Systems

Design drawings enable the professional designer to visualize and communicate the features of a three-dimensional object or interior space. Then, detailed construction drawings are made to accurately describe what materials are to be used and how the object or space is to be constructed. The design drawing can be a three-dimensional pictorial sketch that shows what the object looks like in reality (Figure 4-1), or a series of related yet different views of the object, such as a plan or top view...

Scale of Floor Plans

The floor plan tends to be one of the largest single drawings in a construction set and often is placed on a sheet by itself. However, if space permits, other minor elements might be drawn around it to fill up the sheet. The sheet size a floor plan is drawn on is often the governing factor of the scale of that drawing. Floor plans are drawn at a scale that best presents the information to be conveyed without being too small to read. Residential floor plans are relatively small in overall square...

Fundamentals

Drawing and drafting are forms of visual language that use lines, pictorial images, and symbols to convey specific meanings. Like spoken language, written language, and body language, this visual language has its own unique applications. In the design field, drawing, also called sketching or idea generation, is used as a technique for developing and communicating ideas. Preliminary sketches are used to initiate and explore basic concepts, as illustrated in Figure 3-1. These can be presented to...

Perspective Drawings

A perspective drawings is a type of single-view drawing that is more realistic-looking than an oblique or axonometric drawing. In a perspective drawing, objects appear to diminish in size as they recede into the distance, and lines that are parallel in the actual object appear to converge at some distant point on the horizon (termed the vanishing point). Perspectives are used primarily as presentation drawings to portray a finished object, building, or interior space (Figure 4-13). Perspectives...

Elevations

An elevation is a scaled drawing that shows a vertical surface or plane seen from a point of view perpendicular to the viewers' picture plane. An elevation is also a type of orthographic multiview drawing (discussed in Chapter 4). The various elevation views include the front, sides, and rear. Planes perpendicular to the picture plane are seen on edge, and other angles are seen foreshortened. Elevations are drawn as straight-on views, so there is no distortion as in a perspective or isometric...

Drawing As Communication

Freehandds Drawing Plans

Figure 1-1 Sketching existing objects and spaces helps designers develop their freehand drawing skills. Figure 1-1 Sketching existing objects and spaces helps designers develop their freehand drawing skills. intended to be the final solution to a problem but rather to allow the designer to explore alternatives or refine an idea. They also help to record a designer's two- and three-dimensional thinking. These concept sketches and drawings are part of a sequence of design steps referred to as the...

Drawing Papers and Plastic Film

Interior design drawings can be produced on paper or plastic film. The quality of paper or film will help determine the quality of linework. A variety of papers and plastic films are manufactured today in many standard sheet sizes and rolls. The choice of which to use is dependent upon the designer's overall intent, office standards, and the intended method selected for making a copy from the original. Drafting papers are made in a large variety of types, based on stability, translucency,...

Existing Wall To Be Removed

Architectural Drawing Abbreviations

In conjunction with an electrical plan to denote specific equipment. Figure 5-24 illustrates an electrical legend in conjunction with additional electrical notes. Although there are many commonly recognized legends and graphic symbols, the drafter should always include the specifics of what is being shown. Legends should be concise and graphically presented as small as possible on the sheet, yet easily readable in the field by the builder. Dimensioning involves incorporating numerical values in...

Designation of Materials

Dimension Lines Floor Plan

Floor plans are generally not used to designate specific materials, as finishes might be too small to show in plan and their selections might be changed later. The amount of material information provided on a floor plan depends on the size and complexity of the proposed construction. The plans for a small residential project may contain more detailed information, such as the finished floor materials, because the design may be simpler and very few materials used, as illustrated in Figure 6-38....

X3x Cmu Masonry Veneer

Tri City Medical Center Floor Plans

Figure 6-27 A section is cut through a wall seen in plan view, keyed with an arrow indicating the direction of the view. The top letter refers to this section drawing, which can be found on the sheet identified in the lower half of the circle. Figure 6-28 The floor plan of this small house indicates where two building sections labeled A and B are cut. The arrow shows the direction of the view. Figure 6-28 The floor plan of this small house indicates where two building sections labeled A and B...

