Commercial Real Estate Financing
New York City (Renderer Edward Devine White. Jr Student project.) Fig. 9.19 An Office Building. New York City (Renderer Edward Devine White. Jr Student project.) 1. A general gray value was given to the shade side of the office building by hatching with the side of a BB pencil in several directions. Then each portion of this side was in turn masked with 8l - X 1 1-inch pad paper and rubbed with a clean chamois (see Figure 9.17, sketch d). The spandrels were then given the same treatment in order to make them darker than the glass areas. They were shaded with a BB pencil. 8. After the entire office building had been rendered, rough edges (places where hatching had gotten into the sky area) were cleaned with a kneaded eraser by masking the building with pad paper and then erasing in a wiping motion away from the building.
Before looking at the constructional characteristics of commercial buildings it would be useful to classify their main forms of construction. They can be divided into two broad groups unframed and framed. Suitable for low-rise factory and warehouse properties, and for top storey extensions to flat-roofed commercial buildings (see Chapters 7 and 9). A form of industrialized construction used for commercial buildings such as hotels. The constructional characteristics of commercial buildings are varied. Generally, however, they are of either concrete or steel frame construction clad with stone or lightweight cladding. Table 2.6 summarizes the main differences. Table 2.6 Characteristics of different commercial building types (Martin and Gold, 1999) Table 2.6 Characteristics of different commercial building types (Martin and Gold, 1999)
The types of commercial buildings which use bales have included residential-type structures like bed-and-breakfasts, wineries, and motorcycle shops. More and more of these structures have been built, and as with residential straw bale, the learning curve will be steep, as the best ways to integrate bales with commercial architecture are discovered and fine tuned.
Commercial buildings present a set of design issues that differ somewhat from those encountered in residential structures. In critical spaces such as classrooms, theaters, and studios, much of the information presented in Chapt. 15 is still applicable. In commercial office buildings the uses can vary, and may include less sensitive spaces. Structures are likely to be multistory, with an air handling unit on each floor located in a central core, along with other services such as elevator shafts, stairwells, and bathrooms. Mechanical equipment is also located on the roof, sometimes directly above the most prestigious and expensive floor space. The main air ducts are sized, based on the clearance afforded by the ceiling heights, and velocities may be relatively high. Air is likely to be returned through a common plenum, which complicates the room-to-room noise transmission problem.
The refurbishment and upgrading of a 2-storey office building in Stockley Park East, near Heathrow Airport, included the replacement by Structura UK Ltd of a large rooflight and all the glass and aluminium panels in the existing curtain walling. Structura UK manufactured bespoke aluminium extrusions to match existing, incorporating new, soft coat, Low E specification double-glazed units, and installed new, aluminium panels approximately 2200mm x 1500mm x 76mm in thickness
* Its representational and office building nature The following space standards are established for purposes of planning consistency and cost control and for these reasons should be adhered to. This does not preclude variations where such are necessary to provide for special requirements at a particular post. In addition to specific space variations, the site and locale may dictate that the service functions may preferably be located in a structure separate from the office building,
The vacancy and under-utilization of many commercial buildings is indicative of an oversupply problem. Property analysts have shown that reckless over-investment in property was a major factor in several macro-economic crises. For example, several major financial crises such as the Savings and Loans scandal in the USA in the early 1980s the UK property crash in 1992 and, the global economic crisis of the mid-1990s precipitated by the monetary problems in Asia. According to some economists all of these financial slumps share a common cause they spring from the momentum of markets outstripping economic realities. In other words, these economic crises all have their roots in prices over-reaching values.
As in housing, improved access for disabled people is another important requirement for commercial properties. This is especially the case with buildings that are used by the public. Buildings whose entrances are at ground level pose little trouble in providing access for disabled users. The same cannot be said about buildings that have steps leading up to the main entrance. A side ramp with handrail can be installed to overcome this problem (see Figure 9.16). The opportunity to upgrade the surrounding areas of a commercial building may be taken as part of its overall refurbishment. This could include works such as follows
In addition to being prolific, di Fausto's work was extraordinarily versatile, borrowing from local decorative elements of all sorts. In Rhodes, he inflected buildings throughout the new city with Venetian accents - because the islands had at one time been under Venetian control - from the Governor's Palace (Figure 5.12) to the Hotel of the Roses (on which he collaborated Intro.2). For housing, he developed a nearly Rationalist idiom - simple and functional, and yet sporting arches (Figure 5.13). Flying in the face of the Novecento idea that the larger the building, the more non-native it ought to be, he designed more than one luxury hotel to look like a vernacular complex, cloaking the Uaddan's casino in the guise of a Libyan mosque, with its distinctive small cupolas (Figure 5.14).102 For an office building across from the Lombard-style Tripoli Cathedral, he designed a monumental arched fa ade that could easily have been Piacentini's own semi-classicizing work (Figure 5.15).
Below and opposite the Gresham Street speculative office building is a rare example of a City building with an informal entrance, one that has been cleverly design in relation to an existing former graveyard that fronts the site. Much of the architectural presence and expression of the building is also at this front end - particularly in the form of a typical acrobatic structural gesture that is again without precedent on such an office building (the entire front end is suspended). The outcome is a mix of the gestural and the considerate that produces a simple (but again rare) entry sequence street lobby glass lift view out to the City from the floor lobby office area. It is simple and tt works.
Materials and technologies are also increasingly common in residential high-rises, which take advantage of green construction methods developed for commercial buildings. Builders have made great strides in reducing environmental impact by using harvested lumber and recycled materials, the installation of non-toxic and energy-efficient insulation systems, and the selection of building sites that take maximum advantage of solar and wind power as well as access to public transportation. It is worth noting that one of the most popular types of urban construction converting industrial buildings into residential properties is intrinsically green. Recycling and renewing old structures are among the best ways to minimize waste and preserve resources.
The question of continuity between the two Rationalist movements focuses on the career of Ernesto Rogers. As editor of the architectural journal Casabella Continuita between 1953 and 1964, his social conception of 'environment' is seen to have blurred the boundaries between the historic city and contemporary urban form (exemplified in Milan by BPR's Torre Velasca of 1954-58).12 The ambiguous relationship between Rationalism and fascism in the 1930s only partly explains the shifts in the work of Rationalist architects immediately postwar, like Franco Albini (INA Office Building, Pavia, 1953) or Giovanni Michelucci (Commodities Exchange, Pistoia, 1950), where a Rationalist structural order was overlaid with a figuratively abstracted classicism.13 Manfredo Tafuri has thoroughly documented the vicissitudes of postwar Italian architecture that dissipated the Rationalist momentum of the 1930s.14
Grooming recognizes the temporal dynamism of landscape systems and requires that maintenance unfolds as a series of
Another example of controlled growth is the design for the Elsassertor office building. In order to recreate the contextual railway site within its interior courtyard, and achieve the typical stunted growth pattern of volunteer Beech and Birch trees, 20,000 Beech seedlings were planted in a base of shallow soil and railway gravel. Such an amount of trees would normally suffice for the growth of a two-hectare woodland, yet planted so densely, the trees will attain a purposefully stunted, miniature form.
