to the water exits. Each fixture must also have a smooth nonabsorbent surface, have a small vent 1 in. below its rim that allows itto drain if its outlet becomes clogged (the vent's level is the fixture's flood rim), include a 1 in. air gap...

E2 Vents

A plumbing vent is a vertical (or nearly so) pipe of air, open at the top, whose base preserves the seal of each plumbing fixture trap it rises from by collecting gases in the waste plumbing system and sending them upward until they are outdoors. Where temperatures fall below -30 , a vent may require frost closure protection by (1) extending the vent only 1-2 in. above the roof, (2) increasing its diameter just below the roof, (3) installing flashing with an airspace between the vent and the...

Human hEARing

The sounds produced by mechanical equipment have a great variety of pitches. For example, a variable-speed HVAC primary fan may have frequencies of 30-10,000 Hz, and the dominant frequency of an elevator motor typically rises from about 20-250 Hz as it accelerates from near-zero to full speed. Differently pitched sounds also interact differently with the surfaces they strike. For example, 1 in. thick fiberglass board absorbs less than 20 percent of a low-pitched (125 Hz) sound but more than 90...

B1 Daylighting

As long as the sun is above the horizon, daylight is of elemental importance to architectural interior spaces. Indeed, it should be the primary prism to which artificial light is added, not the other way around. Its ever-moving hues also allow occupants to mark the passing of time through the course of each day and the seasons. The average luminance of an overcast sky at midday at temperate latitudes is about 1,500 fc. Otherdaylighting levels at the zenith (straight up) are clear sky 8,800 fc,...

Heat Flow

A comfortable indoor environment has a year-round temperature between about 67 F in winter and 77 F in summer. When outdoor temperatures range higher or lower, heat migrates through the building's envelope (its outer surface formed by its lowest floor, exterior walls, and roof) from the warmer area to the cooler. The greater the temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor areas, the faster the heat flow the thicker the thermal barrier between the two areas, the slower the heat flow....

D3 Busways

Pull Boxes And Their Dimensions

Also called busducts, these conductors contain several copper or aluminum bars with spaces between them that enable their ends to interlock to form continuous lengths. After their housings are fastened together, electric outlets called tap boxes are plugged into the bars' sides, allowing connection to laterals, transformers, switchgear, motors, and other equipment. Busways may be short feeders with taps only at the ends and centers, plugin buses with continuous taps that allow convenient...

F3 Onsite Generation

Genset Drawing

In many buildings, an on-premise method of generating electricity is required to satisfy the need for continuous power during any number of failure scenarios. The usual way to do this is to connect an internal combustion engine to a dynamo, then add a fuel tank and a means of exhaust. Such units are usually classed as small or large. Small units, commonly known as portable standby generators, are described in Sec. 5.F.3.a. Large units, often called gensets, are typically installed in hospitals...

Indoor Lighting

In indoor illumination the light sources are enclosed by reflective surfaces that transform the space into a 'larger luminaire' that diversifies the nature of light arriving at any one visual task. While this makes the enclosed lighting loads difficult to quantify (such calculations can easily be off by 40 percent), the human eye can almost always compensate for such discrepancies with its wondrous flexibility, which often approaches 70 percent. For example, though the task plane lighting level...

E1b Floor Drains

Floor drains are a surprisingly common plumbing component, as they are installed in basements, garages, parking facilities, gas stations, food processing areas, commercial kitchens, supermarkets, dairies, locker rooms, gang showers, HVAC condensate basins, waste cleaning areas, and many industrial facilities. Each floor drain requires a removable inlet grate at or slightly below the finished floor, a sediment bucket just below which collects solids without impeding drainage flow (this may...

C4 Sound Leakage

All the labor spent in designing effective barrier construction assemblies can be negated by a few leaks in the construction. Frequent culprits are cracks in masonry mortar joints, seams around electrical outlets, loose trim around door and window frames, and open edges around suspended ceilings and access floors. More unwanted sound can pass through such hairline pathways than through a whole floor or wall. Thus acoustic barrier construction is only as strong as its weakest leak. Sound leakage...