Scale of Interior Elevations

Construction Elevation Drawings

The scale at which an interior elevation should be drawn will depend upon the complexity and detail of items, information, and finishes to be shown. Generally, interior elevations are drawn to the same scale as the floor plan s . If the wall plane and other items are fairly simple, then a scale of 1 4 1'-0 1 50 metric is acceptable. This is especially applicable in large public spaces. However, in very large commercial interior spaces a smaller scale of V8 1'-0 1 100 metric might be required....

Mechanical And Plumbing Plans

Plumbing Floor Plan

Figure 15-1 Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ductwork and related ceiling grilles are designed and drawn over the floor plan. Figure 15-1 Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ductwork and related ceiling grilles are designed and drawn over the floor plan. Figure 15-2 This ceiling plan shows the location of HVAC ducting and ceiling registers in relation to ceiling light fixtures and dropped soffits.

Ceramic Tile Floor Pattern

Tile Pattern Sketches

Generally, there is not a lot of dimensioning on the finish plan. As long as the plan is drawn to scale and the dimensions of the spaces and structure are indicated on the floor plan s , the finishes can be estimated from these or other drawings. However, in some cases, dimensions are needed to describe limits of finishes or start and stop points occuring in areas that are not easily referenced in the plan view. Alignment and direction of patterns might need to be dimensioned directly on the...

Floor Plans

Imaginary Homes Floor Plans

The floor plan is perhaps the most significant architectural drawing, as it contains a tremendous amount of information about the design and construction of a building or space see Figure 6-1 . It also serves as the primary drawing to which many of the other specialty drawings can be keyed. A floor plan is an orthographic view of a total building or an area within a building, seen as if a horizontal cutting plane were passed through it at a height of approximately 4 feet 1219 mm above the floor...

Partial First Floor Furniture Plan

Workstation Plan

Figure 12-4 A job book details each piece of furniture, such as this table, T11, and references it to the furniture installation plan. round conference table with wood veneer top and aluminum tube base The schedule, which is located adjacent to the furniture plan, may simply be in the form of a legend indicating codes and the generic types of furniture they refer to, such as C for chair or TA for table, and not specific product information. The codes must then be explained in more detail in the...

Jame Petai I

Tile Finish Schedule

Figure 10-11 This enlarged detail of a door jamb is cross-referenced to the door schedule. The second part of the door schedule is in tabular form and includes the bulk of the information about the given assembly, such as the type of door, material, frame type and material, and the type of hardware. Every schedule should also include an area for remarks for general information not covered in the other columns Figure 10-10 . The door type solid core flush, sliding, pocket door, etc. is...

Millujork Section

Awi Standard Face Frame Cabinet Depth

Figure 9-11 Millwork is drawn simplistically in small-scale drawings to show overall design, and then referenced to an enlarged scale to show more details. Figure 9-11 Millwork is drawn simplistically in small-scale drawings to show overall design, and then referenced to an enlarged scale to show more details. display cabinet by owner installed by g.c. display cabinet by owner installed by g.c. Figure 9-12 Millwork includes various trims and panels, as shown in this elevation view. A variety of...

Singleview Drawings

Angle Perspective Construction Sketches

Single-view drawings attempt to picture an object or space as we normally see it in reality with all three dimensions appearing simultaneously. They present relationships of objects, space, and materials in a realistic or photographic-looking manner. Single-view drawings can be either paraline or perspective views. In par-aline drawings, lines are drawn parallel to one another, and object features retain this relationship as they appear to recede in the dis- tance Figure 4-6 . This parallel...

Or 3 Sheet Size

Architectural Sheet Title Blocks

Lettering and dimensions can be read from this orientation Figure 5-8 Most information should be readable with the sheets right side up, similar to a bound book. However, some information can also be placed to be read from the right side of the sheet. to organize the drawings and reduces the risk of overlooking important information and relationships between drawings. These mock-up drawings are generally drawn on a small scale, such as half-size, quarter-size, or even smaller. Each drawing to...

Dimensioning Floor Plans

Dimensioned Kitchen Floor Plans

A floor plan is carefully dimensioned to ensure that items such as walls, columns, doors, windows, openings, stairs, and other particulars are correctly located for construction. Sometimes after a plan is drawn accurately to a scale, its reproduction causes a slight enlargement or reduction of the drawing. In such cases, the floor plan is slightly out of true scale, but this is acceptable because the written dimensions are the controlling factors. In fact, most designers add a note on the...

