Backyard Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Have you always wanted to grow your own vegetables but didn't know what to do? Here are the best tips on how to become a true and envied organic gardner.

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Worlds Best Compost

What you'll discover in The Worlds Best Compost e-book: The method of feeding plants in a totally natural way that results in the tastiest, most divine food you and your family will ever have. Why youll use much less water in your garden using colloidal humus compost (and how youll be saving time, money, effort and even the environment!) The secret to healthy soil through massive microbial action. (If you could see these microscopic guys at work there's more action than a Schwarzenegger movie on crack!) The shameful, sheep mentality almost all agriculture and garden advisors suffer from that costs you time and money using dangerous, toxic gardening and horticulture practices (and is murdering our planet in the process!) How to develop a soil that.

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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

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Byproduct Compost

Farm Composting Handbook

An alternative to disposing of horse manure is to compost it into a by-product of the operation. Composting occurs naturally if stall waste decomposes in the presence of oxygen and is kept relatively moist, above 50 moisture content (Fig. 8.20). The Figure 8.20. Simple process of a composting stall waste pile. Figure 8.20. Simple process of a composting stall waste pile. Figure 8.21. A front-end loader (pictured) or specialized compost turning equipment is used to turn compost in professionally managed composting facilities. Reproduced with permission from On-Farm Composting Handbook, NRAES-54. Figure 8.21. A front-end loader (pictured) or specialized compost turning equipment is used to turn compost in professionally managed composting facilities. Reproduced with permission from On-Farm Composting Handbook, NRAES-54. microbes that decompose the bedding and manure occur naturally in stall waste. in fact, commercial composters and mushroom substrate preparation facilities often seek...

Living Roof Fig 928

Another version of a living roof utilizes straw bales as a substitute for sod. By allowing the straw to compost over time, an ideal environment is developed for the propagation of indigenous grasses and flowers. A simple method for waterproofing a living roof is to cover the surface with a roll of EPDM type

Renewable Energy and Closed Loop Cities

A number of the cities seek to promote a more closed-loop or natural urban metabolism in which wastes become inputs or food for other urban processes. Stockholm has administratively reorganized its departments of waste, water, and energy into a combined ecocycles division. A number of actions have already been taken, including the harvesting of bio-gas from sewage sludge and its use as a fuel for the city's combined heat and power plants. A number of Swedish cities also are using bio-gas from household waste as a fuel for buses and other public vehicles (Swedish Ministry of the Environment, undated for a review of environmental vehicle programs in European cities, see European Commission 2001). Experience to date suggests that in addition to recycling waste there has been a dramatic reduction in conventional air pollutants as well as in carbon dioxide emissions in these cities. Another powerful example of the closed-loop concept can be seen in Rotterdam's Roca3 power plant, which...

Chapter Six Toilet facilities

Toilet Facilities For Outdoor Recreation

In these the toilet seat is set above a box or hole into which all sewage accumulates. If the moisture content can be kept reasonably low, for example by the addition of soil, ashes or bark, then the material breaks down into a relatively odour-free compost, which can be emptied from sewage receptacles at the back of the toilet building and safely disposed of in a suitable location. There are various proprietary makes that have developed this type for relatively low-use sites. Plastic containers prevent contamination of groundwater. Special bark is put into the toilet after use by the user, which reduces the odour and helps the process of composting. No water is required, and the unit can be constructed above ground. This is important in areas where groundwater is sensitive to pollution, where the ground is rocky, or where it becomes frozen in winter, so making holes difficult to dig. Composting toilets Composting toilets (a) A unit available as a proprietary set and used in cabins...