After the reunification of Berlin in 1989, and the dismantling of the wall that ran through it dividing East and West Berlin, Pariser Platz became available for reconstruction. It had been lying empty since being destroyed in World War II. During this period it lay in the East Berlin, or Russian sector, of the city that served as the capital of the Deutsche Demokratische Republik (GDR). The square is bounded on one side by the Brandenberg Gate which terminates the vista down Unten den Linden the ceremonial axis of Berlin. Before World War II the then great powers of the world, the United States, Great Britain, France and Austria had established their embassies on the square or in its vicinity. In addition, the Adlon Hotel and several prestigious apartment and commercial buildings enclosed it (see Figure 8.40). Starting in the north western corner, the square is enclosed by Haus Libermann (1996-8), Palais am Pariser Platz, the Eugen-Gutmann-Haus der Dresdner Bank (1996-7), the French...
On large office-building projects with open-plan workstations, each workstation and panel cluster may be coded as a unit and keyed to the systems furniture division of the furnishings specifications. That is, instead of identifying each piece of furniture and component on the plan, each workstation may be designated by a code. The code may be a simple designator, such as SI or S5, meaning merely systems furniture group one or five. Codes may also be more complex and have designators that relate to the size and or job function of the workstation, such as A being the largest, for executives B for middle management C for secretaries, and so on. These may be further broken down as Al, A2, etc., depending on the number of different configurations and or components. Other prefixes, such as WS for open-plan workstations or PO for private offices, may also be added to the code for clarity as to the specific type of work
The code compliance and space planning problems of an adaptive reuse can be highlighted in the proposed conversion of a large office building to flats. The property, which was built in the late 1930s, is shown in Figure 4.15. Its of Art Deco style and has Grade 2 listed status. The following building elements therefore require minimum intervention (i.e. the original appearance to remain) and retention of the original interior features of the entrance lobby, hall and stairwell. The fenestration and associated features are to be retained. In terms of the building's construction, the steel columns and core as indicated on the plans remain, but associated interior walls, not referred to above, will be removed.
Kuching lies on the Sungai Sarawak 20 kilometres in from the sea. The city's riverfront used to be the regional shipping and distribution point of the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It intervened or acted as a seam, depending on one's point of view, between the commercial area on Main Bazaar and the river. The commercial area contained Chinese shop-houses, a high-rise hotel and office buildings. The development of a road network and air transportation during the 1960s and 1970s, and the change in shipping technology led to the abandonment of the godowns (warehouses) and the general deterioration of the waterfront. The river wall had deteriorated, mud-flats filled former shipping channels, and squatters had built shacks along the waterfront. At the same time it was a lively colourful area of fishing boats and commerce. The area contained historic buildings, commuter jetties, and government and commercial buildings. It was also a mess.
This delegation crossed the threshold of the Fuller Company offices because of Japan's increasing prominence in trade, as a result of World War I. Japan had emerged from the war with 'a vast amount of world trade at her door but with an acute shortage of buildings to house her increased business' (Far Eastern Review, 1922, 18, October, p. 638). Some of that business was generated as a result of the city planning initiatives of the influential Viscount Shimpei Goto, who had visited the United States at the end the war to examine the means by which American municipal experts were seeking to improve American cities using city planning methods associated with 'science' and or 'efficiency'. When Goto visited the New York Bureau of Municipal Research he became close friends with Charles Austin Beard, the noted political economist. On his return to Japan he advocated that his government invest heavily in the construction of roads, railways and other municipal infrastructure (Zunz, 1998, p....
A structurally glazed curtain walling screen has been manufactured and installed by Structura UK Ltd to reconfigure and enhance the reception area to an office building in Triton Square, London. The 13.6m long x 3.5m full height screen consists of Schuco's FW50+SG aluminium profile and double-glazed insulating glass - an outer pane of 6mm Pilkington toughened, Optiwhite clear glass, a 20mm air cavity, and an inner pane of 10mm Pilkington toughened, Optiwhite clear glass coated with Opitherm S3 (Face 3). The exterior of the profile has a grey powder-coated finish, and a silver anodised finish internally. Structura UK manufactured and installed a manually operated, glass, side access door, and supervised the installation of an all-glass revolving door. Above the screen, Structura UK designed and installed a new back light, glass fascia incorporating new signage.
Buildings in which solar heat gain through windows is a major component of the cooling load need to be zoned according to the various window orientations of the rooms. In commercial buildings where each tenant will be billed separately for heating and cooling costs, each tenant space will constitute a separate zone. A large business or mercantile building might be divided into several large zones of approximately equal size to fit the capacities of the fans and ductwork or the capacities of packaged air conditioning systems. A multi-use building may incorporate parking, retail shops, lobbies,
The closely fought competition for the design of a new head office building, adjacent to their existing premises in the heart of Frankfurt, was won by the London-based practice of Foster and Partners, with RP+K Sozietat winning selection as environmental engineering consultants. In the context of the environmental movement in Germany at that time, the urban planning criteria of Frankfurt and the brief from the client, the project 'provided an opportunity
Be combined with a group of related buildings in a civic center. The oivio center has had great appeal to the city planner because It offers oertaln advantages and at the same time provides for latitude in design, The buildings that are included In civic oenters range from a grouping of strictly administrative offices and service buildings to a complex of office buildings, auditoriums, libraries, and so on. Obviously if a city hall ia to be part of a civic center, it must be planned in relation to the other facilities. For instance, the San Jose, California, city hell Is part of a civic center consisting of a health building, communications building, police garage, county office building, sheriff's department and jail, criminal-legal building, and a juvenile canter. Some of the facilities, such aa the administrative offices in the health building, did not have to be repeated in the city hall. 5. The central business district la the real civic center of the 20th century, A lot has been...
In refurbishing framed commercial buildings, adding another storey is usually best achieved by using a steel structure. This approach can be adopted for steel and reinforced concrete-framed constructions. In the case of a reinforced concrete- or steel-framed building, for example, the new storey could comprise a steel portal frame supporting a curved roof. The portal frame could set back from the existing parapet to minimize disruption to this part of the building as well as provide an access path around the top storey. A building that collapsed in Middlesex, England, during its adaptation in the mid-1990s highlighted the risks to health and safety associated with this type of work. The case in question was a three-storey commercial building that was halfway through a refurbishment contract in 1995. During the early afternoon of 1 August of that year a substantial part of the structure suddenly collapsed, killing four construction workers. Figure 6.11 A vertical extension involving a...
The lavatories in many older office buildings are often drab and unattractive. They are therefore usually ripe for refurbishment (see Figure 8.3). Giving office toilets a makeover can considerably enhance the ambience of otherwise unappealing facilities. New fittings such as wash-hand basins mounted flush on bright resilient worktops, as well as white WCs within light-coloured laminated partitioning, can rejuvenate common toilet areas. New ceramic or vinyl tile flooring, melamine panelled wall linings and suspended ceilings finishes along with recessed or indirect lighting can also help in this regard. Additional or improved facilities such as lounges, fitness rooms for office staff can help reduce their stress levels. Installing shower facilities for cyclists and lunchtime joggers in an office building can also help in this regard.