Types of Section Drawings

Adjustable Shelves Cad Detail Section

Sections can be drawn of a total building, interior space, or object. These are referred to as full sections. However, if only an isolated area needs to be illustrated, a partial section can also be drawn. Sections can be cut in a variety of ways to show more detailed information. A section might be cut all the way through a building called a building section , or only through a wall wall section . Both may be needed, because the small scale and complexity of a building section generally means...

Pencils Leads and Pens

Hard Touching Pencil Art

Pencils are one of the most basic and primary drawing tools of the professional designer. There are three basic types of pencils available to a designer for producing quality drawings Figure 2-2 . The selection is a matter of preference and the particular level of performance needed by the user. The oldest manufactured pencil is of wood with a lead encased inside. It is seldom used for repetitive work in today's office, yet is still a reliable tool for occasional use for convenience and when...

How To Read Electrical Plans

Standard Electrical Symbols

Fluorescent, 2'x4' parabolic troffer Reflected ceiling plans should be drawn at the same scale as the floor plans. Depending on the complexity of the project and ceiling treatment, the most common scale for residential and small commercial projects is i 1'-0 1 50 metric and V8 1'-0 1 100 metric for large commercial projects. The scale the ceiling plan is drawn at should be noted and placed directly below the drawing, either adjacent to or directly below the title. If an enlarged detail is...

Imma plan mnm

Floor Drain Isometric Drawing

Figure 15-10 The sanitary sewer system in this small apartment is drawn as heavy lines over the base floor plan, with sizes noted. Domestic waterline sizes are also specified. The fire-protection system, which is considered separate from the plumbing, is usually a sprinkler system utilizing its own separate water system. This system is fed from dedicated water mains that in turn connect through piping to the individual sprinkler heads. In the case of a fire, heat sensor devices activate these...

First Floor Plan

Floor Plan With Callouts For Finishes

Other dimensions noted on the plan will govern the size of the rooms, as it controls the exact placement of the studs. The finishes placed over the studs reduce the dimensions of the room by the material thickness. Some materials such as ceramic tile have an uneven base, which varies the room dimensions slightly. Various notes are also added to the floor plan to convey specific information to the client or builder. These items might include handrails on stairs, soffits above, floor-level...

Drafting Standards

Architectural Drafting Standards

Many decisions must be made before a floor plan is complete. The designer will probably spend more time drafting the floor plan than any other element. Drafting floor plans is more efficient if a logical sequence is followed that is, first lay out the walls, openings, door swings, fixtures, and cabinets then add dimensions, symbols, and any necessary notes. Floor plans should be drawn with a hierarchy of line weights for easy reading and for graphic excitement. Generally, a minimum of three...

Electrical Plans segment a

Door Numbers Construction Drawings

Figure 10-4 Schedules can be set apart from other drawings and information on a sheet with a heavy border. Door schedules identify each door by a number or other designation that is shown on the floor plan. See Figure 10-5 for an example. Depending on the complexity of a project, door schedules differ in the amount of information required. Door schedules for residential projects usually contain the number of the door, quantity required, size, type of door, material, and remarks Figure 10-6 ....

Reflected Ceiling And Electrical Plans

Electrical Drawings Commercial

Electrical systems in a building include lighting, electrical outlets, telephone lines, and other communication systems such as computer networks. A designer's objective is to communicate the nature and locations of these systems in a clear, uncluttered manner. Several approaches are commonly used to do this. The particular method and type of drawing selected will depend on the size and complexity of the project and the office drafting standards. This chapter will discuss electrical system...

Stairs and Ramps

Ramp Guardrail Guidelines

Stairs, ramps, elevators, and escalators provide access to different floor levels within or on the exterior of a structure. Stairs and ramps are often used in buildings three stories in height and less, whereas elevators and escalators are employed on buildings of four Figure 9-1 Shop drawings are highly detailed assembly drawings done by a subcontractor. They show a designer's initial design and drawing with expanded views, descriptions, and construction details. TOP OF HANDRAIL BETWEEN 34 TO...