Networked Sidewalk Stormwater System

During construction, basins were dug to 9in (22.9cm) below the sidewalk grade and filled with native soils, amended with a equal mix of sand, compost, and screened loam. Native Rushes (Juncus patens) were planted in rows 18in (45.7cm) on center to allow space for a leaf rake to remove accumulated sediment and debris. During rain events, the native Grooved Rush (Juncus patens) in each water

Malmo city of the future

Malmo Bo01

Surprisingly there is no facility for harvesting rainwater which is directed via the canal to the sea. Wastewater goes to the city's main treatment plant. However, there is a sophisticated system for the management of other kinds of waste which comprises an underground twin pipe vacuum tube collection network. Residents have access to twin terminals, one for food waste, the other for residual dry waste which is incinerated. Biogas and compost are obtained from the food waste. The city has constructed a reactor to convert organic waste into biogas and fertilizer. The biogas is returned to the apartments via the gas main. Nutrients and phosphorus are extracted from sewerage to be used as fertilizer with the residue used as fuel for the incinerator. It is estimated that reclaiming waste generates 290 kWh yr of energy for every resident.

Cradletocradle Design

Cradle-to-cradle design was introduced in 2002 by architect William McDonough and chemist Dr. Michael Braungart as a method for evaluating products that could be safely used without any harm to people or the environment, based on known data. The evaluation criteria for products include material properties, specifically toxicity and carcinogenicity, persistence and toxicity in the environment, and use of heavy metals material reuse potential, either in recycling or composting efficient or renewable energy use, including use of 100 solar income in manufacturing water use, stormwater and wastewater discharge in manufacturing and instituting strategies for social responsibility as evidenced by third-party assessments and certifications.33 One of the early successes of this effort was creating a fabric for a chair manufacturer that was durable and attractive but that could be composted at the end of its useful life. Another product developed from this point of view is a commercial carpet...

Limits Of Disturbance

Ramed Earth Gateways

Efficient LED bollard lights are used in the parking lot to minimize energy consumption and light pollution. The composting toilets use a foam flush system, saving an estimated 200,000 gallons of water each year. The trailhead building supplies all of its own electricity with a 2,000-watt solar array. Equestrians, a user group that has been meandering through these mountains for more than 1IX)

Process Of Production

Pushing and pulling the market without any real consideration for the environment. These processes are usually independent of, and detached from, user values and concerns at the other end of the production chain. Figure B4.2 illustrates the porcupine diagram, which attempts to show the repeated need for the input of energy and the output of emissions and pollution (represented by the spines). This is a holistic view of production, in which the relationship to the natural environment should be an integral part of the whole. For example, we could follow this line of thinking through to a conclusion that a building should be nothing more than a non-permanent compost heap.

Working And Dwelling

Cheap and plentiful supply23 and has a weight tolerance in excess of that required here. Above the gabions the office wall uses sand, cement, and lime packed in sand-bags which will gradually erode to leave a wall of rippling forms and on its other side - referencing the fusion of domestic and work spaces in a metaphor of comfort which is also gendered - the office outer wall is clad in a cloth of silicone-faced fibreglass 'puckered and buttoned like a domestic quilt' (Wigglesworth and Till, 2001 6) with an insulating layer and inner lining.24 Under the building, two tanks collect rain-water for use in clothes-washing and to irrigate the roof meadow. There is a compost toilet, a solar panel and a wood-burning stove (though heavy insulation reduces the need for heating). The bedroom is encased by a straw-bale wall, which continues on the north side of the building.25 While in vernacular buildings straw tends to be rendered with lime plaster, here it is encased in a rain-screen of...

Philip Merrill Chesapeake Bay Foundation Floor Plan

Reduction Motion Compost

The balance of water usage, 6,565 gallons (16.5 percent), was supplied by the on-site well. Total water usage at CBF averaged 1.25 gallons square foot year. According to BOCA Plumbing Code, a conventional office building uses 12.66 gallons square foot year. Thus, CBF uses approximately 10 percent of the water of a conventional office building. Such a significant reduction is attributed to composting toilets and rainwater harvesting and reuse at lavatories, clothes washer, and mop sinks. CBF reports that the composting toilets work better than expected. While CBF staff doesn't think twice about them, composting toilets are a real interest for visitors. Maintenance is minimal and compost is applied to grounds around the facility. For a 30-acre site that has been restored to native ecosystems, CBF could use all of the compost it can get. tion of high-tech and low-tech solutions is found throughout the Merrill Center. With very few exceptions, the Merrill Center used...