Platt designed the house in part because of his work designing a Colonial Revival house for Merrill's sister and brother-in-law. Platt studied fine art at the National Academy of Design in New York. He designed a number of Colonial Revival homes in the Northeast, in addition to commercial buildings. One of his best known structures is the Freer Gallery in Washington, DC. Platt's broad interests led to numerous affiliations and honors, including membership in the American Institute of Architects, the Society of Landscape Architects, the National Institute of Arts and Letters, the Society of American Artists, the American Water Color Society, and the London Society of Painters and Etchers. He also served as president of the American Academy in Rome from 1928 to 1933.
In other words, the period was not dissimilar to the programmatic conditions of the post recession years after 1995. Its hero, Sir Denys Lasdun, famously undertook two of these three categories of project notably, the Hallfield School in Paddington and the so-called 'cluster' group of social-housing tower blocks in east London. Without approbation he also designed an up-market block of luxury apartments on the edge of Green Park (the first of the post-war period) and a less prestigious custom-designed office building for IBM, adjacent to his National Theatre. However, he stopped short at speculative building developments existing simply as a means to the end of making money and it was not until the late 1980s that his practice (by then Sir Denys Lasdun, Peter Softley and Partners) joined in the property boom and designed the speculative Milton Gate, in the City. By that time the heroes of the post-war period were older men overtaken by new events, values and tastes. While such a broad...
The primary objective of any refurbishment programme is to improve a building's overall performance and enhance productivity (see Figures 8.2 and 8.3). Office buildings are no exception in this regard. Property investors know that the security of their investment is highly dependent upon the quality of the building they own. Giving the building a facelift is a distinctive way of enhancing its appearance and durability. Traditionally, most office buildings were refurbished, if at all, only once every 15-20 years on average. The recession in the 1990s, however, led to a collapse of the commercial property market. This resulted in a glut of vacant office space in many cities. Any strategy for refurbishing an office building should consider
Torre Mayor Office Building Mexico City Figure 8.20. Torre Mayor Office Building, Mexico City (a) building photograph (b) plan (c) schematic elevation showing viscous dampers on front elevation (d) photograph showing bracing and dampers (e) close-up view of dampers. (Photographs courtesy of Dr. Ahmad Rahimian, P.E., S.E., President, Cantor Seinuk Group, New York.) Figure 8.20. Torre Mayor Office Building, Mexico City (a) building photograph (b) plan (c) schematic elevation showing viscous dampers on front elevation (d) photograph showing bracing and dampers (e) close-up view of dampers. (Photographs courtesy of Dr. Ahmad Rahimian, P.E., S.E., President, Cantor Seinuk Group, New York.) This building is an 870-ft (265.12-m)-tall, concrete office building with a 100-ft (30.5-m) crown of aluminum spires (Fig. 8.22). The building has a 12 ft-8 in. (3.87 m) floor-to-floor height and a 48-ft (14.63-m) column-free span from the perimeter to core. Wind engineering studies indicated...
The collection of figures to show the desirability of erecting American office buildings in London, to be transmitted to large British interests in England, to aid in overcoming the lack of proper office space in the British Isles 3. the introduction of modern office buildings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Asia, Africa and the Middle East were notably absent in this regard, a fact that takes on greater significance in the light of future endeavours, as will be seen below. It is also noteworthy that the Committee was involving itself in operations of different scales, from sausage factories in Norway to public works projects in Colombia and Uruguay. And in light of previous instances where American builders and entrepreneurs were actively promoting high-rise commercial towers, the dissemination of the 'modern office building' in both London and Rio de Janeiro is also compelling.
Hot water systems were the residential standard until about 1935. Hot water (hydronic) systems heat a building by means of water heated in a boiler and circulated by a pump through pipes to a fin-tube radiator, convector, or unit heater for heating only. Fan-coil units (FCUs) and radiant panels are used for both heating and cooling. Hydronic systems are used in residences, and in perimeter areas of commercial buildings with separate cooling-only ducted systems in the interior spaces. Steam boilers generate steam that is circulated through piping to radiators.
The Turbine Tower section models showing thermal response of building in summer (left) and winter (right). On the winter model, wind turbines can be seen sitting between the aerodynamically designed office building and the service The Turbine Tower section models showing thermal response of building in summer (left) and winter (right). On the winter model, wind turbines can be seen sitting between the aerodynamically designed office building and the service
The Genzyme Center is a truly brave building. Its realization of the inspiring belief that North American offices can be made more decent to work in than the usual dreary deep indoor prairies needed great and unusual trust and vision between developer, tenant, architect and all consultants. So did the notion that an environmentally friendly building that costs more initially than its conventional equivalent will eventually provide handsome paybacks for its developers, tenants and occupants alike. It is an inspiring shift in the evolution of the office building type, more inventive and integrated than almost anything yet built, even in Europe. Every aspect of its performance should be measured, and luckily there are lots of local academics just up the road who are capable of doing the job.
In building design, maximum flexibility is achieved if structural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing trades have their own designated space in the ceiling. This is achieved in a conventional system by placing HVAC ducts, lights, and other fixtures under the beams. Where deep girders are used, penetrations are made in the girder webs to accommodate the ducts. In an office building the typical span between the core and the exterior is about 40 ft (12.2 m), requiring 18- to 21-in. (457 to 533-mm)-deep beams. Usual requirements of HVAC ducts, lights, sprinklers, and ceiling construction result in depths of 4 to 4.25 ft (1.21 to 1.3 m) between the ceiling and top of the floor slab. The depth can, however, be decreased at a substantial penalty either by providing penetrations in relatively deep beams or by using shallower, less economical beam depths.
The Holford scheme consisted of narrow rectangular, slab, commercial buildings set within an orthogonal site geometry (see Figure 8.36). Their height was restricted by their closeness to St Paul's - a control imposed by the Church Commissioners and one that still exists. They were designed to provide good light to office interiors. The buildings in day-to-day operation proved to be less than functional. Their shape did not meet the deep-plan requirements for commercial space at the time. Many critics and lay-people thought the development was lifeless and boring - a grim pedestrianized piazza. It was considered to reflect the functional theories of the Bauhaus Rationalist design ideology not British values. Much was shoddily built. During the 1980s the precinct became increasingly abandoned and the site came up for redevelopment. The Simpson scheme was also a competition winner. In this case the sponsor of the competition was a newspaper, The Evening Standard. Simpson tried to combine...
Lift and stair cores in commercial buildings can be grouped according to building use - hotels, offices, retail and special facilities (such as multi-purpose layouts that contain conference and exhibition space). Building Codes in Britain stipulate minimal tread-to-rise relationships that vary according to the 'use' category 1 these are dealt with in Chapter 10.
Selection of a system and operation depends upon design studies that take into account building use and occupancy. A single lift will generally only be suitable for a modest commercial building of five storeys and then provide poor service, there being no back-up if the lift is out of order. Car and landing door configuration affect efficiency, the two panel, central opening pattern being the favoured solution. Four panel designs are needed for wider, larger cars. Asymmetric plans are more space-effective but slower in operation. The concluding illustration Figure 11.2 b demonstrates the restrictions placed upon core planning with a high rise commercial building. The typical floor print in the AT&T headquarters, New York, reveals the 'racetrack' layout around the central core, with the lift lobby serving two rows of cars, and the separation of service lifts. The space of the lobby is dictated by fire regulations and also by the space needed for the machinery room at roof level. If...
