Commercial Real Estate Financing

Commercial Real Estate Funding System

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Commercial Real Estate Funding System Overview

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Vacancy of nonresidential buildings

The vacancy and under-utilization of many commercial buildings is indicative of an oversupply problem. Property analysts have shown that reckless over-investment in property was a major factor in several macro-economic crises. For example, several major financial crises such as the Savings and Loans scandal in the USA in the early 1980s the UK property crash in 1992 and, the global economic crisis of the mid-1990s precipitated by the monetary problems in Asia. According to some economists all of these financial slumps share a common cause they spring from the momentum of markets outstripping economic realities. In other words, these economic crises all have their roots in prices over-reaching values.

Curtain Walling And Roof Light Replaced In Office Building By Structura Uk

The refurbishment and upgrading of a 2-storey office building in Stockley Park East, near Heathrow Airport, included the replacement by Structura UK Ltd of a large rooflight and all the glass and aluminium panels in the existing curtain walling. Structura UK manufactured bespoke aluminium extrusions to match existing, incorporating new, soft coat, Low E specification double-glazed units, and installed new, aluminium panels approximately 2200mm x 1500mm x 76mm in thickness

DESIGN and Construction of Office Buildings

Commercial buildings present a set of design issues that differ somewhat from those encountered in residential structures. In critical spaces such as classrooms, theaters, and studios, much of the information presented in Chapt. 15 is still applicable. In commercial office buildings the uses can vary, and may include less sensitive spaces. Structures are likely to be multistory, with an air handling unit on each floor located in a central core, along with other services such as elevator shafts, stairwells, and bathrooms. Mechanical equipment is also located on the roof, sometimes directly above the most prestigious and expensive floor space. The main air ducts are sized, based on the clearance afforded by the ceiling heights, and velocities may be relatively high. Air is likely to be returned through a common plenum, which complicates the room-to-room noise transmission problem.

Environmental improvements to nonresidential buildings Entrance foyer

As in housing, improved access for disabled people is another important requirement for commercial properties. This is especially the case with buildings that are used by the public. Buildings whose entrances are at ground level pose little trouble in providing access for disabled users. The same cannot be said about buildings that have steps leading up to the main entrance. A side ramp with handrail can be installed to overcome this problem (see Figure 9.16). The opportunity to upgrade the surrounding areas of a commercial building may be taken as part of its overall refurbishment. This could include works such as follows

Design Considerations For Office Buildings

* Its representational and office building nature The following space standards are established for purposes of planning consistency and cost control and for these reasons should be adhered to. This does not preclude variations where such are necessary to provide for special requirements at a particular post. In addition to specific space variations, the site and locale may dictate that the service functions may preferably be located in a structure separate from the office building,

Example Pencil Rendering of an Office Building

Earthbags Building Drawing

New York City (Renderer Edward Devine White. Jr Student project.) Fig. 9.19 An Office Building. New York City (Renderer Edward Devine White. Jr Student project.) 1. A general gray value was given to the shade side of the office building by hatching with the side of a BB pencil in several directions. Then each portion of this side was in turn masked with 8l - X 1 1-inch pad paper and rubbed with a clean chamois (see Figure 9.17, sketch d). The spandrels were then given the same treatment in order to make them darker than the glass areas. They were shaded with a BB pencil. 8. After the entire office building had been rendered, rough edges (places where hatching had gotten into the sky area) were cleaned with a kneaded eraser by masking the building with pad paper and then erasing in a wiping motion away from the building.

Commercial buildings Building types

Before looking at the constructional characteristics of commercial buildings it would be useful to classify their main forms of construction. They can be divided into two broad groups unframed and framed. Suitable for low-rise factory and warehouse properties, and for top storey extensions to flat-roofed commercial buildings (see Chapters 7 and 9). A form of industrialized construction used for commercial buildings such as hotels. The constructional characteristics of commercial buildings are varied. Generally, however, they are of either concrete or steel frame construction clad with stone or lightweight cladding. Table 2.6 summarizes the main differences. Table 2.6 Characteristics of different commercial building types (Martin and Gold, 1999) Table 2.6 Characteristics of different commercial building types (Martin and Gold, 1999)

Industrial and Commercial Buildings

The types of commercial buildings which use bales have included residential-type structures like bed-and-breakfasts, wineries, and motorcycle shops. More and more of these structures have been built, and as with residential straw bale, the learning curve will be steep, as the best ways to integrate bales with commercial architecture are discovered and fine tuned.

Preface to 1st edition

There are, of course, many previously published books dealing with specific aspects of building adaptation. For example, the texts by Eley and Worthington (1984) and Highfield (1987) give an excellent grounding in the adaptive reuse of old industrial and commercial buildings. Moreover, the recently published two-volume work by Latham (2000) and the single volume by Highfield (2000) present a useful collection of case study examples illustrating different change of use and refurbishment projects respectively. However, there is no comprehensive introduction to the subject that covers the main physical interventions, excluding maintenance, to a property.

Resource Depletion and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

According to the US Green Building Council, the annual direct impacts of all US residential and commercial buildings include 39 of total energy use, 68 of electricity consumption and 30 of greenhouse gas emissions. Add in the embodied energy in making building materials, getting them to the job site, installing and servicing them, and total energy use is closer to 48 . Buildings make a major impact on just about every aspect of the world we live in building design and construction can account for up to 30 of raw materials use, 40 of non-industrial landfill waste (including 31 of the mercury in municipal waste) 12 of potable water use, according to the US Green Building Council and the US Environmental Protection Agency.5 Taking firm actions to reduce the environmental impacts of buildings can have a number of beneficial effects

Performance management The performance concept

Adaptation is interpreted here as performance adjustment maintenance, as performance upkeep. The influences of these two major forms of intervention are illustrated in Figure 1.7. But they are not the same for all building types. Figure 1.8, for example, contrasts the maintenance and adaptation cycles of residential and commercial buildings, which have different characteristics in terms of both use and form.

High and dry Watergate 162627

I Gardens, adjacent to Embankment station and Terry Farrell's Charing Cross office building, is contentiously attributed to Jones but was, in any case, executed by Nicholas Stone (1586-1647), a mason who (among other things) also worked on the Banqueting House. He was born near Exeter, spent time in Holland and returned to Southwark, where he set up a large practice, becoming the King's Mason to James I in 1619 and to Charles I in 1626. The gate sat on the water's edge before the Embankment was constructed and bears reference to the Fontaine de Medicis at the Luxemburg, in Paris. If he is the true author of the work, then it again underscores change going on in the tradition of masons and their adoption of a more cerebral posture.