Table 64 Coefficients Of Reflectance

SURFACE R1 SURFACE R SURFACE Brown, Snicker's bar 0.13 Brown, grocery bag 0.25 Snow, new 0. Earth, moist cultivated 0 Clear pane, night, no illum Dark gray Newspaper White plaster 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.40 0.15 0.55 0.10 0.10 0.85 1.00 0.09 1. R Coefficient of Reflectance incident light. As angle of light decreases from , the value of R increases but is more indeterminate. 2. Light fixture, window, skylight, operating movie, or TV screen when off. the arriving light). A surface's reflectance...

C2 Luminaires

A luminaire is a complete lighting unit it includes a fixture with one or more lamps plus the parts that distribute the light, protect the lamps, support the unit, and connect to the power supply. Each luminaire has an architecture that should be compatible with the space it defines. Many different kinds are available. A luminaire's mount may be protruding, surface, or recessed. Protruding or suspended units reject nearly all the heat produced by the lamp into the space they illuminate, while...

A4 Computerization

Inside this volume's back cover is the DesignDISK, a CD-ROM that is a computerized version of all the book's formulas which enables them to be solved quickly and accurately. However, despite these extremely useful features, the disk cannot be used effectively without the text because much related information, not to mention drawings, is often required to select the proper formula to solve, which is best presented where it won't take up the screen space needed to use the formula windows and due...

A3 Types of Electrical Systems

2400 4160 Transformer Wiring

A building's electrical system has three parts service (where the electricity enters and is regulated), distribution (the conductors that carry the current to all parts of the building), and circuits (where the current is utilized) and each may be classed as small, medium, or large, as described in the sections that follow. These systems typically have a service of 120 240 volts at 60-200 amps and one panel box of circuit breakers or fuses, with possibly an adjacent panel for electric heating....

Fig 445 Types of sprinkler system layouts

Frame Arm Upright Sprinkler

Each sprinkler head, in addition to having the proper coverage area and adequate waterflow, must aim an unobstructed spray in the proper direction. Any object more than 4 in. wide and less than 24 in. from any head, or any shadow that subtends an angle greater than 9.5 behind which no spray can reach, constitutes an obstruction this includes beams, truss struts, soffits, ducts, pipes, light fixtures, columns, signs, curtains, etc. Thus proper sprinkler design requires 3-D visualization of the...

Table 42 Plumbing Fixture Requirements

No. of lavatories water closets urinals fountains ASSEMBLY theaters, auditoriums, lecture halls, concert halls, courtrooms, stadiums, gymnasiums, arenas, etc. To 100 1 2 1 2 1 1 75 occ. 500+ 1 175 1 100 1 250 1 65 1 250 DORMITORIES school or labor, per floor To 20 2 2 1 2 1 1 75 occ. 20+ 1 20 1 15 1 40 1 20 1 60 Bathtubs or showers, M or F 1 8-150 occ., 1 20 above 150 occ. EATING PLACES restaurants, cafeterias, cafes, dining halls, etc. To 50 1 1 1 2 1 1 75 occ. 100+ 1 125 1 80 1 200 1 50 1 200...

E2 Conduction Infiltration Heat Flow

Conduction is heat gained or lost through the building envelope's solid surfaces while infiltration is heat gained or lost through any openings such as pores, cracks, flues, and vents. Since both heat flows are functions of the building's indoor outdoor temperature differential, their calculations may be combined. Design heating or cooling loads that are computed to size climate control systems are design temperature calculations, while design heating or cooling loads computed for a period of...

C2 Radiant Floor Heating

By embedding electric cables or loops of piping containing hot water in concrete floors at least 5 in. thick poured on 4 in. rigid insulation, the floor will radiate a comfortable uniform heat into the spaces above. In electric systems, the cable is prefabricated as imbeddable panels or field-cut to length, then installed and connected as electricians do with wiring. As every linear foot of a cable's length gives off the same amount of heat, equal spacing between cables creates uniform heat. In...