Fabrication methods devised for external stairs can be applied to internal stairs as with the Technical High School, Basle (Figure 7.2d). Open grid and chequer plate stairs are also used for industrial work. A higher standard of finish can be accommodated within metal trays or else laid on sheet steel formwork. The generic term is a 'folded sheet stair' welded to plate or tubular strings. It is this type of industrialized steel stair that is widely adopted in commercial buildings, particularly with steel frame construction. The advantages are linked to 'fast track' methods where the skeletal frame and stairs are erected in advance of floors and envelope walls, the folded sheet stair, even as formwork, provides access for the buildings without the need for scaffolding towers. The pattern depends upon the finishes to be applied ultimately on site Figures 7.3a-c depict the selection offered by fabricators and the range of finishes which can be achieved.
It is therefore immediately clear that in a building of more than two floors UBC is a much stricter code than BOCA. As a practical matter, however, the different ways of calculating stair width do not become a design issue until the floor occupancy reaches a little over 200 as for example, in a multi-storey office building with a uniform single floor area of 20 000 ft2 (1860 m2). In a floor of this size BOCA requires a total stair width of 60 in (1524 mm) while UBC (bearing in mind that the load is cumulative) requires a width of 84 in (2134 mm). Both are therefore still below the mandated minimum requirement of two stairs of 44 in width each, i.e. 88 in (2 235 mm).
By 1967, relations between Spence and the Church had deteriorated to the point where local architects were employed to make changes and Spence resigned from the relationship. Midst such issues Spence received the commission for the sixteen-storey Thorn office building in St Martin's Lane, in 1956. Towering above all around it, in the middle of Covent Garden, this project was hardly less controversial than the Cathedral, although the Times' architectural correspondent considered the design exhibited at the RA to be lively and interesting (and without those 'unshapely' - presumably neo-Corbusier - structures on the roofs of other designs at the exhibition).
Floors above, this room should be located directly below these closets as well. Equipment needs in this room will vary depending on the particular systems to be installed, and are also likely to vary significantly over time. For this reason, this room, and all other components of the telecommunications distribution system in the building, should be configured with ease of access and maximum flexibility in mind. For preliminary purposes, the service entrance room should be no smaller than 60 sq ft (6 m2), and may be 400 sq ft (40 m2) in size or larger for a large commercial office building. The room should be free of plumbing, steam or other piping, and should be in a separate cooling zone to allow independent temperature control. From this room, telecommunications wiring extends to distribution closets on each floor (see page 173).
China and the U.S. clinging to the same globe. In this 1870s advertisement for an American-made rock drill, China is depicted by a man wearing a conical hat, next to his drill, with a pagoda in the background. The U.S. is caricatured as Uncle Sam beside a similar drill, with a four-storey office building nearby. The business connections between the two distant nations (implied here by a drill that could cut magically through the centre of the earth) became more of a reality in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. (Source Chinese Scientific Magazine, 1877, 2(9), figure 9) Figure 1.1. China and the U.S. clinging to the same globe. In this 1870s advertisement for an American-made rock drill, China is depicted by a man wearing a conical hat, next to his drill, with a pagoda in the background. The U.S. is caricatured as Uncle Sam beside a similar drill, with a four-storey office building nearby. The business connections between the two distant nations (implied...
Moreover, in relation to building conservation, general terms such as refurbishment, rehabilitation, renovation and restoration lack precise technical meaning (BS 7913, 1998). As suggested above, 'restoration', is normally restricted to major adaptation work to dilapidated, derelict or ruinous residential or public buildings. In the writer's experience its use is very rare in the context of commercial properties. In addition, technically 'renovation' can occur to residential as well as commercial buildings but usually infers to less substantial works than 'restoration'.
The ratio of the total floor area of the core or cores of a building to the floor area served varies widely from one building to the next. The average total area of the cores in 40- to 70-story New York City office buildings, including the stairways, toilets, elevators, and elevator lobbies, is approximately 27 of the open area of each floor served by the core. This ratio runs as high as 38 in some older buildings, but ranges around 20 to 24 in office towers of recent design. At the other extreme, the total core area of a three-story suburban office building is likely to be in the range of 7 of the floor area served, because there are few elevators, much less lobby space for elevators, and much smaller shafts for mechanical and electrical services. The structural scheme of a building can also have a direct effect on core area. Of the total core area of a tall office building, about 12 is usually occupied by columns, bracing, walls, and partitions. This percentage is lower for lower...
Those already involved in 'sustainable architecture' maintain that the distinction 'sustainable' is temporary, as one day all architectures will be environmentally sustainable. The question is, will modernist and post-modernist, be able to remain as they are, or will they inevitably be re-formed by the exigencies of environmental design Contrary to popular misconception, this is presently the choice of the architect. I say 'presently' because at the moment rigorous environmental performance targets are largely voluntary. If, or rather when, they become both compulsory and demanding, it may be harder to avoid their affecting the design. An architect like Mario Cucinella (Plate 1 and Fig. 1.1) chooses to keep his environmentalist discreet his office building in Recanati, Italy, for example, is a variation on the theme of the elegant modernist glass box. Michael Hopkins combines environmental design and contextualism, as in the Inland Revenue Headquarters in Nottingham (Plate 2). Short...
Through the particular arrangement of the buildings, footpaths at ground level, and the successive layout of courtyards of varying sizes, the complex provides optimum functionality, orientation, and lighting. The symmetrical complex is orientated in north-south direction. In successive order, the three-storey laboratory and office building, followed by the application and climatic chambers, the greenhouses and finally The southern laboratory and office building framed by a glazed service floor on top and glazed staircases on both ends forms the entrance the complex. Both sections have a separate entrance. On the ground floor, the mentioned glazed passages are linked to the mid
The ADA is a comprehensive civil rights law with four sections. Title I protects individuals with disabilities in employment. Title II covers state and local government services and public transportation. Title III covers all public accommodations, defined as any facility that offers food or services to the public. It also applies to commercial facilities, which are nonresidential buildings that do business but are not open to the general public. Title IV deals with telecommunications services, and requires telephone companies to provide telecommunications relay services for individuals with hearing and speech impairments. Titles III and IV affect the work of interior designers most directly, and we refer to ADA provisions throughout this book.
Design firms and individual design practitioners often build reputations based upon individual building types museums, sports arenas, and hospitals among them. Large design services firms increasingly organize groups of experts into practice groups for retail, hotels, and office buildings. So it is with the practice of space planning and programming. Space planning, programming and interior design professionals not only are recognized as having unique skills and experience, but have developed specialized practice areas for university and educational facilities, laboratories, and hotels as well as the office and residential areas of practice. The specialization of separate expertise for space planning is enabled by the quantum leap in our ability to electronically transmit, store, and analyze data, drawings, and design documents. Any individual facility can be benchmarked against several others of the same use. In the competitive commercial real estate markets of the world's urban...