You Draw Inspiration From The World Around

But the most controversial aspect of this makeover was the city's demolition of several historic structures in the drive to get ready for the Super Bowl. Among the buildings to fall in the weeks and months prior to the game on February 5 were the landmark Statler Hotel, a well-known 1914 high-rise the Madison-Lenox Hotel, a more modest, eight-story structure that was part of the city's Madison-Harmonie Historic District and the Donovan Building, a circa-1920 office building by architect Albert Kahn that once housed the Motown Music headquarters. Several smaller structures fell, too, leaving big gaps in the downtown streetscape. Francis Grunow, executive director of nonprofit group Preservation Wayne, gives Kilpatrick credit for helping developers remake several early-20th-century office buildings downtown into residential lofts. But he worries over the pace of demolition.

Functional and constructional efficiency

Project can pass as real architecture is doubtful 'It is much more a monument than the headquarters building of offices and meeting rooms to which it pretends' (Kopp, 1985). Other examples of Russian constructivism include Alexander and Victor Vesnin's office building for Leningrad-Pravda (1924) and El. Lissitzky's 'Wolkenbugels' (1925) in Moscow (Van Heuvel and Verbrugge, 1996). The preferred arrangement was for lifts to move up and down on the outside of the building. In England in the 1960s, Archigram, a group of young architects, again gave technology pride of place as the starting point for architecture. The group favoured large-scale load-bearing systems into which prefabricated elements could later be inserted to produce the required dwellings or business accommodation. Such buildings were often referred to as high-tech, because of their emphasis on technology. Well-known examples include Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers' Pompidou Centre in Paris (Figure 2.4), Norman Foster's...

The Cast Of Characters

An architect once remarked that the profession would be thoroughly enjoyable except for the fact that owners are involved. True enough perhaps, except that the owner is the party that sponsors the construction. He often, but not always, owns the ground on which the project is erected. Sometimes the owner is a professional developer who is erecting a turn-key project for a third party who will eventually have a fee-simple or complete ownership interest in the project, such as a single-family home or a commercial office building. Sometimes the project is for something less than fee-sim

Storage Tank Water Heaters

Residential and small commercial buildings usually use centrally located storage tank water heaters. Some buildings combine a central tank with additional tanks near the end use to help reduce heat lost in pipes. Circulating storage water heaters heat the water first by a coil, and then circulate it through the storage tank.

Why Inadequate Ventilation

Very limited information has been available for horse stable builders and designers to refer to when properly designing horse stable ventilation systems. Many of these architects and builders work primarily in the residential and commercial building industry, where moisture, odor, and dust loads are much lower than in horse stables. Even when the differences in environment are appreciated, the ventilation system may fail because of a lack of understanding on how to get fresh air into each horse's stall. Fewer builders are specializing in agricultural (i.e., horse and other livestock) construction and the environment within these structures. It is better to find an experienced builder who understands horse stable design and ventilation features but properly supplied with design ideas, inexperienced builders can tackle horse stable construction. With the low animal density of horse stabling (at about 4 pounds of horse per square foot) compared with other commercial livestock enterprises...

Bloombergs Reuters on steroids

This is really a building to see on the inside, but you can get into the building's public art gallery and gain views through to the inner workings (otherwise try the Open House London weekend event). On the outside it is two buildings a 'grand manner' building from the 1920's adjacent to a new 17,000 sq.m. commercial office building from Foster's studio (bizarrely posing as SOM circa 1960 via Ungers), unified by Julian Powell-Tuck's superb interior work (which includes coloured floor coding which can be seen from the street).

Impact on rental and capital values

Adapting a building is more likely to have a positive rather than negative impact on both its rental and capital values. A refurbished commercial property is more appealing to prospective tenants and therefore it can command a better level of rent. Similarly, the capital value of a refurbished property because of this improvement in its attractiveness is more likely to secure a prospective buyer. However, as indicated earlier there is no guarantee that the increase in value will match the outlay associated with the adaptation work.

Alkaline cleaning agent

See types of door illustration. 5i see office building illustration. 60 alligatoring see crocodiling. allocation see appropriation. allotment a small plot of usually public land, often in an urban setting, set aside for the cultivation of vegetables and other plants by local inhabitants. allowance, 1 clearance, installation allowance spaces left between adjacent components in design such as the space between a hinged door leaf or window casement and its frame, to allow for fitting, installation, manufacturing tolerances, expansion, workmanship and movement. 5i 2 see rebate.

Large Building Solid Waste Collection

Both the building's occupants and the custodial staff must cooperate for successful recycling in a large building. Office building operations generate large quantities of recyclable white paper, newspaper, and box cardboard, along with nonrecyclable but burnable trash, including floor sweepings. Offices also produce food scraps (including coffee grounds) and metals and glass from food containers. Dumping this all into one collection bin saves space, but with high landfill use costs, separation and recycling spaces are becoming more and more common. The collection process for recycling in larger build- i( ings has three stages (Fig. 12-2). First, white paper, recyclables, compostables, and garbage are deposited in separate compartments near the employees' desks. In order to make an office building recycling system work, the interior designer must often design a whole series of multiple bins and the trails that connect them. Office systems manufacturers are beginning to address some of...

An Abortive American High Rise for Londons Strand

An office building on American lines, which will be the largest and handsomest structure of the kind in the world . . . Along American lines means, of course, that the building will be a gigantic structure of steel faced with stone, and will be abundantly supplied with 30 Lifts, as well as with heating and lighting arrangements worked from a common source in the basement. (London Times, 1901, 20 November, p. 9)

Adding value through design

The design fees and construction costs of a typical office building are a tiny proportion of the total costs of a building. Operations, maintenance, finance and employees often account for as much as 99 . Arguments for increased investment at the design stage are persuasive. It makes excellent business sense to seek a design and construction process that minimises capital cost, maximises those attributes that contribute to better business operation and minimises those elements that will be a financial drain over the building's life.

Background Triggers for building conversion

Much of the existing building stock built in days long gone is of an inferior quality. This has necessitated replacement rather than the reuse of obsolete or redundant buildings. Moreover, owing to the paucity of suitable buildings, the rapid increases in demand for residential and commercial properties could only be met by new-build schemes.

Energy Use Calculations

Hourly computer simulations of heating and cooling loads are necessary for accurate calculations for large industrial or commercial buildings. Calculating the hourly heating and cooling energy use for a year requires a substantial computer program. Looking at hourly solar angles and intensities and analyzing shading patterns can determine when the peak load occurs in the course of a year. However, even the best estimates are based on average weather conditions, and can't take into consideration potential problems with construction quality and unusual weather. Any computer program's results are dependent upon the assumptions of the person selecting the input data. Hourly annual calculations are not usually done for simple residences, but may be required to estimate energy use for a passive-solar heated home.