Autonomous building care

The autonomous house as envisaged by Robert and Brenda Vale, with its own solar panels, wind turbine, rainwater filters and composting toilet, is not without maintenance needs so how are they to be met Some of the questions appropriate to ask in relation to the automated building are equally applicable here. How sophisticated are the systems For how long will parts be available

Toilets That Conserve Water

Composting toilets, sometimes called biological toilets, dry toilets, and waterless toilets contain and control the composting of excrement and toilet paper by aerobic bacteria and fungi. Aerobic digestion generally produces much less odor than anaerobic processes. The composting process transforms the nutrients in human excrement into forms that can be used as a soil conditioner. Composting toilets can be installed where a leaching field or septic tank, with their inherent problems and expenses, are undesirable or impractical, including areas that have placed limits on new septic systems, and in parks and nature sanctuaries. All composting toilets require a continuous supply of room air drawn into the composting chamber and vented out through the roof to provide oxygen for the aerobic microorganisms that digest the wastes. Composting toilets eliminate or greatly reduce water for flushing but increase energy consumption, although the amount needed to run a fan and keep the compost...

Large Building Solid Waste Collection

An alternative to the garbage disposal is the compost pile. Composting is a controlled process of decomposition of organic material. Naturally occurring soil organisms recycle nitrogen, potash, phosphorus, and other plant nutrients as they break down the material into humus. When decomposition is complete, a dark brown, powdery material called humus has been produced. As you can tell by its rich earthy aroma, the finished compost is full of nutrients essential for the healthy growth of plants and crops. Compost happens as long as there is air and water to support it. Composting is a convenient, beneficial, and inexpensive way to handle organic waste and help the environment. Composting reduces the volume of garbage requiring disposal, saves money in reduced soil purchases and reduced local disposal costs, and enriches the soil. Self-contained units are available, and some community groups sell bins made from recycled plastics for very reasonable prices. Food wastes can be collected in...

Gibson Mill Autonomous Visitor Centre Hebden Bridge

A private water supply and wastewater treatment was the only practical option for this remote site, but the autonomy brief also called for sewage solids to be treated rather than tankered away. Dry compost toilets were considered for the public but rejected by the client in favour of conventional-looking but efficient WCs. As well as the 'no tanker' brief, access to the public toilets is by a narrow bridge, so a sludge-free system made sense. The solution chosen was based around the Swedish Aquatron separator. This simple passive device uses surface tension to separate the solids from the flush water for composting in one of two prefabricated bio-chambers located in the room under the toilets. The separated liquid effluent from the Aquatron flows to an unpowered dosing device, which delivers pulses of effluent along an infiltration trench. The sandy soil provides filtration and biological treatment without odour, pollution or energy use and not a reed in sight. Located across the...

Other Sewage Disposal Alternatives

Miscellaneous alternatives are usually limited to sites where either the disposal of normal amounts of wastewater or a supply of adequate amounts of water are not feasible. These include composting toilets, high-technology recirculating systems, and holding tanks. Composting Toilets At one extreme, such limited sites have been dealt with by a combination of simple action so such as using an old-fashioned pit toilet (or outhouse) or a composting toilet (an inside outhouse), taking laundry out to a commercial facility, and not using garbage grinders. Under such conditions, water use and wastewater generation in a residence can be reduced about 75 percent, pathogens can be kept out of Lhe wastewater stream, and wastewater treatment facilities can be kept small and simple. However, it should be noted that both local permits and mortgages for such facilities are difficult if not impossible to obtain.

Springhill Stroud Cohousing

Recycling, community composting, high-intensity insulation, a Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) and a car-sharing scheme all contribute to an environmentally sensitive scheme. The project also has the largest array of photovoltaic cells on private housing in the UK this was achieved with help from a 400,000 government grant for the installation and monitoring of the tiles.