Altogether, the papers described variations on the dual-city configuration -although not always the classic dual-city in which European colonizers built alongside an already existing city, as had happened in Tripoli and Benghazi. Here, the desired outcome was one in which the native city stood alongside (and at some distance from) the larger European area, and public offices and commercial buildings occupied the plan's center. Alpago Novello and Cabiati's concrete suggestion was to begin the layout of new Italian cities by establishing the best orientation and placing the long middle axis of the town in the center. On this axis would stand banks, offices, government institutions, markets and shops, hotels, theatres, and so on. The two main residential areas should stand on either side of the axis, the best one having been reserved for Europeans, and the other for natives. Furthermore, on the European side the transition from residential to the commercial and political center could be...
To get there you would walk past Fenchurch Street Station (opened in 1841, above which is a '60's office building re-clad by Allies & Morrison). On the east side of the station forecourt is the Richard Rogers' studio's design for Lloyd's Register. Down the street is the massive bulk of Arup's Plantation Place. Ahead, you will probably be able to see the blue cranes on top of Rogers' Lloyd's '86 building and, of course, the dark, enigmatic shape of Foster's Swiss Re building (the 'Gherkin', behind which is an overwhelmed but fine building by Berlage). In fact, there is good architecture everywhere around. And this is what is so unique about the City it is at once the oldest, most dense and architecturally rich part of the metropolis. The strangeness of these qualities was underscored in a recent history of London written by Peter Ackroyd. In his Biography of London, Ackroyd advances the peculiar notion that London is like some living animal. It sounds romantic. But the more one pores...
First, many commercial buildings around the world are commissioned by developers who have minimal interest in their cost in use. One such developer, Land Securities, was responsible for pioneering in Britain the full repairing lease, whereby building procurement is totally separated from responsibility for maintenance. The latter is the sole province of the tenant, who bears not only the cost of maintaining the property for their own purposes but also maintaining the asset value of the building for the benefit of the developer (Marriott, 1967 Smyth, 1985).
A small electric system rarely has any large motors, three-phase wiring, or extensive distribution networks and convenience outlets and lighting fixtures in each space are usually on the same circuit. Such systems are typically found in residences and small commercial buildings. Medium electrical systems are found in apartment complexes, motels, recreation centers, and small- to medium-sized commercial buildings.
But at a scale to match a midrise office building or multiple housing, the courtyard cover would doubtless require electrical motors and gears that need not operate especially fast and that can be efficient to run. The four designs illustrate renewed possibilities for a ritual courtyard life corresponding with natural rhythms. This is true for buildings in general, but perhaps it is especially so for commercial offices where workers spend so much of their time in cities. Office buildings have generally been designed to keep workers at their desks, but laptop computers and cell phones now make it possible to move around. There is no reason why workers can't just as well do at least some of their work in a courtyard garden with flowers and trees, with the sounds of birds and water, and with winter sun to warm them and summer shade and breezes to cool them. Why not offer a choice of working inside or out, at a desk or on a garden bench The change of surroundings can make...
According to the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), increasing ventilation and air distribution is the best and most cost-effective way to freshen the air inside most buildings. Blowers and fans that move the air, ductwork that delivers it to the building's rooms, and vents that distribute it accomplish ventilation in a modern office building. A good ventilation design will distribute supply air uniformly, except in areas with heat- and vapor-producing office machines that require added airflow. Placing supply and exhaust vents sufficiently far apart allows fresh air to circulate more freely. ASHRAE has established a general guideline of 20 cubic feet of outside air per minute per person for an office environment to dilute building contaminants sufficiently and maintain a healthy environment.
Being the last of the great dock projects, St. Katherine's was also the smallest and most expensive, but enjoyed a location adjacent to the Tower, on the eastern edge of the City of London. This meant that, after the dock closed in 1969, St. Katherine's was among the first areas to be redeveloped. However, more than a few fine warehouses disappeared and a somewhat ordinary office building was erected called the World Trade Centre. K2 is rather more splendid a 16,000sq.m. replacement sitting on a prominent corner site. In essence, K2 is very simple making circulation eminently obvious (a fundamental aim of most Rogers' buildings), and the exterior is articulated at each corner by escape stairs and service lifts (cf Lloyd's '86, Lloyd's Register, and 88 Wood Street, as well as Channel 4). It is only when one sees these masters of the game at work that one realises how inept and overworked are most commercial office buildings. The output may bear strong family similarities (especially in...
Computer controls can save energy in hotels, motels, apartment houses, and larger commercial buildings. The computer provides the hottest water temperatures at the busiest hours. When usage is lower, the supply temperature is lowered and more hot water is mixed with less cold water at showers, lavatories, and sinks. Distributing cooler water to the fixture results in less heat lost along the pipes. The computer stores and adjusts a memory of the building's typical daily use patterns.
In 2006 real estate investment in green buildings grew dramatically with the announcement of a joint venture by the California Public Employees Retirement System (CalPERS) to fund future commercial real estate projects by the Hines development organization. A large national real estate developer, Hines is well-known for its commitment to Energy Star and LEED certification for its buildings.80 The Hines CalPERS Green Development Fund (HCG) was capitalized with over 120 million of committed equity and, with leverage, will have the ability to invest up to 500 million. HCG will concentrate on developing high-performance, sustainable office buildings certifiable through the LEED for Core and Shell Program.
Plumbing, and in office copy machines and other equipment. Decomposition of PVC produces over 60 gases, including hydrogen chloride, phosgene, and some carcinogens. Hydrogen chloride incapacitates a person, who may then succumb to carbon dioxide poisoning from smoke. Phosgene gas, a gas used in chemical warfare, is produced when PVC wiring insulation is subjected to electrical arcing in transformers and control panels during fires in commercial buildings.
Figure 6.14 shows the centre of Neu-Karow in Berlin whose commercial properties are built along its main through-street. The street has developed to provide a diverse range of shops, restaurants and other services. It is on a good route connecting across the neighbourhood and therefore benefits from passing trade, but is also within walking distance of the large local population. 3 Planned neighbourhood shops and facilities Zoned shops and facilities in planned neighbourhoods may struggle if they serve only a single, small neighbourhood, as they don't benefit from the vicinity to other primary uses or passing trade. New urbanist planning concepts acknowledge this, and typically locate any retailing element at the entrance to a community so that all residents have easy access, whilst passing trade from the main road users is also possible (Figure 6.15). The extent of the facilities may vary depending on the size of the planned neighbourhood. The Newpoint development, near Beaufort in...
Preassembled electric radiant heating panels (Fig. 24-8) are also available. They can be installed in a modular suspended ceiling system, or surface mounted to heat specific areas. Radiant heating panels can be installed at the edges of a space to provide additional heat with variable air volume systems. Applications include office building entryways and enclosed walkways. They are useful in hospital nurseries, and in hydrotherapy, burn, and trauma areas. Residential uses include bathrooms, above full height windows, and in other cold spots. Factory silicone sealed panels are available for use in high-moisture areas. Some panels can be silk-screened to provide an architectural blend with acoustical tiles. Custom colors are also available. Radiant heating panels operate at 66 C to 77 C (150 F-170 F).
