Fixtures

A plumbing fixture typically includes an inlet where the building's water supply arrives, a receptacle that temporarily contains the water for a specific purpose, and a drain where the portion of water that is unused but rendered impure plus any matter added to the water exits. Each fixture must also have a smooth nonabsorbent surface, have a small vent 1 in. below its rim that allows itto drain if its outlet becomes clogged (the vent's level is the fixture's flood rim), include a 1 in. air gap...

E2 Vents

A plumbing vent is a vertical (or nearly so) pipe of air, open at the top, whose base preserves the seal of each plumbing fixture trap it rises from by collecting gases in the waste plumbing system and sending them upward until they are outdoors. Where temperatures fall below -30 , a vent may require frost closure protection by (1) extending the vent only 1-2 in. above the roof, (2) increasing its diameter just below the roof, (3) installing flashing with an airspace between the vent and the...

Human hEARing

The sounds produced by mechanical equipment have a great variety of pitches. For example, a variable-speed HVAC primary fan may have frequencies of 30-10,000 Hz, and the dominant frequency of an elevator motor typically rises from about 20-250 Hz as it accelerates from near-zero to full speed. Differently pitched sounds also interact differently with the surfaces they strike. For example, 1 in. thick fiberglass board absorbs less than 20 percent of a low-pitched (125 Hz) sound but more than 90...

B1 Daylighting

As long as the sun is above the horizon, daylight is of elemental importance to architectural interior spaces. Indeed, it should be the primary prism to which artificial light is added, not the other way around. Its ever-moving hues also allow occupants to mark the passing of time through the course of each day and the seasons. The average luminance of an overcast sky at midday at temperate latitudes is about 1,500 fc. Otherdaylighting levels at the zenith (straight up) are clear sky 8,800 fc,...

Heat Flow

A comfortable indoor environment has a year-round temperature between about 67 F in winter and 77 F in summer. When outdoor temperatures range higher or lower, heat migrates through the building's envelope (its outer surface formed by its lowest floor, exterior walls, and roof) from the warmer area to the cooler. The greater the temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor areas, the faster the heat flow the thicker the thermal barrier between the two areas, the slower the heat flow....

D3 Busways

Also called busducts, these conductors contain several copper or aluminum bars with spaces between them that enable their ends to interlock to form continuous lengths. After their housings are fastened together, electric outlets called tap boxes are plugged into the bars' sides, allowing connection to laterals, transformers, switchgear, motors, and other equipment. Busways may be short feeders with taps only at the ends and centers, plugin buses with continuous taps that allow convenient...

B2 Ducts and Fittings

A common method of conveying conditioned air is through tubes of sheet aluminum or steel that have square, rectangular, round, or oval sections and which are connected with several kinds of joints as shown in Fig. 3-3. Ducts whose diameters orshort-side dimensions are 6 in. or less are usually made in multiples of 1 in, while larger ducts are made in multiples of 2 in. Ordinary work consists of slip-in ducts with screwed fittings, good work has machine-formed bolted ducts with cleaned and...

F3 Onsite Generation

In many buildings, an on-premise method of generating electricity is required to satisfy the need for continuous power during any number of failure scenarios. The usual way to do this is to connect an internal combustion engine to a dynamo, then add a fuel tank and a means of exhaust. Such units are usually classed as small or large. Small units, commonly known as portable standby generators, are described in Sec. 5.F.3.a. Large units, often called gensets, are typically installed in hospitals...

Indoor Lighting

In indoor illumination the light sources are enclosed by reflective surfaces that transform the space into a 'larger luminaire' that diversifies the nature of light arriving at any one visual task. While this makes the enclosed lighting loads difficult to quantify (such calculations can easily be off by 40 percent), the human eye can almost always compensate for such discrepancies with its wondrous flexibility, which often approaches 70 percent. For example, though the task plane lighting level...