Manure Disposal Direct Disposal

Proper application with a tractor and spreader provides a thin layer of stable waste over the soil to improve manure drying and fertilizer application along with decreased fly breeding. Adapted from On-Farm Composting Handbook, NRAES-54. Figure 8.19. Proper application with a tractor and spreader provides a thin layer of stable waste over the soil to improve manure drying and fertilizer application along with decreased fly breeding. Adapted from On-Farm Composting Handbook, NRAES-54.

RoHS Restrictions of the use of certain Hazardous Substances

Innovation and more sustainable construction, but nevertheless having the same effect. For example, Scottish building regulations specify that a toilet shall be a 'water closet', thus precluding the use of composting toilets because they self-evidently do not use water. A special dispensation was required from the authorities to allow the first use of such toilets in 2001.

Management of the Stored Manure

With proper management, flies and odors from manure storage can be minimal. The major deterrent to fly breeding in horse operations is to keep the manure as dry as possible. Other wet organic material sites also need to be removed. Remove manure from the farm at least every seven days during fly breeding season, or operate a properly managed composting facility. Table 8.4. Minimum Separation Distances Commonly Recommended for Composting and Manure Handling Activities Table 8.4. Minimum Separation Distances Commonly Recommended for Composting and Manure Handling Activities

Autonomous Environmental Information Centre

Increasing visitor numbers put a strain on the site's reed-bed sewage system and sewage from a new building needed to be treated separately. The site was ideally suited to the use of a Swedish separating system that collects and composts solids. The liquid effluent is treated biologically by using the slate tip, on which the building sits, as a biological filter. Unlikely to be widely replicated, it illustrates the principle of using what is available. If the site had been on impermeable clay, then ponds may have been considered. The WCs are four-litre and the urinals are waterless. compost toilet is installed as an additional working demonstration. Electronic sensor taps with regulated sprays (1.8 l min) were chosen to counter CAT's low-tech image, but mechanical taps would have given the same savings at lower cost. The hot water is conveyed at 'mains' pressure through small (10mm PEX) pipes, thus minimising the dead leg and addressing legionella concerns without the need for high...

Stall Waste Production And Characteristics

Barn chores include a daily cleanout of manure and soiled bedding, leading to a steady stream of waste to handle. There are several common stall-bedding materials, and each has different characteristics in handling, field application, suitability to composting, and acceptance for sales. Availability and cost of bedding materials in the stable area will probably have the greatest influence on bedding selection. (See Tables 8.2 and 8.3.)

Withy Cottage Herefordshire

Another rural self-build in Herefordshire which provided the opportunity to try a range of largely simple measures. As with Hollow Ash, a septic tank gives way to a compost toilet chamber, over which the super-insulated house was built. The compost toilet was an aesthetic as well as environmental consideration, and provides a very elegant solution for a rural self-build. Lessons learnt from Hollow Ash have resulted in an odour- and fly-free system. A four-litre, leak-free siphon WC provides an extra toilet and discharges directly into the compost toilet. All hot water pipes except to the bath are 10mm micro-bore, which means that taps and shower run hot quickly with minimal waste.

Locally Sourced Materials

Here are examples of some specific materials that could come from just about any locality or 500-mile radius, without traveling long distances foundation piers compost and mulch concrete storm drains masonry, pavers and hardscape materials reclaimed lumber wheatboard panels most wood products, including laminated beams, cabinets, sub-flooring, roof decking, composite wood siding, engineered wood products and oriented strand board millwork, both new and reclaimed and cellulose insulation. The list is seemingly endless.99

Advice For Designers Of Green Roofs

Wind effect on the hills, and some thermal modeling on what happens with the wind on a sunny day. The constant wind on the southern and western ends of this roof is creating completely different water needs in certain zones, and those water needs were not addressed in the way the (irrigation system was) laid out. I'm looking at products like Hydrasorb and different polymers to mix in with the soil. There are environmental concerns about what happens if those get into the water system, and how to apply it after the fact and so on. I'm trying to address these issues with fine tuning, but these are clumsy tools. Think About Composting the Trimmings Because biomass doesn't break down quickly in green roof growing medium, trimmings of pruned or dormant plants have to be taken off the roof by hand and thrown away. What I'd like to do if I had the time and the space is to set up a composting operation on the ground floor so we could cart the waste off the roof, compost it, and bring it back...