F2 Transformers

A transformer is a ferromagnetic core with a primary and secondary winding fitted into a tank-like casing in which the coupled windings, based on the ratio of their sizes, convert AC power from one voltage to another. In most buildings, service transformers are installed nearthe service entrance where they step the utility voltage down usually to 480 or 600 V then distribution transformers in electrical closets step this down further to 120, 208, 240, or 277 V. Each unit has a nameplate rating...

D6 Emergency Lighting

The optimal location for emergency lighting is 6'-6 to 7'-6 ft above the floor near exit doors, stairway entries, floor level changes, major corridor intersections, and abrupt changes in direction. Each fixture should provide 1 fc of light on the floor directly below and 3 fc at exit door thresholds, they should reveal hand-operable alarms and fire suppression equipment located along these paths, they should be contiguously visible along emergency exit routes, and they should be spaced no more...

D2 Gas Plumbing Systems

There are two general kinds of gases conveyed by plumbing medical and fuel. Although medgases are noncombustible, some, such as O2 and compressed air, vigorously support combustion thus all fire safety measures for the latter apply to the former. In both medical and fuel gas systems, the gas is driven via pressure from a public supply main, pressurized cylinders, or pumps. System sizing usually begins at the remote outlet and proceeds upstream through the stems, branches, risers, and mains to...

Table 49 Sprinkler Head Design Data

Max. coverage head, ft2 Hazard Class * I II III S Spray heads, below ceiling, unobstructed or Large drop (LD) heads Early suppression fast response (ESFR) heads Space between heads, ft min max spray heads LD heads ESFR Spray heads (min. clearto storage 18 in)____ 1-12 ft for all classes LD heads (min. clear to storage 36 in) 6-8 ft for all classes ESFR heads (min. clear to storage 36 in)____ 6-14 ft for all classes I, hydraulic design in small spaces w low water req 5 16 3 8 7 16 III w high...

C9 Air Heating Cooling

An air heating and cooling system may be as small as a refrigerator-sized unit that heats, cools, humidifies, and filters but does not ventilate air or as vast as a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system whose air handling unit alone is the size of a mobile home, whose main duct may be as large as a hallway, and whose tentacles of ducting snake hundreds of feet into every corner of the building. Regarding small systems, one company makes an attractive 33 x33 x 94 in. standup...

F2 Sprinkler Systems

Architecture Sprinkler Layout

When a fire breaks out indoors, hot gases rise to the ceiling then billow outward, superheating the ceiling structure, causing it to lose strength until it may fail under its own weight. Research indicates that sprinkler systems will suppress 95 percent of such fires. A sprinkler system includes a number of orifices or heads that contain thermal fuses which, on melting at a specified temperature, allow water to discharge. The water flows to the heads via a system of mains and risers that...

B4 Fluorescent

A fluorescent lamp is a glass tube coated on the inside with phosphors, filled with an inert gas, and capped at the ends with wire cathodes then when the power turns on, a plasma arc travels between the cathodes through the gas and illuminates the phosphors while the voltage is regulated by a small transformer called a ballast. The type and amount of phosphor determines the character of each lamp, and due to the wide range of phosphors employed there are a great variety of fluorescent lamps....

C6 Steam Heating

Superficially, steam heating is similar to hot water heating, except the water is heated to above-boiling temperatures which delivers more energy in a smaller volume to the radiators in the occupied spaces, which theoretically allows the system's componentry to take up less space and cost less. However, the nature of steam requires additional componentry that raises system costs to levels that often make its economic benefits questionable. In a steam heating system, water is heated in a boiler...

B7 Fiber Optic

Imagine a flexible tube whose inner surface is so shiny that if you aim a flashlight into one end nearly all the light comes out the other. This is the rudimentary 'optic fiber.' It can send the usual straight-line light waves around corners and keep them together so their usual spherical output doesn't diminish according to the law of inverse squares. If the tube is translucent, the transmitted light appears on the outside. Such a tube may be used as a decorative element, a 'cheap neon' that...