E1b Floor Drains

Floor drains are a surprisingly common plumbing component, as they are installed in basements, garages, parking facilities, gas stations, food processing areas, commercial kitchens, supermarkets, dairies, locker rooms, gang showers, HVAC condensate basins, waste cleaning areas, and many industrial facilities. Each floor drain requires a removable inlet grate at or slightly below the finished floor, a sediment bucket just below which collects solids without impeding drainage flow (this may...

C4 Sound Leakage

All the labor spent in designing effective barrier construction assemblies can be negated by a few leaks in the construction. Frequent culprits are cracks in masonry mortar joints, seams around electrical outlets, loose trim around door and window frames, and open edges around suspended ceilings and access floors. More unwanted sound can pass through such hairline pathways than through a whole floor or wall. Thus acoustic barrier construction is only as strong as its weakest leak. Sound leakage...

Table 64 Coefficients Of Reflectance

SURFACE R1 SURFACE R SURFACE Brown, Snicker's bar 0.13 Brown, grocery bag 0.25 Snow, new 0. Earth, moist cultivated 0 Clear pane, night, no illum Dark gray Newspaper White plaster 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.40 0.15 0.55 0.10 0.10 0.85 1.00 0.09 1. R Coefficient of Reflectance incident light. As angle of light decreases from , the value of R increases but is more indeterminate. 2. Light fixture, window, skylight, operating movie, or TV screen when off. the arriving light). A surface's reflectance...

C2 Luminaires

A luminaire is a complete lighting unit it includes a fixture with one or more lamps plus the parts that distribute the light, protect the lamps, support the unit, and connect to the power supply. Each luminaire has an architecture that should be compatible with the space it defines. Many different kinds are available. A luminaire's mount may be protruding, surface, or recessed. Protruding or suspended units reject nearly all the heat produced by the lamp into the space they illuminate, while...

A4 Computerization

Inside this volume's back cover is the DesignDISK, a CD-ROM that is a computerized version of all the book's formulas which enables them to be solved quickly and accurately. However, despite these extremely useful features, the disk cannot be used effectively without the text because much related information, not to mention drawings, is often required to select the proper formula to solve, which is best presented where it won't take up the screen space needed to use the formula windows and due...

A3 Types of Electrical Systems

A building's electrical system has three parts service (where the electricity enters and is regulated), distribution (the conductors that carry the current to all parts of the building), and circuits (where the current is utilized) and each may be classed as small, medium, or large, as described in the sections that follow. These systems typically have a service of 120 240 volts at 60-200 amps and one panel box of circuit breakers or fuses, with possibly an adjacent panel for electric heating....

Fig 445 Types of sprinkler system layouts

Frame Arm Upright Sprinkler

Each sprinkler head, in addition to having the proper coverage area and adequate waterflow, must aim an unobstructed spray in the proper direction. Any object more than 4 in. wide and less than 24 in. from any head, or any shadow that subtends an angle greater than 9.5 behind which no spray can reach, constitutes an obstruction this includes beams, truss struts, soffits, ducts, pipes, light fixtures, columns, signs, curtains, etc. Thus proper sprinkler design requires 3-D visualization of the...

Table 42 Plumbing Fixture Requirements

No. of lavatories water closets urinals fountains ASSEMBLY theaters, auditoriums, lecture halls, concert halls, courtrooms, stadiums, gymnasiums, arenas, etc. To 100 1 2 1 2 1 1 75 occ. 500+ 1 175 1 100 1 250 1 65 1 250 DORMITORIES school or labor, per floor To 20 2 2 1 2 1 1 75 occ. 20+ 1 20 1 15 1 40 1 20 1 60 Bathtubs or showers, M or F 1 8-150 occ., 1 20 above 150 occ. EATING PLACES restaurants, cafeterias, cafes, dining halls, etc. To 50 1 1 1 2 1 1 75 occ. 100+ 1 125 1 80 1 200 1 50 1 200...