Heating And Cooling System Components

The front end (or head end) of the system is where the energy or fuel consumption or heat collection occurs. The equipment here is selected for its capacity to offset the peak load of the zones it is serving, and to bring them back from the lower temperature that they are set at when not in use to the normal operating condition. For example, the air-conditioning equipment will be sized to cool the spaces in an office building it serves enough to counteract the hottest days that are expected. When the air-conditioning is shut off or reduced at night, the building will warm up somewhat. The equipment will need to be able to cool off the building to an acceptable temperature the next morning. The front end may consist of a central heat source, such as a furnace, a steam or hot water boiler, a solar collector, a geother-mal well, or a heating water converter. The front end may also include a central cooling source like a chiller, direct expansion (DX) air conditioner, or evaporative...

Indoor Air Contaminants

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indoor air in the United States is now on average two to ten times more contaminated than the air outside. The World Health Organization (WHO) asserts that 40 percent of all buildings pose significant health hazards from indoor pollution, and WHO experts have observed unusually high rates of health and comfort complaints that could be related to indoor air quality (IAQ) from occupants in up to 30 percent of new or remodeled commercial buildings. Three major reasons for poor IAQ in office buildings are the presence of indoor air pollution sources poorly designed, maintained, or operated ventilation systems and uses of the building that were unanticipated or poorly planned for when the building was designed or renovated. Interior designers play a significant role in specifying materials that may contribute to indoor air pollution. We also are key players in the renovation of buildings to new uses and to accommodate new ways of...

Fig 349 Highvelocity air ducting layout

The developers of the 8-story office building near Cleveland, Ohio, that was designed in Example 1 of the previous section have decided that, due to excess space and added weight requirements, the building's HVAC system should have smaller and lighter high-velocity ducting. Using the same site and building data presented in the previous section, size the system

Benchmark Wessex Water ENVEST

Wessex Water are a waste and water company based in the south-west of England. When they set about building a new office building for their 500 staff, they were keen that it reflected their commitment to sustainability and energy conservation. The resulting 10 000m2 building comprises office space, a caf and meeting training rooms. It is naturally ventilated with energy-efficient lighting, solar hot water heating and rainwater harvesting for non-potable uses. It achieved an excellent rating through BREEAM.

Residential conversions

The focus in this section is the conversion of existing dwellings to other residential use. The main examples of these as summarized by Scottish Office Building Directorate (1987) are as follows According to the Scottish Office Building Directorate (1987) it is usually more complicated and expensive to convert from large to smaller dwellings than it is to form larger dwellings from small ones. This is because the subdivision of buildings involves the insertion of separating walls and floors, which can be difficult and disruptive. Also, when more dwellings are created within a restricted volume, a certain number of bed spaces are inevitably lost. These days, of course, with smaller household units being the norm, this is usually not a problem for the developer. Figure 4.1 Some of the ways four-in-a-block flats can be converted (Scottish Office Building Directorate, 1987)

Project background and the design process

The 7 hectare site was the much contaminated location of a former steel mill (only the office building remained), but given the IBA theme 'working in the park', it has undergone a complete transformation. Indeed, the incorporation of a public park into the Kiessler and Partner proposal, with the new building on one edge of the site, appeared to be an important influence on the competition jury's (unanimous) decision to select that design.

Diamond Schmitt Architects

A theater is a strange animal of a building, says Jennifer Mallard of Diamond + Schmitt Architects. While theaters always pose technical hurdles, in the case of the newly completed Sidney Harman Hall in Washington, D.C., there were unusual constraints and challenges, says Mallard, who was the project architect. To start, the theater is sited in a mixed-use building - the three stories owned by the Shakespeare Theatre Company lie immediately below the offices of a bricklayer's union. They have different hours and routines, and there are acoustic isolation concerns. In some of the shows, you have pyrotechnics going off below an office building.

Strategies for Nurturing Attachment to Urban Parks

New York City, large hedges surrounding the park made it difficult to see who was using the park. The park was perceived as an unsafe place and became the haven for drug dealers and other criminal activity. One of the key changes to the park's successful renovation in the 1980s was removing these hedges and increasing visibility from nearby streets and office building (Project for Public Spaces 2000a).

Photovoltaics and Fuel Cells

The 48-story office building constructed in 1998 at 4 Times Square in New York was designed by Fox and Fowle, Architects, P.C. to integrate a variety of energy-saving features. Photovoltaic cells in the building facade along with fuel cell power packages generate power for hot water heating and electricity. A high-performance low-emissivity (low-e) glass curtain wall and efficient lighting with occupancy sensors and controls reduce the heating and cooling loads. Fresh air is increased by more than 50 percent above the usual amount for improved indoor air quality (IAQ), and a dedicated exhaust shaft rids the building of tobacco smoke and other pollution along with excess heat. Waste chutes and storage facilities expedite recycling. Centralized, automatic building management monitors air quality floor by floor to filter air and purge the system of pollutants. Environmentally friendly building materials and maintenance feature recycled and recyclable materials and supplies, further...

Access and statutory regulations in the United Kingdom

Property professionals' responses to the access needs of disabled people in the UK are framed, in part, by a range of statutory and legal instruments. In England and Wales, the mechanism for securing access is Part M of the building regulations (the now disbanded Part T of the building standard regulation in Scotland, Part R in Northern Ireland). Part M was introduced in 1987, extended in 1992 and 1998, and seemed to be a radical breakthrough in access legislation in the way it widened the scope of control to all public and commercial buildings and, latterly, to residential dwellings

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National Life Insurance Company Office Building, Chicago, Illinois, 1924 (project) Albert Johnson, President ot the National Lite Insurance Company of Chicago, came to the office of Frank Lloyd Wright early in the year 1924. t ie was immensely impressed by the performance of the Imperial Hotel during the Kahto earthquake in 1923 and wanted an office building that employed the same principle of construction the reinforced concrete cant i levered floor slab. Wright's design for the 39-storey office tower was his answer to Johnson's request, with one other very special request not too much glass on the exterior wall surface. En this case, the floors are cantilevered from centrally placed interior supports, and from the slab edges the screen walls are composed of glass and sheet metal (copper).

Engineering a Sustainable World

Building design focuses so much on architecture that many people forget that it's the engineers who make all the building systems work, from structural systems to heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) to plumbing, lighting, electricity, technology systems, external water supply and waste disposal, fire protection and life-safety systems. About 15 to 20 of the construction cost of a typical commercial building is taken up by engineered systems, not by the building structure or furnishings, while an additional 15 to 20 comes from the civil construction outside the building.49 It's easy to see that the engineer's role is critical to achieving high-performance building design with economy.