Elevation Of Elevator Lobby

Break Line Technical Drawing

SCHEDULED PENDANT FIXTURE CENTERED IN OPENING OVER DOORS SCHEDULED SCONCE CENTERED BETWEEN DOORS DOORS PAINTED LU ELECTROSTATIC PAINT TO MATCH PT-3 Figure 7-18 It is preferable to title an elevation with the room name for easy identification. Figure 7-19 A wood-grain pattern is used to make the maple veneer panels discernible from other surface materials. Figure 7-20 The detailed textures on this elevation end with a diagonal break line rather than filling the entire drawing. Figure 7-20 The...

Drawing Conventions and Representations

Entertainment Construction Drawings

Construction drawings communicate how something is built by showing specific assemblies and by employing architectural drawing conventions. These conventions are fairly standard throughout the industry and are used to reduce the drawing time and space needed to convey information. For example, in Figure 5-16, a graphic symbol with an arrow drawn on a cabinetry section denotes the exact place the section was cut and the direction of the view taken in the resulting section drawing. Abbreviations,...

Line Types

Break Lines Construction Drawings

Lines are drawn to describe objects, hidden conditions, and important relationships between components and space. A line drawn on a surface has both direction and weight. The weight of a line refers to its thickness and intensity a line can also be continuous or dashed. The direction can be straight, curved, diagonal, or a combination of these. In drafting, continuous lines of various weights are used to represent objects and major elements such as structural walls and columns. Dotted lines are...

Parallel Bar TSquare and Drafting Machines

It is extremely important to make sure lines on design drawings and construction drawings are exactly straight and, when required, parallel. To make sure lines are straight in a horizontal, vertical, and angular direction, there are several tools available. The most common of these instruments are the T-square and parallel bar Figure 2-4 . A device called a drafting machine Figure 2-5 is also sometimes used. A T-square consists of a straightedge with a head set at right angles that can be set...

Drafting Standards for Interior Elevations

Hinge Joint Drawing Elevation

Interior elevations are drafted to clearly indicate surfaces, edges, and the intersections of materials and forms. The elevation is drawn to scale, with the limits of the ceiling, floor, and adjacent walls or other forms shown with a dark outline. There are two basic methods that professional firms use to draw interior elevations. These methods are illustrated in Figure 7-10. The first method is to outline all the elements such as cabinets, beams, soffits, etc. that project toward the viewer...

Preface

The design process for architectural interiors involves a series of phases, each of which may call for drawings. At the outset, these may include programming, schematic, preliminary, and design development drawings. Such presentation drawings are created to convey program elements, spatial relationships, materials, color schemes, furnishings, and equipment, as necessary to set the design concept for an interior. Construction drawings are then produced that follow the design intent developed...

Drafting Standards Abbreviations and Symbols

A designer's drawings are used to communicate specific information to many other individuals, such as owners, architects, engineers, and builders. To do this effectively a number of drafting standards, abbreviations, and symbols have been developed over time that have become uniformly acceptable in the building industry. Although an office may use variations of the standard conventions presented here, most follow some version of these conventions. Many construction terms are abbreviated to save...

Finish Schedule

Paint Finish Plan

Style dorel ii number 33351 colorcactus swap olu note carpet to be glued note grout to match sand down to concrete floor manuf wenczel style brite glaze number 232 colorsand manuf wenczel style brite glaze number 401 colorgold sparkle style costellazioni colorhydra-i2xi2 manuf toli style lightwood 3' number 804 cyb5 gt manuf johnsonite ccb3 gt manuf wenczel manuf tower style type i iumber 1-tp-iis colorcaprio manuf tower style type i jumber ti-pa-i5 col orpat ina manuf nevamar style textured...

Schedules

Figure 10-2 In floor plans, generic symbols can be used to represent items such as doors, windows, and floor or wall finishes. Figure 10-1 Schedules provide detailed information that is keyed to the construction drawings they present data concisely in tabular form. USE A SET OF TWO 3'-0 X 7'-0 DOORS W TRANSOM AB0 I8MS' TRANSFER AIR GRILL, BREAK ROOM DOOR ONLY USE A SET OF TWO 3'-0 X 6'-8 DOORS 18M8 TRANSFER AIR GRIU, OFFICE amp RESTROOM DOOR ONLY NOTE ALL WINDOW DIMENSIONS ARE FROM FRAME TO...