D7C Coffers

This is a recessed ceiling panel that contains lighting. The lights may be installed in the panels' tops, sides, ends, or any combination thereof, and all faces should be highly reflective. A coffer can have any dimension or section profile, may mimic or include skylights, and they are easily combined with cornices, coves, valences, and canopies to create many interesting effects. Coffers are typically area light sources, and they are usually 60-70 percent enclosed. A 4 x 6 ft coffer is...

C2 Precipitation

Precipitation is the descent from the sky of several kinds of moisture, particularly rain and snow, and its deposit on buildings and terrain. If the moisture falls on a building, its upward surfaces shed the water or snowmelt by gravity, usually to nearby terrain if the moisture falls on terrain, its vegetation absorbs the moisture and its topography drains it to lower levels. Whether shed by a building or topography, the water often flows through an open channel known as a gutter or a storm...

CI Electric Heating

Electric heating units contain a thick wire-like heating element whose resistance converts electric current into heat that radiates or is fan-driven into nearby spaces. The units usually operate on 120, 208, or 240 volts. Some units include a thermostat, while others are connected to a thermostat mounted in the heated zone. There are several kinds of these units Baseboards. Long thin units mounted at the base of walls. Units may be connected to create any length. Simple, easy to install,...

A1c Luminaire CU

Every light fixture has a coefficient of utilization, or luminaire cv, which is the quantity of light leaving the fixture divided by its rated output. A bare bulb mounted in a porcelain socket has a of 1.00, because it radiates all its light into the surrounding space. If the bulb is enclosed by a larger base, reflector, and or facing, its efficiency is correspondingly reduced. Factors that increase luminaire are direct lighting, lamps spaced far apart in multilamp fixtures, ventilated and...

Table 57 Transformer Specifications

Dry type ventilated transformers, aluminum windings. Type 2. Dry type ventilated transformers, copper windings. Type 3. Energy-saving, nonlinear, control power, or shielded isolated trans. Type 4. Non-ventilated, liquid-filled, or cast coil transformers. 1. Dimensions & weights in this table are averages and do not apply to variable-voltage transformers. Consult mfrs. for more specific data. and page unknown. From p. 462 This table's data was abstracted from the

The Latitude Market 23 Halfdegree S Is

The angle and intensity at which the sun's rays strike the ground are a function of the site's local latitude as well as the time of day and time of year. The formulas in Example 3 below are used to find the sun's altitude and azimuth for any northern latitude at any time of year. By setting the sun's altitude at zero, the sunrise and sunset time for any date can be found and by setting the sun's azimuth at zero (due south), its altitude at noon on any date can be found. Using these formulas...

Aluminum Mesh

This is a panel of aluminum that contains baffled meshes of different densities. It is strong and thus is used in ducts with large section areas, is washable in detergents and chemicals, and is highly durable. It is an excellent collector of grease and messy industrial substances that with most filters are difficult to trap and clean. Although aluminum mesh filters do not directly collect tiny particles, microbes, and odors, these contaminants pp. 48-52. From p. 236 This figure was prepared...

Water Heaters

A water heater is a sealed reservoir with an energy source that produces hot water for use by the occupants. The reservoir may be a cylindrical tank with a burner at its base, sidearm unit on a furnace, coils in a steam boiler, exhaust jacket on an internal combustion engine, heat exchanger in an exothermic industrial process, even piping loops immersed in a thermal hot spring. The heater's storage capacity is a function of the fixture units it serves and the water temperature it produces, and...

C11 Heat Pumps

In a heat pump, heat is treated as a compressive quantity that exists independently of ambient temperature gradients. Then, after a certain quantity is compressed, it can be moved from a lower to a higher temperature more efficiently than by producing the same amount by exothermic reaction. As usual, the heat must exist in a medium of some kind, which in the case of heat pumps is a refrigerant that can be compressed and expanded. Thus a heat pump's operation is basically a four-step cycle in...

Listening Environments

A listening environment is an architectural space whose essential occupancy is a listening experience. This includes everything from small home entertainment centers to huge outdoor athletic stadiums, from rustic barroom dance halls to sophisticated television broadcast studios. Designing listening environments well begins by doing the following fl Locate the listening environment on a quiet site. fl Divide the occupancy into a small performing area and a considerably larger listening area. fl...