Moisture and Dust Protection

Because of the dust and high humidity in horse housing and indoor arenas, install dust- and moisture-resistant fixtures. The common incandescent and fluorescent fixtures used in residential and commercial building applications are not appropriate for the stables, arena, and other high-dust and -moisture areas. In the damp and or dusty buildings found on horse farms, more rugged dust-proof and moisture-resistant fixtures are needed. A dust- and water-tight fixture for incandescent light is shown in Figure 11.7. It is nonmetallic, has a heat-resistant globe to cover the bulb, and can be rated for up to 150 watt. Because the temperature in these fixtures is higher than in standard fixtures, be sure to use the proper electrical wire that is recommended by the

Furniture and Finishes

There are substitutes, including phenol-formaldehyde, that emit far less formaldehyde gas. So why don't manufacturers and designers use them It's almost always related to cost and performance of the resin binder. In a LEED building, there is a credit for the use of composite wood and agricultural fiberboard products, including glulam beams, that don't use UF resins. In commercial buildings, where designers are specifying products that will influence the air quality for others, shouldn't they use furniture and other wood products that are odor-free, without toxic fumes

Pressley Associates

West Podium Park is an elevated green space along a road that bridges sp. between a hotel and an office building. The desire was to create an ar sustainable rooftop landscape that function as a soothing green open pea space in the new evolving Seaport District of South Boston.

Consequences and outcomes establish briefing process recommendations

In other sectors of construction, and the commercial office building sector is a good example, there has been considerable development in researching the procurement methodologies. As might be expected, they tend to be based on management philosophies, derived from a business school approach to efficiency, accountability, logic and analytical audit trails to demonstrate a rigorous examination of all the issues. But medical buildings are different the emotional responses are highly charged by most patients when visiting a health facility and the spiritual dimension is brought more sharply into focus than when walking into your office for another day at work. Putting it rather simply, design methodologies have evolved along a linear route from inception to final design, and this has been the case for most building types. More recently, design methodologies have become more sophisticated, with the benefit of additional research, and the circular nature of some design decisions have been...

How Electrical Systems Work

Lighting is the major user of electrical energy in most buildings. In commercial buildings, motors are the second heaviest user of electrical energy, for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, plumbing pumps, elevators, and most industrial processes. Working with the building's architect and engineers, you, as the interior designer, are responsible for seeing that power is available where needed for your client's equipment, and for making sure that the lighting and appliances are appropriate and energy efficient.

Form and fabric how to minimise heat requirements

Emslie Morgan's Wallasey School was the first notable UK building to seek a passive heating standard (albeit with an overemphasis on lighting inefficiency) and no-heating solutions have since been achieved in a significant number of commercial buildings, e.g. supermarkets and exhibition centres. These need to be judged on their genuine merits. In many of these it is the high levels of internal heat gains, including lighting, that meet all the heating requirements, and overheating is the biggest problem.

Highperformance Buildings

Many people have begun using the term high-performance buildings instead of green buildings or sustainable buildings because they want to emphasize what is gained from these projects, not what is given up.68 High-performance also appeals to Americans we want everything turbo-charged and super-sized. A high-performance building is one in which energy and water efficiencies are high, indoor air quality is high, recycling rates are high, etc. This is a much easier concept to explain to most executives than a green building, which still sounds vaguely like a tree-hugger term. In my view, high-performance buildings are those that save at least 50 of the energy use of a standard building, compared with a database called the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Database, last updated in 2003.69 (The next survey will be conducted in 2007.) The table below shows an example of the information that's available from this database.

Overheating protection by solar shading

If the solar wall heating is designed for a large contribution to heating (large solar fraction), passive measures against overheating in summer might not be sufficient. In this case, active shading elements have to be used. This also occurs if inhabitants do not tolerate temperature swings (for example, in an office building). The costs for active shading are considerable. The reason is that either the shading device must be integrated within the transparent insulation product or an external robust shading device must be installed. Wiring, weather protection, control from inside and power connection for motor drives add to the cost of the fa ade. If possible, shading should be combined for both windows and transparent insulation to reduce extra costs. Active shading adds about 200 to 250 m2 to the costs of the transparently insulated fa ade and should be avoided.

Energy Conservation And Demand Control

Sophisticated, sensitive electronic equipment is becoming a greater part of the commercial building electric load. Computers, building automation systems, telephone automation systems, printers, fax machines, PC networks, and copiers are commonplace. This high-tech equipment can save energy by limiting space requirements, reducing the need for direct meetings, and replacing the hand delivery of documents, but it uses electricity to do these things. Look for the Energy Star symbol on computers and home office equipment, especially color monitors and laser printers.

Historic Preservation

In Portland, the Jean Vollum Natural Capital Center is a great example of building renovation. Under the leadership of Ecotrust, a regional nonprofit, the ioo-year-old two-story warehouse was transformed into a modern office building. A partial third story was added onto the original build-

Intelligent maintenance

A dictionary definition of intelligence quoted in that paper included 'ability to understand, reason and perceive quickness in learning mental alertness ability to grasp relationships information' (Garmonsway, 1969). Thus intelligence may be located in people, in buildings and in systems. The development of hardware and software systems, including sensors of various kinds, controls, hard-wired, fibreoptic and wire-less systems, has facilitated both the automated intelligent office building, with fine-tuned, individual controlled environments, remote sensing and control, and the intelligent home.

Kingspan Optimo For Optimal Design Impact

A high-specification new office building in Lancashire has benefited from the visual impact of a wall cladding system from Kingspan Insulated Panels. Hafley Court provides 20,000 sq. ft of office space over four floors. CJ Partnership, the a rch itects of the 1.5 million project, found the ultra-flat profile of Kingspan Optimo met all of their design demands. A smooth and consistent appearance to the building envelope was an important consideration. With Kingspan's

Reengineering ways ahead

The studies on which this chapter is based have identified some factors leading toward the development of call-centred maintenance, particularly in the UK domestic market. Observations from the commercial property market also demonstrate the critical need for a human face or interface with information and intelligent systems.

The Process Of Lighting Design

Until 1973, daylighting was considered part of architectural design, not part of lighting design. Since an artificial lighting system had to be installed anyway, the practice was to ignore daylight, even to the extent of shutting it out completely. However, when the energy crisis hit in the mid-1970s, the extensive use of electrical energy in nonresidential buildings for lighting drove designers to integrate the cheapest, most abundant, and in many ways most desirable form of lighting, daylighting. ergy used. Lighting comprises 20 to 30 percent of a commercial building's electrical energy usage percentages are higher for residences and lower for industrial buildings. Good lighting design can save up to half of the electrical power used for lighting.

Lighting Public Toilet Rooms

With a large number of plumbing fixtures and high volume use, good lighting is essential for keeping public bathrooms clean and pleasant. Whether we are designing a restroom for an office building, where the same people will use it every day, or for a public space, creating a good impression with lighting enhances the interior design.

Intelligent Buildings

Complex mechanical and electrical systems need a central point of supervision, control, and data collection. Office building control and automation systems control water, air conditioning, heating, ventilation, and electrical systems. They provide data on temperatures, pressures, flow, current, voltage, and mechanical systems for operational decisions and for programming automatic systems. They monitor all systems and act on all

Machine for Living In

Perhaps the ultimate machine symbol is the modern office building. It not only works like a machine but also sometimes assumes a machine aesthetic. There are no external variations of Hong Kong Office Building. (Photo by John Knowles.) Hong Kong Office Building. (Photo by John Knowles.)

