The loads on a bridge deck are made up of:
a) Self weight; the weight of the bare concrete structure.
b) Superimposed dead loads; the weight of permanent loads applied to the bare concrete structure, such as parapets, footpaths, road surfacing etc. These loads do not contribute to the strength of the deck.
c) Live loads; transient vehicular, rail or pedestrian loads applied to the deck. Live loads may be uniformly distributed along the deck (referred to in the text as udl), corresponding to a busy traffic lane or to a long train, or concentrated, corresponding to a single heavy axle, lorry or locomotive.
d) Environmental loads; principally wind and earthquake.
Loads (a) and (b) together are referred to in the text as 'dead loads'.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.