Manure Handling Efficient Movement

A round baler was used to pick up straw-based stall waste thrown into the central stable aisle. Waste is stored in round bale format until delivered to offsite composting processor. Figure 8.7. A round baler was used to pick up straw-based stall waste thrown into the central stable aisle. Waste is stored in round bale format until delivered to offsite composting processor.

Siting the Manure Storage

Good drainage at any manure storage site is absolutely necessary. The site may be graded to divert surface runoff without creating erosion. Poor drainage results in saturated conditions leading to muddy access and pools of dirty water. Divert any surface drainage water and runoff from nearby roofs away from the pile area. On-Farm Composting Handbook, NRAES-54, has details of surface water diversion and site grading. Many stables and indoor riding arenas do not have gutters and downspouts, causing substantial runoff from these buildings. A gutter and downspout system will collect and divert water away from the building foundation and bypass the manure storage. Tarps or a roof over the manure storage can minimize rainwater entry if leachate containment becomes a problem. Do not allow polluted runoff to pool because mosquitoes and flies will breed in the moist area.

Composition render

Proportioned amounts of cement, lime and sand, with good resistance to cracking, used for bricklaying and rendering. composition render composition mortar used as exterior-grade plaster or render usually called compo render, properly known as cement lime render. composition shingles see strip slates. compost organic matter, rich in nutrients, used as fertilizer and created by the biodegrading of household and garden waste also the structure for its production. compost bin see composter. composter, compost bin a specially designed vessel, often with a heater, for producing compost from organic waste material. composting in waste management, the action of producing fertilizer by the biodegrading of organic waste. composting closet, composting toilet a toilet in which waste products are converted to compost in a ventilated chamber. composting toilet see composting closet. compound 1 a union or mixture of separate substances combined for increased or enhanced properties examples included...

Green Roofs

Eidechsenarten Schweiz

Comes a lightweight, water-retentive, sterile substrate, manufactured from shale, slate, or clay and blown onto the roof. Nutrients may be added via recycled agricultural products or compost. The plants are usually a monoculture of sedum species or other exotics. Maintenance includes seasonal watering, fertilizing, and weeding all plants not in the original palette. creation of habitat. This was accidentally discovered after several contemporary green roofs failed to keep vegetation alive, and designers and researchers turned toward adding local compost as topdress-ing. The result was a unique plant community. were applied to the existing substrate, including compost and local clay topsoil. The topdressing was then seeded with an off-the-shelf local conservation seed mix containing several species of concern. The results showed improved plant as well as insect diversity.

Hoik Spaces

Office manager (who is LEED AP) to our CEO (who is also LEED AP) supports the effort. Many of the composting programs resulted from an employee offering to take home the coffee grounds and use them in the garden, and there were usually already a few employees biking to work before the companies decided to provide shower facilities. One important thing to do when implementing any changes is to be transparent and develop support within the company rather than forcing something down people's throats. When the Portland office of David Evans and Associates began its composting program, members of the sustainability committee gathered one evening to collect the employees' garbage cans to encourage people to think before throwing anything away. The following day, the committee sent employees an e-mail explaining why they had removed the cans and where to pick up the cans if employees felt they really needed one. This effort was met with mixed results, saysTami Boardman. Many people didn't...