Beyond the call centre coming closer to home through the help desk

In some ways the call centre has brought maintenance closer to the building user it may be that for much work the need to track down the maintenance manager or building manager or estates manager has been circumvented or cut out completely. However, this has brought with it a certain depersonalisation. An attempt has been made to remedy or at least reduce this shortcoming for occupiers of commercial buildings, especially offices, by the introduction of the help desk.

Preconstruction conferences

Construction of the concrete frame for a mid-rise office building had just begun. Midmorning on the day of the first large concrete placement the architect's representative arrived and saw a worker adding water to a truckload of concrete. He immediately rejected the load, and an argument with the truck driver and job superintendent ensued. If a preconstruction conference were not held in advance of the work by all involved parties, once the work commences, it might be difficult to answer the following questions

Mixeduse Building Access Servicing And Sound

Sometimes commercial buildings have a larger footprint than residential uses and so it may be possible to use the additional area on the exposed roof for residential gardens, balconies or access (Figure 6.32). Commercial buildings often need servicing areas for deliveries, for operational parking or for the storage of rubbish. It is important to make sure that such areas don't come into conflict with residential uses and that they aren't easily overlooked by people living above (Figure 6.34).

Office Communications Systems

Office building communications require large amounts of space in critical locations. Planning for communications must be done simultaneously with other space planning, although exact amounts of space needed are usually not known at the planning stage. Planning must take into account changes in space use and increases in communications and data transmission services that are likely in the future. Estimates for plan Typically, an office building has a service entrance room or equipment room where the incoming cable or network cable enters. The service entrance room contains terminated empty conduits for expansion and data cables and a network cable splice box. Connection (network interface) cabinets connect building equipment, including phones, modems, and faxes. The service entrance room should be dry, well ventilated, and well lighted for close work in wiring and color recognition. A minimum of two 20-A duplex convenience circuits on a separate circuit should be supplied. Larger...

Typical internal refurbishment Common areas

Common parts of an office block such as entrance halls, stairs, as well as statutory fire escape requirements and landings lend themselves easily to refurbishment. These areas are the most conspicuous and most heavily used parts of commercial properties. Thus, their refurbishment rate may be higher than for other parts of the building. Internal refurbishment of a commercial building can entail more than redecoration of the wall finishes. It can include stripping out existing finishes and installation of new wall panelling and doors. The doors would need to be attractive but robust and have adequate fire resistance.

The Search For Modernity

Sexton, American Commercial Buildings of Today, 2. The author cites Bertram Goodhue's monumental state capitol building in Lincoln, Nebraska, as an example of an ultramodern building. It is a work whose Gothic verticality, exterior decoration, and emphatic massing contain extremely historicizing elements but whose individual components for example, its punctured windows without decorative embasures indicate new architectural ideas.

Fire Department Stations And Buildings

The administrative offices may be housed in a municipal office building or city hall, or at a headquarters or central fire station- Headquarters may include offices and facilities for the chief of department, the fire prevention diviaion, the planning and research staff, the budget or fiscal bureau, the personnel department, the fire investigation bureau, and the medical officer, The exact facilities needed will vary with the organization of the individual department, It Is desirable to arrange the headquarters offices so that the general public will not have to paea through tha apparatus room or fire fighters quarters to reach the offices.

Combining thermal storage with ventilation aircooled structures

In a conventional speculative office building in central London a structural floor plate would be invisible, hidden by suspended ceilings and raised floors. An energy-conscious building will try to maximise visible areas of exposed thermal mass, providing large low temperature radiant surfaces that behave as a thermal flywheel. Rooms need to be higher to allow air to stratify below the ceiling under its own buoyancy, at the same time as scooping as much daylight as possible from the window wall - suggesting a thin-walled sinusoidal section concrete slab, that both expresses the air supply to the room at the same time as using the minimum resources to provide a clear span of nearly 14m. The need to expose thermal mass suggests that the floor could be fairfaced reinforced concrete - omitting the suspended ceiling, with the concrete mix constituents designed to maximise daylight reflection. To satisfy the New Parliamentary Building (see Figure 14.6) brief requirement for an occupied room...

Taking stock and minimising fan power

A research test rig funded by the EU at the Conphoebus solar research station in Sicily began by using mechanical ventilation fans to bring roof-level fresh air down vertical ducts built into the facade to supply each floor. However, a test installation with larger thermal flues built onto the existing Conphoebus low-energy office building (see Figure 14.12) achieved an exhaust airspeed of 1.5 metres per second exit velocity and satisfactory internal comfort conditions by taking fresh air on the north facade at each floor level, and using passive stack ventilation with no fans.

Designing The Ceilingfloor Plenum Space

There is tremendous economic pressure to reduce this height to a practical minimum in a tall building. A few inches saved per floor adds up to an enormous saving in the cost of structure, core components, and cladding. Sometimes it is possible to arrange the framing so that ductwork never passes beneath a girder. If the ductwork must cross the girders, the designers should explore such options as shallower ducts, running the ducts through holes cut in the webs of the girders, or reducing the depth of the girders by using a heavier steel shape. In the average tall office building, the height of the ceiling-floor assembly is about 46 in. (1170 mm).

RWE Headquarters Essen Germany

Back to the northern hemisphere, to Germany again, for the last of the buildings completed in 1996, Designed to house the 500 headquarters staff of the (RWE) AG, this 32m diameter, 34-storey tower, and associated seven-storey building is in the centre of the German city of Essen. The site is just one block south of the Central Station, on the east side of the Opernplatz, directly opposite the Alvar Aalto-designed theatre (Figure 15.1). With a height of 120m, Hochhaus RWE is reputed to be the tallest office building in the Ruhr area (Plate 26) and with a completion date of December 1996, it is claimed to be the first ecological high-rise building (at least in Germany) by virtue of its being finished just ahead of the Commerzbank in Frankfurt (see Chapter 3).

Radiant Heating and Cooling

In commercial buildings, radiant cooling strategies are getting a new look, through the introduction of chilled beams (fins with water tubing that can circulate cool water, providing a surface that appears cool to our bodies even with warmer-than-normal air temperatures). Radiant floors can also be used for heating in cooler climates or for cooling in buildings that require year-round air conditioning. They can also be used in assembly spaces (such as an atrium of a larger building) when exact temperature controls are not required. One LEED Gold-certified renovation project

Requirements for sustainable adaptation Profitability

In an adapted building this can be best achieved by reducing energy consumption and minimizing heat losses. Lighting, for example, accounts for the majority of energy consumption in commercial buildings (see THERMIE Maxibrochures, 1992). Adaptation schemes should therefore attempt to maximize natural daylighting (e.g. by installing light-wells or sun-pipes) if possible and provide energy efficient lighting where necessary.