In October 1929, Todd announced that L. Andrew Reinhard and Henry Hofmeister would produce an overall conceptual diagram (see Figure 7.11b). Their site plan clearly harkens back to the earlier plans by Benjamin Morris. A consortium of architects designed the final scheme. It consisted of Reinhard & Hofmeister, Corbett, Harrison and MacMurray, Raymond Hood, Goodley & Foilhoux, and Edward Durell Stone. The design was, however, very much guided by the aesthetic position taken by Raymond Hood. The overall urban design has Beaux-Arts overtones but the buildings have the streamlined verticality and massing of the Art Deco (see Figure 7.11c). The unity of the scheme is due to Hood's influence and the willingness of the other architects to submerge their own attitudes in order to achieve a single-unified complex. Despite the depression of the 1930s, work proceeded on the project from 1930 onwards. It and the Empire State building were the two major commercial building projects of the 1930s in...
There are various types of conductors (such as circuit breaker boxes to the individual switches, lights, and outlets) that supply power throughout a building. Non-metallic sheathed cable (NM), also known by the trade name Romex, consists of two or more plastic insulated conductors and ground wire surrounded by a moisture-resistant plastic jacket. This type of cable can be used in one and two-family dwellings, many multifamily and commercial buildings that do not exceed three floors or where it would be used as service entrance cable. However, unprotected Romex cable must not be installed within six feet of an attic access, nor within seven feet of a permanently installed attic stairway.There are also other restrictions that are outlined in the National Electrical Code (NEC), which the planner should be aware of. It is particularly important to review these restrictions and guidelines as there are a number of significant changes in the 2002 NEC regarding metal-clad (MC) cable.
Was voted outright winner in the 'Commercial Buildings' category of the 2008 9 RIBA Specification Awards. The awards identify excellence in the specification of architectural ironmongery, Laidlaw winning with architects Stone and Partners for the extensive supply of doors and associated products to the new 45 million Robert Wiseman Dairy in Bridgwater. It was also highly commended in the 'Sustainable Buildings' category for the new Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park Authority HQ, designed by Page and Park. searchable information archive at www.adfonline.eu Tel 01902 600431 www.laidlaw.net
In 1957 the head of the Carrier air conditioning corporation observed that whenever 20 percent of the office buildings in any one city include air conditioning, the remaining buildings must air-condition to maintain their first class status. 38 That process had apparently taken about ten years, and after the late 1950s it was largely assumed that a high-quality office building in an American city would be conditioned to some degree. The technology had been available for many decades, but it took the particular arms race dynamic of post-war real estate development to change it from a desire to a need. A similar process had occurred among movie houses in the 1930s, which along with luxury hotels had rapidly adopted air conditioning in the pre-war period once its competitive advantage had been In other words, once the real-estate process described in 1957 takes place, and conditioning becomes the norm for commercial buildings, then the scale and configuration of those buildings quickly...
The unfortunate fact about combining other activities with a stadium is that by its very nature the structure is inflexible with substantial supports at regular points around its perimeter. It is sometimes difficult to insert large spaces into this structure and therefore their inclusion must be planned from the beginning, tending to suggest a certain lack of flexibility. One alternative is to add these facilities on to the stadium as a separate but connected structure. This has been done successfully in a number of places in both Europe and the USA. Utrecht Stadium in Holland has a substantial office building grafted to its side, while the Hoosier Dome and a number of others in the USA have enormous exhibition and convention centres directly attached to the main stadium.
Central cleaning systems have been used in homes and commercial buildings for years. They are essentially built-in vacuum cleaners with powerful motors. As such, they can be used to trap dirt and dust inside the power unit equipment and away from rooms where people live and work, or they can be vented outdoors, decreasing exposure for people with dust allergies. The power unit is usually installed in a utility room, basement, or garage. Tubing running under the floor or in the attic connects through the walls to unobtrusive inlets placed conveniently throughout the building. When it's time to vacuum, a long flexible hose is inserted into an inlet and the system turns on automatically. The noise is kept at the remote location of the power unit. Most power units operate on a dedicated 15-A normal residential electrical circuit, but some larger units may require heavier wiring. Systems come with a variety of hoses and brushes. Installation is simplest in new construction. With a day or...
In order to address building security issues, the architect and interior designer must look at how people use the building. Most building security problems can be resolved with a combination of common sense and a little technology. Let's look at some common office building situations and their solutions. Burglary and vandalism cost owners of homes and commercial buildings many millions of dollars each year. Every effort put into making security improvements will be repaid many times in increased protection against loss and damage, and greater safety and
Workers would like at their workplaces. Markus (1967) found this to be the case in a survey of 400 employees in an office building in the United Kingdom, where windows were deemed extremely important because 'they supplied sunlight and a view to the outside.' Another survey of 162 workers in a renovated office building in St Louis, Missouri, also found that workers attached considerable importance to daylight and views, ranking them among the most essential attributes of the workplace (Ne'eman et al., 1984). Research suggests, however, that satisfaction with any environmental or physical attribute of the workplace and its importance rating by workers depends on the state of that attribute. Workers who are the least satisfied with an attribute, or those who don't have it at all, tend to consider it important. Those who are most satisfied with it might take it for granted and not attach as much importance to it as other workers who may have less of that attribute (Hopkinson, 1965...
Low industrial and commercial buildings of unprotected steel are considered to be incombustible, but there is an unlikely possibility that they may collapse rapidly in a hot fire before occupants have time to escape. Buildings constructed of heavy timber are considered to be slow burning buildings, and are permitted to be one to two stories higher than unprotected steel buildings. Plaster or plasterboard walls and ceilings offer one-half hour of protection for smaller wooden buildings.
Photovoltaic panels can substitute for other construction materials, providing a cost savings. New solar electric technology has made possible a number of products that serve another building function while acting as photovoltaic cells. Building integrated PV (BIPV) elements are structures that combine PV modules into roof panels, roofing tiles, wall panels, skylights, and other building materials, replacing traditional building elements. Companies in the United States, Japan, and Europe are actively pursuing new module designs. Solar roof shingles, structural metal roofing, and architectural metal roofing are now available, along with window glass. These products use flexible, lightweight panels designed to emulate conventional roofing materials in design, construction, function, and installation. Structural metal panels are used for PV-covered parking, charging stations for electric vehicles, park shelters and other covered outdoor spaces, and for commercial buildings. PV shingles...
Fifthly, and allied to the previous item, there is a growing recognition that there is a direct link between the quality of the workplace and the effect it has on the performance of its most costly resource - its employees. Problems such as sick building syndrome (SBS) and building-related illnesses (BRI) are becoming increasingly recognized in some office buildings. Chapter 8 contains a fuller examination of these issues in the context of adaptation generally. These businesses influences are affecting the level and type of demand for commercial property clients in particular and cannot be ignored. Internally, they have an impact on the following building-related issues
It was also during the 1970s that ordinary Iraqis' incomes improved thus encouraging construction activities in the private sector, such as houses, flats, hotels and commercial buildings. It became normal to turn the houses or the front gardens of large houses along the main streets into commercial buildings. These projects were often carried out by local architects and reflect a different level of architectural design quality and character.