Spun concrete

Stability In reference to composting, an indication of the relative state of decomposition. The more decomposed the compost material, the more stable it is. The process of decomposition may be temporarily harmful to plants, especially as nitrogen is robbed from the soil to assist in the

Irritating Particles

Several common air pollutants are the products of combustion. Outdoors, coal-burning factories, vehicle exhaust, and heating exhaust from oil, wood, or coal contribute to air pollution that contaminates the supply of air available for building ventilation. Forest fires and open incineration of trash and yard waste also generate particles that can enter buildings through poorly placed air intakes. Indoors, heating and cooking appliances add to small amounts of particles from dry-


Potato bug An isopod crustacean (suborder Oniscoidea) having an elliptical body with seven pairs of legs, sectioned shells, and the capability to roll up into a ball about the size of a pea. They feed mostly on decaying vegetation however, they will feed on young tender plants, especially those just germinating or on fruits that are usually overripe or damaged. They are encouraged to proliferate by mulching and composting. They are also known as sow bugs or pill bugs.


For a long time, renewable technologies in the UK were probably stigmatised by this linkage and unfounded assumptions about the lifestyle implications. These suggested that they were only relevant to those who wished to 'give up' on quality of life. In practice, some technical choices (low-tech solar panels or composting toilets) might impose lifestyle changes whilst others (grid connected wind) probably do not.

Ecocabins CAT

Since the completion of the Eco-cabins in 1991, over 5000 people (mainly schoolchildren), have occupied them for a week-long learning experience. During their stay, they learn about managing renewable energy sources, conservation of energy and water, dealing with sewage effluent, composting techniques and environmentally benign ways of growing food. The Eco-cabins themselves are two self-contained residential units where the electricity supply, the water supply, the waste system and the heating system are all independent standalone systems operated and studied by those who stay in them. Each cabin receives an equal share of the generated energy, which is monitored on display boards inside the cabins. The display board gives information of the battery voltage, input and output currents, both instantaneous and cumulative, wind speed, Students and schoolchildren staying at the hostel at CAT have large dials in their lobby to remind them how much water and energy they are using. They are...

Waste reduction

Waste is a big problem and countries are keen to encourage and support attempts made by local authorities to reduce waste production at source and, in particular, encourage recycling and composting. A country like the UK has an improving record. In 2001 it recycled 13 of its waste, preferring to put 81 into landfill. In 2004 5 the figure had changed to 23.9 being recycled or composted, whilst 72 went into the land (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2006a). The USA has a better record as it recycles 28 of its waste, a rate that has almost doubled during the past 15 years ( These countries are far behind others, however for example, in the Netherlands and Austria about 60 of municipal waste is composted or recycled, whilst in Belgium and Germany the statistic is 50 (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2006b). Given that the amounts of waste produced are increasing, the main goal in design terms is to support attempts at recycling. In...


This relates to issues of renewability and 'light' or 'lean' use of resources, in construction as well as in use. It takes on board issues of embodied energy and environmental impacts, including for instance implied transport considerations, by being 'the right building in the right place'. A number of generally low-density and low-intensity 'green' projects were referred to in Chapter 8 and included facets such as being earth sheltered, having turf roofs, recycling waste water, composting solid waste and being either low or zero energy in operation. These were often, though not always, semi-rural or suburban applications. Assessment methods have been devised, such as BREEAM, that attempt to make a composite if not yet fully comprehensive or universally agreed evaluation of a building. This is discussed further in the final chapter

Finish carpentry

Fire blight Disease common to flowering pears, pyracantha, and other plants. It is identified by blossoms and leaves shriveling, turning a blackish brown, and dying. Bark becomes dark brown and may form cankers. For preventing, plant resistant varieties, avoid poorly drained soils, and avoid too much fertilizer. Cut off dead twigs 1 ft below affected area and discard (do not use in compost or mulch).

Contract Disposal

Another manure disposal option is to contract with a hauler who will remove the waste from the stable facility. The waste can be used in a commercial composting operation or for other functions where the waste disposal is the responsibility of the hauler. Dumpsters are positioned at the stable for temporary stall waste storage (no trash or garbage) a full dump-ster is replaced with an empty one. Dumpsters should be sized so that the contents are emptied at least weekly during the fly breeding season. Place the dumpster in a convenient location where barn waste can be dumped into it and trucks can access and empty the dumpster during all weather (Fig. 8.14). A concrete tank or pad is useful to contain any dumpster leachate.