Carbon Neutrality And Design

The building sector accounts for nearly half of all annual greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Over the next 25 years, carbon dioxide emissions in the building sector are projected to grow faster than any other sector, with emissions from commercial buildings estimated to have the fastest growth rate 1.8 percent a year through 2030. In view of the situation, the move is on to design carbon neutral buildings that use substantially less energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and create spaces that are healthy and comfortable all at market rates. In May 2007, the USGBC joined with the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Architecture 2030, and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) to finalize a memorandum of understanding that encourages the design of net-zero energy buildings, with the ultimate goal of carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. Carbon-neutral buildings...

Standard nominal thickness mm

Burglaries in residential and commercial buildings are common occurrences. Burglaries frequently are not directed at a specific facility but towards targets of easy opportunity and low perceived risk. The most critical step in a burglary is entry. One of the most common means of entry involves a window, either opened or broken to serve as a portal or to provide a means of unlocking an entrance door.

Modern suncatcher tubes

A contemporary and more efficient alternative to the traditional light-well is to use a proprietary circular sealed daylight duct. 'SunPipe', for example, is a silverized aluminium tube that comes in diameter ranges from 200-1000 mm. Larger diameter tubes are best used in commercial buildings. These can be used on flat roofs as well as pitched ones.

C2d Energy Efficiency

Lighting consumes about 8 percent of the energy used in residences and 27 percent used in commercial buildings nationwide, and much of this energy is rejected as heat. For example, I lamps emit about 88 percent of their energy as heat, Q lamps 85 percent, F lamps 79 percent, MV lamps 73 percent, MH lamps 67 percent, and HS lamps 59 percent. Thus an easy way to economize on energy is to use cooler and more efficient lamps. This reduces energy losses far more than one may think. For example, changing an I lamp to an MH lamp may seem like only an 88 - 67 19 percent savings in energy but what really happens is that the 100 - 88 12 percent emit-tance of the I lamp is being replaced by the 100 - 67 33 percent emittance of the MH lamp. Thus the latter lamp produces the same output with only 12 33 of the input so the real energy savings is 88 - 67 x 12 33 64 percent. Similarly, a 29W CFL lamp with the same output as a 100W I lamp realizes a savings of not 88 - 79 9 percent but 88 - 79 x 12 21...

Adaptation plan of work Background

Proper briefing with the client of an occupied building that is going to be adapted is essential if problems are to be minimized and raised expectations dashed. For example, a re-roofing exercise may form part of the major refurbishment of a commercial building. During the course of this work there is no guarantee that the roof can maintain its weather-tightness. This would mean that there is a risk that rooms on the top floor may be affected by rainwater ingress whilst this work is being undertaken. Temporary covers such as tarpaulins can help to reduce the incidence of rainwater penetration if they are correctly positioned and adequately anchored.

Cultural Layering In Contemporary Practice

Venturi's mannerist outlook has also opened the way for acceptance of the wholly new situation in architecture posed by adaptive reuse, namely, the willingness to accommodate a layering of disparate cultural messages. Cultural layering occurs when a format clearly belonging to one building type is employed for a different purpose, or when blatantly incongruous period styles are juxtaposed in a single building or complex. For example, the adaptive reuse of a church as a restaurant or nightclub creates a titillating cultural tension, sending disparate messages about function in the conflict between the obvious original format and the transforming decor. Similar sensations are experienced in the conversion of a multistory commercial building, factory, or school into residential lofts. Aesthetically, an experience of the same sort may be occasioned by the combination of elements of high and popular culture in the same design, or by the juxtaposition of informal modernity with formal...

Photonics in communication

The most recent development in IT is known as 'tele-immersion', described by Scientific American as 'a new telecommunications medium which combines virtual reality with videoconferencing. It aims to allow people separated by great distances to interact naturally as though they were in the same room' and 'involves monumental improvements in a host of computing technologies . . . Within ten years tele-immersion could be a substitute for many types of business travel'.2 Photonic switching is perhaps the most monumental improvement that heralds a quantum change in the architecture of computers which are already approaching the barrier imposed by the physics of electronic processing. Not only will this next generation of computers have vastly increased capacity, they will achieve this with a fraction of the power consumed by present day machines. They will also avoid the heat gains of electronic processors. So the combination of LEDs and photonic computers will dramatically reduce the...

Thermal Energy Storage

Thermal energy storage is a simple concept make ice or chilled water when power is cheap, then avoid buying electricity to operate mechanical cooling systems when it is expensive. Just about any large office building, hospital, hotel and similar 24 7 facilities can benefit from thermal energy storage. As utilities are forced to increase peak-period electrical rates to

Daylighting Systems

Different tasks require different levels of illumination.The nature of a task, the need for accuracy and efficiency, and the visual acuity of the occupants are all contributing factors. For example, navigating the lobby of a commercial office building requires minimal attention to detail and is not a task with unusual demands for speed or accuracy. Consequently, relatively low ambient lighting levels are acceptable. On the other hand, an accountant who spends much of her day reading and transcribing densely formatted, low-contrast financial statements and ledgers, and whose efficiency and accuracy of work are critical, requires significantly higher levels of task illumination. Follow the steps below to determine recommended lighting levels for a project and to estimate the size and quantity of daylight sources for your building.

Expression of environmental control systems

As probably the first modern office building of this scale to incorporate wing walls to enhance its natural ventilation potential, it is only to be expected that they find clear expression in the overall form of the building. By their very nature hard to suppress or disguise, the wing walls of Menara UMNO not only extend horizontally to the north-east and the south-west, but soar upwards

National Trust Offices Swindon UK

A cutting edge office building in the UK is the National Trust offices in Swindon by architects Fielden Clegg Bradley. Despite being a 'design and build' contract, the nominated architects were able to deliver a state of the art sustainable building. It is naturally ventilated and daylit,

The Segregation and Integration of Activities and People

How integrated and segregated should the uses along streets be The evidence from what are generally regarded as 'great streets' is that they should have a unity of uses and setback on both sides (see A. Jacobs, 1993). The rule of thumb is to make blocks (i.e. both sides of a street) have the same uses (e.g. single family detached homes or retail shop fronts). In doing so the potential for the development of 'face-block' communities is created provided the streets are not heavily trafficked. How use-segregated should individual buildings be In Berlin 20 of commercial buildings should be residential to provide for the natural surveillance

The Mediumsize Office

While firms composed of more then tan lawyers generally carry on a diversified practice and hence choose central locations, some firms of five to ten lawyers may locate near their principal clients. The selection of space in the first story of a commercial building or the erection of a building may be considered, tf the clientele is concentrated in a suburban center or small satellite city, or a city of 50,000 or smaller, the scale of land values may be such lhat firststory space near the commercial center could be considered. Because of the high cost of land in the center of large cities, buildings, to be feasible, must be larger than needed by a single law officer hence selection of space in an etevatored office building is often the only answer.

