especially thankful to The Construction Specifications Institute, American Society of Interior Designers, Hillenbrand Mitsch Design, KJG Architecture, Inc., KraftMaid Cabinetry, Océ-USA, Inc., and Hewlett-Packard Company. Every effort has been made to correctly supply the proper credit information.

We are grateful to a number of interior design educators throughout the country for their in-depth reviews, criticism, and helpful suggestions as to the needs of students and instructors in interior design.

Finally, we would like to express our deep appreciation to Courtney and Jeff Johnston for their tireless help with the illustrations and for their suggestions, based on their professional experience, as to contemporary standards and practices. Special thanks also to Lisa Kilmer, for assistance and encouragement in the early stages of this project.


Drawings, Equipment, and Fundamentals

Ideas and plans are formed in the interior designer's mind, but to be transformed into reality, they have to be communicated to others. Although a designer may have a great idea, it must be effectively communicated or it will remain just an idea and never move beyond conception. Interior designers and other professionals in the building industry use drawings as the primary means of developing and sharing their ideas. Interior designers and architects do a lot of sketching and drawing. They develop their skills in freehand drawing by sketching existing objects and spaces in the environment (Figure 1-1). These same skills of observation and sketching are then used in visualizing designs for new spaces and objects (Figure 1-2).

This process of brain, eye, and hand coordination is an intrinsic part of design. Architectural drawings can be grouped into three basic types: drawing as idea generation, drawing as a design and presentation medium, and drawing as a guide for the construction process. There are distinct differences between each of these types, yet they all contain some common drawing tools, techniques, standards, and graphic language.

Drawing for Idea Generation

Idea generation assists the designer in working through and visualizing the solution to a problem. Designers use many different types of drawings to generate and bring to reality their creative ideas. These drawings can be in the form of quick freehand sketches illustrating different kinds of views (Figure 1-3). Many times these types of drawings are not shown to clients but are used solely to help designers shape their ideas. The drawings are not

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