E2 Conduction Infiltration Heat Flow

Conduction is heat gained or lost through the building envelope's solid surfaces while infiltration is heat gained or lost through any openings such as pores, cracks, flues, and vents. Since both heat flows are functions of the building's indoor outdoor temperature differential, their calculations may be combined. Design heating or cooling loads that are computed to size climate control systems are design temperature calculations, while design heating or cooling loads computed for a period of...

C2 Radiant Floor Heating

By embedding electric cables or loops of piping containing hot water in concrete floors at least 5 in. thick poured on 4 in. rigid insulation, the floor will radiate a comfortable uniform heat into the spaces above. In electric systems, the cable is prefabricated as imbeddable panels or field-cut to length, then installed and connected as electricians do with wiring. As every linear foot of a cable's length gives off the same amount of heat, equal spacing between cables creates uniform heat. In...

F2 Transformers

A transformer is a ferromagnetic core with a primary and secondary winding fitted into a tank-like casing in which the coupled windings, based on the ratio of their sizes, convert AC power from one voltage to another. In most buildings, service transformers are installed nearthe service entrance where they step the utility voltage down usually to 480 or 600 V then distribution transformers in electrical closets step this down further to 120, 208, 240, or 277 V. Each unit has a nameplate rating...

D6 Emergency Lighting

The optimal location for emergency lighting is 6'-6 to 7'-6 ft above the floor near exit doors, stairway entries, floor level changes, major corridor intersections, and abrupt changes in direction. Each fixture should provide 1 fc of light on the floor directly below and 3 fc at exit door thresholds, they should reveal hand-operable alarms and fire suppression equipment located along these paths, they should be contiguously visible along emergency exit routes, and they should be spaced no more...

D2 Gas Plumbing Systems

There are two general kinds of gases conveyed by plumbing medical and fuel. Although medgases are noncombustible, some, such as O2 and compressed air, vigorously support combustion thus all fire safety measures for the latter apply to the former. In both medical and fuel gas systems, the gas is driven via pressure from a public supply main, pressurized cylinders, or pumps. System sizing usually begins at the remote outlet and proceeds upstream through the stems, branches, risers, and mains to...

Table 49 Sprinkler Head Design Data

Max. coverage head, ft2 Hazard Class * I II III S Spray heads, below ceiling, unobstructed or Large drop (LD) heads Early suppression fast response (ESFR) heads Space between heads, ft min max spray heads LD heads ESFR Spray heads (min. clearto storage 18 in)____ 1-12 ft for all classes LD heads (min. clear to storage 36 in) 6-8 ft for all classes ESFR heads (min. clear to storage 36 in)____ 6-14 ft for all classes I, hydraulic design in small spaces w low water req 5 16 3 8 7 16 III w high...

C9 Air Heating Cooling

An air heating and cooling system may be as small as a refrigerator-sized unit that heats, cools, humidifies, and filters but does not ventilate air or as vast as a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system whose air handling unit alone is the size of a mobile home, whose main duct may be as large as a hallway, and whose tentacles of ducting snake hundreds of feet into every corner of the building. Regarding small systems, one company makes an attractive 33 x33 x 94 in. standup...

F2 Sprinkler Systems

Architecture Sprinkler Layout

When a fire breaks out indoors, hot gases rise to the ceiling then billow outward, superheating the ceiling structure, causing it to lose strength until it may fail under its own weight. Research indicates that sprinkler systems will suppress 95 percent of such fires. A sprinkler system includes a number of orifices or heads that contain thermal fuses which, on melting at a specified temperature, allow water to discharge. The water flows to the heads via a system of mains and risers that...

B4 Fluorescent

A fluorescent lamp is a glass tube coated on the inside with phosphors, filled with an inert gas, and capped at the ends with wire cathodes then when the power turns on, a plasma arc travels between the cathodes through the gas and illuminates the phosphors while the voltage is regulated by a small transformer called a ballast. The type and amount of phosphor determines the character of each lamp, and due to the wide range of phosphors employed there are a great variety of fluorescent lamps....