Since moving into the Merrill Center in 2000, CBF has done extensive work with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the Department of Energy National Laboratory. NREL monitored the building's energy and water performance from November 2001 to November 2002. Annual energy usage was measured to be 39.9 kBtu square foot year, inclusive of plug loads and miscellaneous loads like exterior lighting and elevators. This is 59.0 percent less than typical office buildings based on 1995 data collected by the Energy Information Administration. Through NREL's analysis, CBF learned their plug loads were higher than what had been anticipated, so they went back to verify that all possible plug-ins, including soda machines, were on motion sensors, and that all office equipment purchased was Energy Star-rated. The center clearly leads by example, and the research done postoperation will be helpful for planning future high-performing commercial building designs. ing and reuse. The balance...
A developer plans to build an office building on a downtown lot in a medium-sized city. The Local Building Code describes setbacks and 72 ft envelope height limits for the property as shown in Fig. 3-52. The developer needs at least 8 ft clear floor-to-ceiling heights on each floor but as conventional steel frame construction requires about 12 ft from floor to floor with ceiling-to-floor heights being 30-36 in., the developer can fit only six floors of this construction into the 72 ft envelope height limit. However, she wonders if there may be a way to squeeze seven floors into the envelope, with each level measuring slightly more than 10 ft from floor to floor and 18-20 in. from finished ceiling to finished floor above. What kind of structural HVAC system would work well in this situation
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indoor air in the United States is now on average two to ten times more contaminated than the air outside. The World Health Organization (WHO) asserts that 40 percent of all buildings pose significant health hazards from indoor pollution, and WHO experts have observed unusually high rates of health and comfort complaints that could be related to indoor air quality (IAQ) from occupants in up to 30 percent of new or remodeled commercial buildings. Three major reasons for poor IAQ in office buildings are the presence of indoor air pollution sources poorly designed, maintained, or operated ventilation systems and uses of the building that were unanticipated or poorly planned for when the building was designed or renovated. Interior designers play a significant role in specifying materials that may contribute to indoor air pollution. We also are key players in the renovation of buildings to new uses and to accommodate new ways of...
Hourly computer simulations of heating and cooling loads are necessary for accurate calculations for large industrial or commercial buildings. Calculating the hourly heating and cooling energy use for a year requires a substantial computer program. Looking at hourly solar angles and intensities and analyzing shading patterns can determine when the peak load occurs in the course of a year. However, even the best estimates are based on average weather conditions, and can't take into consideration potential problems with construction quality and unusual weather. Any computer program's results are dependent upon the assumptions of the person selecting the input data. Hourly annual calculations are not usually done for simple residences, but may be required to estimate energy use for a passive-solar heated home.
The 48-story office building constructed in 1998 at 4 Times Square in New York was designed by Fox and Fowle, Architects, P.C. to integrate a variety of energy-saving features. Photovoltaic cells in the building facade along with fuel cell power packages generate power for hot water heating and electricity. A high-performance low-emissivity (low-e) glass curtain wall and efficient lighting with occupancy sensors and controls reduce the heating and cooling loads. Fresh air is increased by more than 50 percent above the usual amount for improved indoor air quality (IAQ), and a dedicated exhaust shaft rids the building of tobacco smoke and other pollution along with excess heat. Waste chutes and storage facilities expedite recycling. Centralized, automatic building management monitors air quality floor by floor to filter air and purge the system of pollutants. Environmentally friendly building materials and maintenance feature recycled and recyclable materials and supplies, further...
A cutting edge office building in the UK is the National Trust offices in Swindon by architects Fielden Clegg Bradley. Despite being a 'design and build' contract, the nominated architects were able to deliver a state of the art sustainable building. It is naturally ventilated and daylit,
While firms composed of more then tan lawyers generally carry on a diversified practice and hence choose central locations, some firms of five to ten lawyers may locate near their principal clients. The selection of space in the first story of a commercial building or the erection of a building may be considered, tf the clientele is concentrated in a suburban center or small satellite city, or a city of 50,000 or smaller, the scale of land values may be such lhat firststory space near the commercial center could be considered. Because of the high cost of land in the center of large cities, buildings, to be feasible, must be larger than needed by a single law officer hence selection of space in an etevatored office building is often the only answer.
Many people have begun using the term high-performance buildings instead of green buildings or sustainable buildings because they want to emphasize what is gained from these projects, not what is given up.68 High-performance also appeals to Americans we want everything turbo-charged and super-sized. A high-performance building is one in which energy and water efficiencies are high, indoor air quality is high, recycling rates are high, etc. This is a much easier concept to explain to most executives than a green building, which still sounds vaguely like a tree-hugger term. In my view, high-performance buildings are those that save at least 50 of the energy use of a standard building, compared with a database called the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Database, last updated in 2003.69 (The next survey will be conducted in 2007.) The table below shows an example of the information that's available from this database.
In Portland, the Jean Vollum Natural Capital Center is a great example of building renovation. Under the leadership of Ecotrust, a regional nonprofit, the ioo-year-old two-story warehouse was transformed into a modern office building. A partial third story was added onto the original build-
According to the US Green Building Council, the annual direct impacts of all US residential and commercial buildings include 39 of total energy use, 68 of electricity consumption and 30 of greenhouse gas emissions. Add in the embodied energy in making building materials, getting them to the job site, installing and servicing them, and total energy use is closer to 48 . Buildings make a major impact on just about every aspect of the world we live in building design and construction can account for up to 30 of raw materials use, 40 of non-industrial landfill waste (including 31 of the mercury in municipal waste) 12 of potable water use, according to the US Green Building Council and the US Environmental Protection Agency.5 Taking firm actions to reduce the environmental impacts of buildings can have a number of beneficial effects
There are substitutes, including phenol-formaldehyde, that emit far less formaldehyde gas. So why don't manufacturers and designers use them It's almost always related to cost and performance of the resin binder. In a LEED building, there is a credit for the use of composite wood and agricultural fiberboard products, including glulam beams, that don't use UF resins. In commercial buildings, where designers are specifying products that will influence the air quality for others, shouldn't they use furniture and other wood products that are odor-free, without toxic fumes
The focus in this section is the conversion of existing dwellings to other residential use. The main examples of these as summarized by Scottish Office Building Directorate (1987) are as follows According to the Scottish Office Building Directorate (1987) it is usually more complicated and expensive to convert from large to smaller dwellings than it is to form larger dwellings from small ones. This is because the subdivision of buildings involves the insertion of separating walls and floors, which can be difficult and disruptive. Also, when more dwellings are created within a restricted volume, a certain number of bed spaces are inevitably lost. These days, of course, with smaller household units being the norm, this is usually not a problem for the developer. Figure 4.1 Some of the ways four-in-a-block flats can be converted (Scottish Office Building Directorate, 1987)
Very limited information has been available for horse stable builders and designers to refer to when properly designing horse stable ventilation systems. Many of these architects and builders work primarily in the residential and commercial building industry, where moisture, odor, and dust loads are much lower than in horse stables. Even when the differences in environment are appreciated, the ventilation system may fail because of a lack of understanding on how to get fresh air into each horse's stall. Fewer builders are specializing in agricultural (i.e., horse and other livestock) construction and the environment within these structures. It is better to find an experienced builder who understands horse stable design and ventilation features but properly supplied with design ideas, inexperienced builders can tackle horse stable construction. With the low animal density of horse stabling (at about 4 pounds of horse per square foot) compared with other commercial livestock enterprises...