Views of the Outdoors

The Lewis and Clark State office building in Jefferson City, Missouri, designed by BNIM Architects, is a LEED Platinum-certified building with abundant views ofthe outdoors. The Lewis and Clark State office building in Jefferson City, Missouri, designed by BNIM Architects, is a LEED Platinum-certified building with abundant views ofthe outdoors.

Comparison of Sites A and C

Envelope rules for both sites are the same but directions of adjoining streets and properties are different, thus affecting the size and shape of the envelope. Envelope A is high on the north and west where shadows can be cast across streets to meet 20-foot shadow fences at commercial properties. Envelope C, on the other hand, is high on the south and east for the same reason. Understanding the difference is basic to designing for sun and wind.

The Aesthetic Return 1937

Florestano Fausto Tripoli

In addition to being prolific, di Fausto's work was extraordinarily versatile, borrowing from local decorative elements of all sorts. In Rhodes, he inflected buildings throughout the new city with Venetian accents - because the islands had at one time been under Venetian control - from the Governor's Palace (Figure 5.12) to the Hotel of the Roses (on which he collaborated Intro.2). For housing, he developed a nearly Rationalist idiom - simple and functional, and yet sporting arches (Figure 5.13). Flying in the face of the Novecento idea that the larger the building, the more non-native it ought to be, he designed more than one luxury hotel to look like a vernacular complex, cloaking the Uaddan's casino in the guise of a Libyan mosque, with its distinctive small cupolas (Figure 5.14).102 For an office building across from the Lombard-style Tripoli Cathedral, he designed a monumental arched fa ade that could easily have been Piacentini's own semi-classicizing work (Figure 5.15).

The Farrell Grimshaw Partnership FGP

Below and opposite the Gresham Street speculative office building is a rare example of a City building with an informal entrance, one that has been cleverly design in relation to an existing former graveyard that fronts the site. Much of the architectural presence and expression of the building is also at this front end - particularly in the form of a typical acrobatic structural gesture that is again without precedent on such an office building (the entire front end is suspended). The outcome is a mix of the gestural and the considerate that produces a simple (but again rare) entry sequence street lobby glass lift view out to the City from the floor lobby office area. It is simple and tt works.

Cities have been around for more

Northern Mindanao Architecture Design

Materials and technologies are also increasingly common in residential high-rises, which take advantage of green construction methods developed for commercial buildings. Builders have made great strides in reducing environmental impact by using harvested lumber and recycled materials, the installation of non-toxic and energy-efficient insulation systems, and the selection of building sites that take maximum advantage of solar and wind power as well as access to public transportation. It is worth noting that one of the most popular types of urban construction converting industrial buildings into residential properties is intrinsically green. Recycling and renewing old structures are among the best ways to minimize waste and preserve resources.

San Rocco Monza Aldo Rossi

The Architecture City Aldo Rossi

The question of continuity between the two Rationalist movements focuses on the career of Ernesto Rogers. As editor of the architectural journal Casabella Continuita between 1953 and 1964, his social conception of 'environment' is seen to have blurred the boundaries between the historic city and contemporary urban form (exemplified in Milan by BPR's Torre Velasca of 1954-58).12 The ambiguous relationship between Rationalism and fascism in the 1930s only partly explains the shifts in the work of Rationalist architects immediately postwar, like Franco Albini (INA Office Building, Pavia, 1953) or Giovanni Michelucci (Commodities Exchange, Pistoia, 1950), where a Rationalist structural order was overlaid with a figuratively abstracted classicism.13 Manfredo Tafuri has thoroughly documented the vicissitudes of postwar Italian architecture that dissipated the Rationalist momentum of the 1930s.14

Grooming recognizes the temporal dynamism of landscape systems and requires that maintenance unfolds as a series of

Another example of controlled growth is the design for the Elsassertor office building. In order to recreate the contextual railway site within its interior courtyard, and achieve the typical stunted growth pattern of volunteer Beech and Birch trees, 20,000 Beech seedlings were planted in a base of shallow soil and railway gravel. Such an amount of trees would normally suffice for the growth of a two-hectare woodland, yet planted so densely, the trees will attain a purposefully stunted, miniature form.

Pariser Platz Berlin Germany an historic square revived 1992 to the present

Pariser Platz Stimmann

After the reunification of Berlin in 1989, and the dismantling of the wall that ran through it dividing East and West Berlin, Pariser Platz became available for reconstruction. It had been lying empty since being destroyed in World War II. During this period it lay in the East Berlin, or Russian sector, of the city that served as the capital of the Deutsche Demokratische Republik (GDR). The square is bounded on one side by the Brandenberg Gate which terminates the vista down Unten den Linden the ceremonial axis of Berlin. Before World War II the then great powers of the world, the United States, Great Britain, France and Austria had established their embassies on the square or in its vicinity. In addition, the Adlon Hotel and several prestigious apartment and commercial buildings enclosed it (see Figure 8.40). Starting in the north western corner, the square is enclosed by Haus Libermann (1996-8), Palais am Pariser Platz, the Eugen-Gutmann-Haus der Dresdner Bank (1996-7), the French...

Partial First Floor Furniture Plan

Figure The Furniture For Floor Plan

On large office-building projects with open-plan workstations, each workstation and panel cluster may be coded as a unit and keyed to the systems furniture division of the furnishings specifications. That is, instead of identifying each piece of furniture and component on the plan, each workstation may be designated by a code. The code may be a simple designator, such as SI or S5, meaning merely systems furniture group one or five. Codes may also be more complex and have designators that relate to the size and or job function of the workstation, such as A being the largest, for executives B for middle management C for secretaries, and so on. These may be further broken down as Al, A2, etc., depending on the number of different configurations and or components. Other prefixes, such as WS for open-plan workstations or PO for private offices, may also be added to the code for clarity as to the specific type of work

Building regulations compliance

Building Regulation Distance From Sink

The code compliance and space planning problems of an adaptive reuse can be highlighted in the proposed conversion of a large office building to flats. The property, which was built in the late 1930s, is shown in Figure 4.15. Its of Art Deco style and has Grade 2 listed status. The following building elements therefore require minimum intervention (i.e. the original appearance to remain) and retention of the original interior features of the entrance lobby, hall and stairwell. The fenestration and associated features are to be retained. In terms of the building's construction, the steel columns and core as indicated on the plans remain, but associated interior walls, not referred to above, will be removed.