C6 Steam Heating

Superficially, steam heating is similar to hot water heating, except the water is heated to above-boiling temperatures which delivers more energy in a smaller volume to the radiators in the occupied spaces, which theoretically allows the system's componentry to take up less space and cost less. However, the nature of steam requires additional componentry that raises system costs to levels that often make its economic benefits questionable. In a steam heating system, water is heated in a boiler...

B7 Fiber Optic

Imagine a flexible tube whose inner surface is so shiny that if you aim a flashlight into one end nearly all the light comes out the other. This is the rudimentary 'optic fiber.' It can send the usual straight-line light waves around corners and keep them together so their usual spherical output doesn't diminish according to the law of inverse squares. If the tube is translucent, the transmitted light appears on the outside. Such a tube may be used as a decorative element, a 'cheap neon' that...

D7C Coffers

This is a recessed ceiling panel that contains lighting. The lights may be installed in the panels' tops, sides, ends, or any combination thereof, and all faces should be highly reflective. A coffer can have any dimension or section profile, may mimic or include skylights, and they are easily combined with cornices, coves, valences, and canopies to create many interesting effects. Coffers are typically area light sources, and they are usually 60-70 percent enclosed. A 4 x 6 ft coffer is...

C2 Precipitation

Precipitation is the descent from the sky of several kinds of moisture, particularly rain and snow, and its deposit on buildings and terrain. If the moisture falls on a building, its upward surfaces shed the water or snowmelt by gravity, usually to nearby terrain if the moisture falls on terrain, its vegetation absorbs the moisture and its topography drains it to lower levels. Whether shed by a building or topography, the water often flows through an open channel known as a gutter or a storm...

CI Electric Heating

Electric heating units contain a thick wire-like heating element whose resistance converts electric current into heat that radiates or is fan-driven into nearby spaces. The units usually operate on 120, 208, or 240 volts. Some units include a thermostat, while others are connected to a thermostat mounted in the heated zone. There are several kinds of these units Baseboards. Long thin units mounted at the base of walls. Units may be connected to create any length. Simple, easy to install,...

A1c Luminaire CU

Every light fixture has a coefficient of utilization, or luminaire cv, which is the quantity of light leaving the fixture divided by its rated output. A bare bulb mounted in a porcelain socket has a of 1.00, because it radiates all its light into the surrounding space. If the bulb is enclosed by a larger base, reflector, and or facing, its efficiency is correspondingly reduced. Factors that increase luminaire are direct lighting, lamps spaced far apart in multilamp fixtures, ventilated and...

Table 57 Transformer Specifications

Dry type ventilated transformers, aluminum windings. Type 2. Dry type ventilated transformers, copper windings. Type 3. Energy-saving, nonlinear, control power, or shielded isolated trans. Type 4. Non-ventilated, liquid-filled, or cast coil transformers. 1. Dimensions & weights in this table are averages and do not apply to variable-voltage transformers. Consult mfrs. for more specific data. and page unknown. From p. 462 This table's data was abstracted from the

The Latitude Market 23 Halfdegree S Is

The angle and intensity at which the sun's rays strike the ground are a function of the site's local latitude as well as the time of day and time of year. The formulas in Example 3 below are used to find the sun's altitude and azimuth for any northern latitude at any time of year. By setting the sun's altitude at zero, the sunrise and sunset time for any date can be found and by setting the sun's azimuth at zero (due south), its altitude at noon on any date can be found. Using these formulas...

Aluminum Mesh

This is a panel of aluminum that contains baffled meshes of different densities. It is strong and thus is used in ducts with large section areas, is washable in detergents and chemicals, and is highly durable. It is an excellent collector of grease and messy industrial substances that with most filters are difficult to trap and clean. Although aluminum mesh filters do not directly collect tiny particles, microbes, and odors, these contaminants pp. 48-52. From p. 236 This figure was prepared...