Lawns and sunbathing

Because there was some contamination of the existing ground, a thin plastic net was used to keep the new soil separate. On this was laid a 340mm-deep level of growing medium, consisting of compost mixed with gravel. The centres of each lawn are raised by about 300mm to facilitate run-off. A PVC membrane has been laid on the inside of the surrounding concrete elements to protect them from moisture percolation.

Material Outputs

Organic Wastes (Food Waste, Yard Waste) The College will encourage the development of a composting facility, either on or off campus, and will institute policy that mandates the composting of all food waste from College dining halls. It will investigate the possibilities for collective efforts with the city of Oberlin and other local institutions.

Compression fitting

Compost Decomposed or decomposing organic material (or mostly organic material) used as an amendment to soils in fertilizing land and improving the texture of soils. It may also be used as a surface mulch. Compost can be made of grass clippings, kitchen refuse, garden debris, leaves, sewage sludge, animal droppings, etc. composted sludge This is a recycled, dried product of municipal sewage treatment plants. It is usually composted with wood chips, aerated and allowed to cure to various stages of stability and maturity. If it is cured to meet EPA standards of Grade A requirements, it is odor-free and non-toxic. It is usually incorporated into soil as an amendment with a low primary nutrient content of about 2, 2-3, 0 (varies). The long-term effects of using sewage sludge are still under investigation. Heavy metals such as cadmium may be present in the soil where sewage sludge has been used, and they may build up after a period of time. There are possible negative effects depending on...

Manure Management

Manure management practices within horse facilities deserve careful attention. Because most horses are kept in suburban or rural residential settings, it is essential for horse owners to be good neighbors. Often, suburban horse facilities have limited or no acreage for disposal of manure and soiled bedding. Several alternatives for handling manure include land disposal, stockpiling for future handling, removal from stable site, and composting. Some stables have developed markets to distribute or sell the stall waste. Whether in a suburban or rural setting, proper manure management is based on simple principles that will virtually eliminate environmental pollution impacts and nuisances such as odor and flies.

Soil preparation

Where more acidic conditions were required a standard specification was an 80cm-1m-deep planting bed, consisting of 10cm of drainage quarry rubble (30-70mm), 50-60cm of coarse sand, 10cm of sieved coarse sand, 20cm of a mix of 75 per cent sieved coarse sand and 25 per cent organic matter. After the soil improvement process, a conventional tree and shrub planting process was followed, together with the installation of an irrigation system.

Sewage Options

Most urban and suburban lots are serviced by a municipal sewage system, in which wastewater from a building enters a network of underground sewage pipes that route it to centralized waste treatment facilities. These facilities vary tremendously in their approaches to treating waste before releasing back into the environment. If you are concerned about treatment methods in your area, talk to municipal officials or visit the waste treatment plant. Pressure the government if you feel waste is being handled poorly or irresponsibly. It is possible to use alternative waste treatment methods even within a city, but you will probably face a struggle to receive approval. Remember, even in city buildings, composting toilets and other strategies are possible. Composting Toilets Composting toilets change human waste into usable compost, offering you a degree of self-sufficiency in waste management. Many brands of composting toilets are available, as are instructions on how to make your own. Not...


Capability to roll up into a ball about the size of a pea. Other common names are sow bugs, roly-polies, or potato bugs. They feed mostly on decaying vegetation however, they will feed on young tender plants, especially those just germinating or on fruits that are usually overripe or damaged. They are encouraged to proliferate by mulching and composting.

Schafbrhl Nr Tbingen

The landscape strategy is particularly impressive. The use of porous surfaces and the creative use of water within courtyards means that trees, bushes, flowers, vegetables and a thriving local composting initiative has built up over 20 years to provide a rich backdrop to the housing. There is 100 pedestrianisation of the whole project interior, with cars kept strictly to the periphery. Local initiatives such as a local cooperatively owned shop, a caf , small offices and a nursery school have thrived.