Kuching Waterfront Sarawak Malaysia a waterfront park as a catalyst for urban redevelopment 198993

Srawa Waterfront Park

Kuching lies on the Sungai Sarawak 20 kilometres in from the sea. The city's riverfront used to be the regional shipping and distribution point of the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It intervened or acted as a seam, depending on one's point of view, between the commercial area on Main Bazaar and the river. The commercial area contained Chinese shop-houses, a high-rise hotel and office buildings. The development of a road network and air transportation during the 1960s and 1970s, and the change in shipping technology led to the abandonment of the godowns (warehouses) and the general deterioration of the waterfront. The river wall had deteriorated, mud-flats filled former shipping channels, and squatters had built shacks along the waterfront. At the same time it was a lively colourful area of fishing boats and commerce. The area contained historic buildings, commuter jetties, and government and commercial buildings. It was also a mess.

Taking the Shorter Road the Fuller Construction Company of the Orient 19201926

This delegation crossed the threshold of the Fuller Company offices because of Japan's increasing prominence in trade, as a result of World War I. Japan had emerged from the war with 'a vast amount of world trade at her door but with an acute shortage of buildings to house her increased business' (Far Eastern Review, 1922, 18, October, p. 638). Some of that business was generated as a result of the city planning initiatives of the influential Viscount Shimpei Goto, who had visited the United States at the end the war to examine the means by which American municipal experts were seeking to improve American cities using city planning methods associated with 'science' and or 'efficiency'. When Goto visited the New York Bureau of Municipal Research he became close friends with Charles Austin Beard, the noted political economist. On his return to Japan he advocated that his government invest heavily in the construction of roads, railways and other municipal infrastructure (Zunz, 1998, p....

Record Target Future Growth

A structurally glazed curtain walling screen has been manufactured and installed by Structura UK Ltd to reconfigure and enhance the reception area to an office building in Triton Square, London. The 13.6m long x 3.5m full height screen consists of Schuco's FW50+SG aluminium profile and double-glazed insulating glass - an outer pane of 6mm Pilkington toughened, Optiwhite clear glass, a 20mm air cavity, and an inner pane of 10mm Pilkington toughened, Optiwhite clear glass coated with Opitherm S3 (Face 3). The exterior of the profile has a grey powder-coated finish, and a silver anodised finish internally. Structura UK manufactured and installed a manually operated, glass, side access door, and supervised the installation of an all-glass revolving door. Above the screen, Structura UK designed and installed a new back light, glass fascia incorporating new signage.

Zoning A Building For Heating And Cooling

Buildings in which solar heat gain through windows is a major component of the cooling load need to be zoned according to the various window orientations of the rooms. In commercial buildings where each tenant will be billed separately for heating and cooling costs, each tenant space will constitute a separate zone. A large business or mercantile building might be divided into several large zones of approximately equal size to fit the capacities of the fans and ductwork or the capacities of packaged air conditioning systems. A multi-use building may incorporate parking, retail shops, lobbies,

Commerzbank Headquarters Frankfurt Germany

The closely fought competition for the design of a new head office building, adjacent to their existing premises in the heart of Frankfurt, was won by the London-based practice of Foster and Partners, with RP+K Sozietat winning selection as environmental engineering consultants. In the context of the environmental movement in Germany at that time, the urban planning criteria of Frankfurt and the brief from the client, the project 'provided an opportunity

Selecting The Location Of The City Hall

Be combined with a group of related buildings in a civic center. The oivio center has had great appeal to the city planner because It offers oertaln advantages and at the same time provides for latitude in design, The buildings that are included In civic oenters range from a grouping of strictly administrative offices and service buildings to a complex of office buildings, auditoriums, libraries, and so on. Obviously if a city hall ia to be part of a civic center, it must be planned in relation to the other facilities. For instance, the San Jose, California, city hell Is part of a civic center consisting of a health building, communications building, police garage, county office building, sheriff's department and jail, criminal-legal building, and a juvenile canter. Some of the facilities, such aa the administrative offices in the health building, did not have to be repeated in the city hall. 5. The central business district la the real civic center of the 20th century, A lot has been...

Roof extensions Means

In refurbishing framed commercial buildings, adding another storey is usually best achieved by using a steel structure. This approach can be adopted for steel and reinforced concrete-framed constructions. In the case of a reinforced concrete- or steel-framed building, for example, the new storey could comprise a steel portal frame supporting a curved roof. The portal frame could set back from the existing parapet to minimize disruption to this part of the building as well as provide an access path around the top storey. A building that collapsed in Middlesex, England, during its adaptation in the mid-1990s highlighted the risks to health and safety associated with this type of work. The case in question was a three-storey commercial building that was halfway through a refurbishment contract in 1995. During the early afternoon of 1 August of that year a substantial part of the structure suddenly collapsed, killing four construction workers. Figure 6.11 A vertical extension involving a...

Office floor excluding tenantsfitout

The lavatories in many older office buildings are often drab and unattractive. They are therefore usually ripe for refurbishment (see Figure 8.3). Giving office toilets a makeover can considerably enhance the ambience of otherwise unappealing facilities. New fittings such as wash-hand basins mounted flush on bright resilient worktops, as well as white WCs within light-coloured laminated partitioning, can rejuvenate common toilet areas. New ceramic or vinyl tile flooring, melamine panelled wall linings and suspended ceilings finishes along with recessed or indirect lighting can also help in this regard. Additional or improved facilities such as lounges, fitness rooms for office staff can help reduce their stress levels. Installing shower facilities for cyclists and lunchtime joggers in an office building can also help in this regard.

Richard Dwight Merrill Residence 19091910

Platt designed the house in part because of his work designing a Colonial Revival house for Merrill's sister and brother-in-law. Platt studied fine art at the National Academy of Design in New York. He designed a number of Colonial Revival homes in the Northeast, in addition to commercial buildings. One of his best known structures is the Freer Gallery in Washington, DC. Platt's broad interests led to numerous affiliations and honors, including membership in the American Institute of Architects, the Society of Landscape Architects, the National Institute of Arts and Letters, the Society of American Artists, the American Water Color Society, and the London Society of Painters and Etchers. He also served as president of the American Academy in Rome from 1928 to 1933.

Modernism tainted and untainted

In other words, the period was not dissimilar to the programmatic conditions of the post recession years after 1995. Its hero, Sir Denys Lasdun, famously undertook two of these three categories of project notably, the Hallfield School in Paddington and the so-called 'cluster' group of social-housing tower blocks in east London. Without approbation he also designed an up-market block of luxury apartments on the edge of Green Park (the first of the post-war period) and a less prestigious custom-designed office building for IBM, adjacent to his National Theatre. However, he stopped short at speculative building developments existing simply as a means to the end of making money and it was not until the late 1980s that his practice (by then Sir Denys Lasdun, Peter Softley and Partners) joined in the property boom and designed the speculative Milton Gate, in the City. By that time the heroes of the post-war period were older men overtaken by new events, values and tastes. While such a broad...

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