In some ways the call centre has brought maintenance closer to the building user it may be that for much work the need to track down the maintenance manager or building manager or estates manager has been circumvented or cut out completely. However, this has brought with it a certain depersonalisation. An attempt has been made to remedy or at least reduce this shortcoming for occupiers of commercial buildings, especially offices, by the introduction of the help desk.
An office building on American lines, which will be the largest and handsomest structure of the kind in the world . . . Along American lines means, of course, that the building will be a gigantic structure of steel faced with stone, and will be abundantly supplied with 30 Lifts, as well as with heating and lighting arrangements worked from a common source in the basement. (London Times, 1901, 20 November, p. 9)
If the solar wall heating is designed for a large contribution to heating (large solar fraction), passive measures against overheating in summer might not be sufficient. In this case, active shading elements have to be used. This also occurs if inhabitants do not tolerate temperature swings (for example, in an office building). The costs for active shading are considerable. The reason is that either the shading device must be integrated within the transparent insulation product or an external robust shading device must be installed. Wiring, weather protection, control from inside and power connection for motor drives add to the cost of the fa ade. If possible, shading should be combined for both windows and transparent insulation to reduce extra costs. Active shading adds about 200 to 250 m2 to the costs of the transparently insulated fa ade and should be avoided.
A dictionary definition of intelligence quoted in that paper included 'ability to understand, reason and perceive quickness in learning mental alertness ability to grasp relationships information' (Garmonsway, 1969). Thus intelligence may be located in people, in buildings and in systems. The development of hardware and software systems, including sensors of various kinds, controls, hard-wired, fibreoptic and wire-less systems, has facilitated both the automated intelligent office building, with fine-tuned, individual controlled environments, remote sensing and control, and the intelligent home.
An architect once remarked that the profession would be thoroughly enjoyable except for the fact that owners are involved. True enough perhaps, except that the owner is the party that sponsors the construction. He often, but not always, owns the ground on which the project is erected. Sometimes the owner is a professional developer who is erecting a turn-key project for a third party who will eventually have a fee-simple or complete ownership interest in the project, such as a single-family home or a commercial office building. Sometimes the project is for something less than fee-sim
Construction of the concrete frame for a mid-rise office building had just begun. Midmorning on the day of the first large concrete placement the architect's representative arrived and saw a worker adding water to a truckload of concrete. He immediately rejected the load, and an argument with the truck driver and job superintendent ensued. If a preconstruction conference were not held in advance of the work by all involved parties, once the work commences, it might be difficult to answer the following questions
There are, of course, many previously published books dealing with specific aspects of building adaptation. For example, the texts by Eley and Worthington (1984) and Highfield (1987) give an excellent grounding in the adaptive reuse of old industrial and commercial buildings. Moreover, the recently published two-volume work by Latham (2000) and the single volume by Highfield (2000) present a useful collection of case study examples illustrating different change of use and refurbishment projects respectively. However, there is no comprehensive introduction to the subject that covers the main physical interventions, excluding maintenance, to a property.
Different tasks require different levels of illumination.The nature of a task, the need for accuracy and efficiency, and the visual acuity of the occupants are all contributing factors. For example, navigating the lobby of a commercial office building requires minimal attention to detail and is not a task with unusual demands for speed or accuracy. Consequently, relatively low ambient lighting levels are acceptable. On the other hand, an accountant who spends much of her day reading and transcribing densely formatted, low-contrast financial statements and ledgers, and whose efficiency and accuracy of work are critical, requires significantly higher levels of task illumination. Follow the steps below to determine recommended lighting levels for a project and to estimate the size and quantity of daylight sources for your building.
Lighting is the major user of electrical energy in most buildings. In commercial buildings, motors are the second heaviest user of electrical energy, for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, plumbing pumps, elevators, and most industrial processes. Working with the building's architect and engineers, you, as the interior designer, are responsible for seeing that power is available where needed for your client's equipment, and for making sure that the lighting and appliances are appropriate and energy efficient.
Property professionals' responses to the access needs of disabled people in the UK are framed, in part, by a range of statutory and legal instruments. In England and Wales, the mechanism for securing access is Part M of the building regulations (the now disbanded Part T of the building standard regulation in Scotland, Part R in Northern Ireland). Part M was introduced in 1987, extended in 1992 and 1998, and seemed to be a radical breakthrough in access legislation in the way it widened the scope of control to all public and commercial buildings and, latterly, to residential dwellings
How integrated and segregated should the uses along streets be The evidence from what are generally regarded as 'great streets' is that they should have a unity of uses and setback on both sides (see A. Jacobs, 1993). The rule of thumb is to make blocks (i.e. both sides of a street) have the same uses (e.g. single family detached homes or retail shop fronts). In doing so the potential for the development of 'face-block' communities is created provided the streets are not heavily trafficked. How use-segregated should individual buildings be In Berlin 20 of commercial buildings should be residential to provide for the natural surveillance
There is tremendous economic pressure to reduce this height to a practical minimum in a tall building. A few inches saved per floor adds up to an enormous saving in the cost of structure, core components, and cladding. Sometimes it is possible to arrange the framing so that ductwork never passes beneath a girder. If the ductwork must cross the girders, the designers should explore such options as shallower ducts, running the ducts through holes cut in the webs of the girders, or reducing the depth of the girders by using a heavier steel shape. In the average tall office building, the height of the ceiling-floor assembly is about 46 in. (1170 mm).
Complex mechanical and electrical systems need a central point of supervision, control, and data collection. Office building control and automation systems control water, air conditioning, heating, ventilation, and electrical systems. They provide data on temperatures, pressures, flow, current, voltage, and mechanical systems for operational decisions and for programming automatic systems. They monitor all systems and act on all
In a conventional speculative office building in central London a structural floor plate would be invisible, hidden by suspended ceilings and raised floors. An energy-conscious building will try to maximise visible areas of exposed thermal mass, providing large low temperature radiant surfaces that behave as a thermal flywheel. Rooms need to be higher to allow air to stratify below the ceiling under its own buoyancy, at the same time as scooping as much daylight as possible from the window wall - suggesting a thin-walled sinusoidal section concrete slab, that both expresses the air supply to the room at the same time as using the minimum resources to provide a clear span of nearly 14m. The need to expose thermal mass suggests that the floor could be fairfaced reinforced concrete - omitting the suspended ceiling, with the concrete mix constituents designed to maximise daylight reflection. To satisfy the New Parliamentary Building (see Figure 14.6) brief requirement for an occupied room...
Burglaries in residential and commercial buildings are common occurrences. Burglaries frequently are not directed at a specific facility but towards targets of easy opportunity and low perceived risk. The most critical step in a burglary is entry. One of the most common means of entry involves a window, either opened or broken to serve as a portal or to provide a means of unlocking an entrance door.
The administrative offices may be housed in a municipal office building or city hall, or at a headquarters or central fire station- Headquarters may include offices and facilities for the chief of department, the fire prevention diviaion, the planning and research staff, the budget or fiscal bureau, the personnel department, the fire investigation bureau, and the medical officer, The exact facilities needed will vary with the organization of the individual department, It Is desirable to arrange the headquarters offices so that the general public will not have to paea through tha apparatus room or fire fighters quarters to reach the offices.
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