There are many excellent books on all aspects of the design and use of reinforced concrete. It is not the intention of this chapter to attempt to summarise such a wide subject in a few pages. Its purpose is, after a brief historical perspective, to act as an introduction to the following chapters on prestressed concrete, and to highlight specific aspects of the subject particularly relevant to the design of bridges, and which the author in his practice has concluded are inadequately understood by many engineers.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.