Water Heaters

A water heater is a sealed reservoir with an energy source that produces hot water for use by the occupants. The reservoir may be a cylindrical tank with a burner at its base, sidearm unit on a furnace, coils in a steam boiler, exhaust jacket on an internal combustion engine, heat exchanger in an exothermic industrial process, even piping loops immersed in a thermal hot spring. The heater's storage capacity is a function of the fixture units it serves and the water temperature it produces, and...

C11 Heat Pumps

In a heat pump, heat is treated as a compressive quantity that exists independently of ambient temperature gradients. Then, after a certain quantity is compressed, it can be moved from a lower to a higher temperature more efficiently than by producing the same amount by exothermic reaction. As usual, the heat must exist in a medium of some kind, which in the case of heat pumps is a refrigerant that can be compressed and expanded. Thus a heat pump's operation is basically a four-step cycle in...

Listening Environments

A listening environment is an architectural space whose essential occupancy is a listening experience. This includes everything from small home entertainment centers to huge outdoor athletic stadiums, from rustic barroom dance halls to sophisticated television broadcast studios. Designing listening environments well begins by doing the following fl Locate the listening environment on a quiet site. fl Divide the occupancy into a small performing area and a considerably larger listening area. fl...

C4h Water Softeners

When a building's water supply contains calcium or magnesium salts at concentrations exceeding 5 gr gal, the salts form a whitish scale in pipes, tanks, water heaters, and even cookware, and they reduce the quality of washed and laundered articles. The salts are removed by water softening, a process in which a sodium-ion resin in a pressurized filter replaces the incoming calcium and magnesium ions, then a second tank filled with brine periodically replenishes the resin when its sodium nears...

B5 Thermal Energy Storage

Many public utilities offer reduced rates for off-peak electrical use. Thus it often pays to convert off-peak electricity into thermal energy that can be stored for later use during on-peak hours. There are two kinds of such storage heat and cold, and there are several kinds of each. Thus the following is a conceptual encapsulation of this energy storage. Fig. 3-18. Typical electric meter rate schedule. Fig. 3-18. Typical electric meter rate schedule. Each system contains a large thickly...

C4g Large Water Supply Tanks

Suction And Discharge Impeller Pumps

A large building is a container that uses a lot of water. The only way to satisfy the many fixture demands by all the occupants and operations at any one moment in large buildings, some of which may be hundreds of feet tall, is to have a meticulously thought-out linkage of pipes, pumps, and tanks all operating within proper pressure parameters, all existing in an overall matrix of well-defined zones. In large buildings this plumbing linkage logistic usually needs to be thought out first, even...

C4f Small Water Supply Tanks

In rural residences and other small buildings, several kinds of sealed tanks are often used to maintain desired water supply pressures. Such reservoirs are usually an integral part of well-septic systems but they are also installed in meter systems where the water main pressure is inadequate or where temporary dips in pressure during periods of peak demand might inconvenience occupants. Each such tank requires a pressure relief valve near its top, a check valve on its outlet pipe, and a nearby...

C2b Leaders

Also called downspouts, leaders generally have round or rectangular sections with plain or corrugated profiles. The latter are more resistant to damage from freezing. Every gutter should have at least two leaders in case one is clogged, each should have a minimum section area of 7 in2 for the first 100 sf of horizontal roof area and 1 in2 for each added 100 sf, and leaders should not be more than 50 ft apart on any gutter. Any leader that is not vertical or nearly so should have its section...

C3 Solid Borne Sound

Solid-borne sound is sound that travels though walls, floors, ceilings, and other solid construction no matter how or where it originated. When a low-pitched airborne sound strikes the surface of a hard material, much of the sound is reflected, but most of what little sound that is absorbed usually travels through the construction behind to the other side. But if the sound is high-pitched and the material's surface is soft, much of the sound is absorbed, but then most of what is absorbed...